This chapter is introduced by two paragraphs. The first notes that this chapter contains diagnoses of each area of critical concern and proposes strategic objectives with concrete actions to be taken by various actors in order to achieve them. The second paragraph, which is bracketed, recognizes that many women face particular barriers because of factors such as race, age, culture or religion. In the first paragraph, a reference recognizing differences among women is bracketed.
SECTION A. THE PERSISTENT AND INCREASING BURDEN OF POVERTY ON WOMEN: This section describes poverty and some causes of the feminization of poverty, noting that the majority of people living in poverty are women and that women do not have equal power in policy and decision-making. It also notes that women often do not qualify for social security and fall into deeper poverty. Brackets remain around references to unemployment and underemployment, cultural and social factors for family instability, and sustained economic growth and sustainable development. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives include:
A.1. Macroeconomic policies and development strategies that address the needs and efforts of women to overcome poverty: people-centered sustainable development; the easing of migration policies; increased resources; absolute poverty; families in poverty; debt cancellation; the creation of an enabling environment; and a new paragraph on NGO action.
A.2. Revise laws and administrative practices to recognize women"s rights to economic resources and to ensure women"s access to economic resources: laws to prevent rural and indigenous community resources from passing to the private sector; ratification of ILO Convention 169; and adoption by ECOSOC and the GA of the draft International Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People.
A.3. Provide women with access to savings mechanisms and institutions and to credit: [increase] [provide adequate] funding for entrepreneurial activities.
A.4. Conduct research in order to enable women to overcome poverty: [seek to] apply methodologies for incorporating gender perspectives on all policies.
SECTION B. UNEQUAL ACCESS TO AND INADEQUATE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES: This section calls for: equality of access to education, literacy, scientific and technological training; gender-sensitive curricula; the use of mass media as an educational tool; resources for education; and mainstreaming gender perspectives in policies and programmes. Brackets remain on references to: sustained economic growth, sustainable development and development centered on the human person; early marriages; sexual harassment; the impact of "the lack of sexual and reproductive education" on women and men; parental rights, duties and responsibilities; girls in higher branches of education and in the professions; and fostering moral and spiritual values. Brackets in the strategic objectives include:
B.1. Ensure equal access to education: parents" ability to choose quality education; freedom of conscience and religion; and the repeal of discriminatory laws and priorities in women"s education.
B.2. Eradicate illiteracy among women worldwide: the target year 2000.
B.3. Improve women"s access to vocational training, science and technology and continuing education: [quality] education.
B.4. Develop non-discriminatory education and training: a sub-paragraph calling for awareness about the status, role and respective contributions of women and men in the family and society; the removal of barriers to sexual and reproductive health education; integrated education and services related to youth sexuality; respect for cultural and religious diversity in educational institutions; and the removal of barriers to schooling of pregnant girls and young mothers.
B.5. Allocate sufficient resources for educational reforms and monitor implementation: mobilization of funding from the [private sector]; emphasis on meeting educational costs of [under-served populations]; monitoring the closure of the gap between women and men in education; and allocation of a minimum percentage of assistance to women and girls" education.
B.5 (bis) [To promote life-long learning [educational processes] for girls and women]: the title contains the only brackets in this section.
SECTION C. INEQUALITIES IN ACCESS TO HEALTH AND RELATED SERVICES: This section notes that women"s health involves their emotional, social and physical well-being and that it is determined by the social, political and economic context of their lives as well as by biology. [The major] barrier to women"s health is inequality and inadequate responsiveness and lack of services to meet health needs related to sexuality and reproduction. Additional brackets in the introduction refer to: counseling and access to sexual and reproductive health information and services; [unprotected] [premature] sexual relations; unsafe abortions; safe sex practices; responsible sexual behavior on the part of women"s partners; increasing privatization of health care systems; and sexual rights. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives include the following:
C.1. Increase women"s access throughout the life-cycle to affordable and quality health care, information and services: support and implementation of ICPD and WSSD [commitments]; removal of all barriers to women"s health; equal access for women to social security; provision for ethical/religious objection for providers of health information and services; provision of full information on medical procedures; and unsafe and illegal abortion.
C.2. Strengthen preventive programmes that address threats to women"s health: informal and formal education focusing on elimination of harmful attitudes and practices; public health campaigns on sexuality and reproduction taking into account parental responsibilities; and women"s health care training in medical schools.
C.3. Undertake [gender-sensitive] multisectoral initiatives that address STDs, AIDS/HIV pandemic and other [sexual and reproductive health] issues: review, adoption and implementation of laws and practices that may contribute to women"s susceptibility to HIV infection and other STDs; information for all women on HIV/AIDS and pregnancy and research; and programmes for adolescents on responsible sexual behavior.
C.4. Promote research and information dissemination on women"s health: race and ethnicity and genome and genetic engineering research.
C.5. Increase resources and monitor follow-up for women"s health: qualifications [where necessary] and [where appropriate] regarding increases and development of resources; assistance to youth NGOs; and the development of mechanisms to coordinate and implement health measures in the Platform.
SECTION D. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN: The introduction to this section defines violence against women and notes groups particularly vulnerable to violence, some of the causes and effects of violence against women, suggestions for the elimination of violence against women and the problem of international trafficking in women. Brackets remain around references to: [universal] human rights; terrorism, forced abortion, forced sterilization, forced use of contraceptives, prenatal sex selection and female infanticide; internally displaced women; foreign occupation or alien domination; destitute women; equity; and unwanted pregnancy. Brackets in the strategic objectives include references to:
D.1. Take integrated measures to prevent and eliminate violence against women: the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women; the rehabilitation of victims and perpetrators; compensation for victims; the consideration and ratification of all [relevant][universally] accepted human rights [norms][instruments]; the norms contained in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; national and local plans of action; the [creation, funding and improvement] of training for personnel; updating the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women; family planning centers and school health services; educational campaigns about the effects of violence; and the responsibility of the media.
D.2. Study the causes of violence against women and effective methods of prevention strategies: the social, economic, cultural and political context of women.
D.3. Eliminate trafficking in women and assist female victims of violence: commercial sex work other than prostitution; national and international trafficking networks; and resources for programmes to heal victims of trafficking, including job training, legal assistance and confidential health care.
SECTION E. ADVANCE PEACE, PROMOTE CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND REDUCE THE IMPACTS OF ARMED OR OTHER CONFLICT ON WOMEN: This section notes that an environment that maintains world peace is a precondition for the advancement of women, equality and development, but identifies that armed and other types of conflicts including [foreign occupation], ethnic and religious conflicts are an ongoing reality affecting women in every region.
Bracketed text in the introduction includes references to: systematic ignorance of humanitarian and human rights law in armed conflicts; emphasis on preventive strategies; excessive military spending; international stability and security; and contribution of women as peace educators. Bracketed text in the strategic objectives includes references to:
E.1. Increase and strengthen participation of women in conflict resolution and decision-making and protect women in armed and other conflicts: the establishment of gender balance in all UN forums and peace activities; actions to strengthen women"s role in national and international [peace building, fact-finding, and preventive diplomacy]; and training for prosecutors handling cases involving rape [and its consequences] and [integrate a gender perspective into their work].
E.2. [Reduce military expenditures and control availability of armaments]: military conversion for [development/peaceful] purposes; expansion of the UN Register of Conventional Arms; the illicit arms trade; and action to [immediately adopt/consider] a moratorium on the export and planting of anti-personnel land mines.
E.3. Promote non-violent forms of conflict resolution and reduce human rights abuse: creation of a UN unit for third-party conflict prevention; the declaration of rape as a war crime; terrorism; ending unilateral measures against populations; alleviation of economic sanctions; [preventive diplomacy]; and violations of [international humanitarian law] by security forces.
E.4. Promote women"s contribution to fostering a culture of peace: A call to take into account the FWCW [during future] reviews of the plan of action for the UN Decade for Human Rights Education is bracketed.
E.5. Provide protection, assistance and training to refugee and displaced women: international emergency provision for Governments in [countries of asylum] training and rehabilitation resources for refugees; basic support for women displaced as a result of violence; the right of refugee women to safe and protected return to homes; protection of migrating families; and [internally displaced] women.
E.6. Provide assistance to women of colonies: self-determination and public awareness of women of the colonies.
SECTION F. INEQUALITY IN WOMEN"S ACCESS TO AND PARTICIPATION IN DEFINING ECONOMIC STRUCTURES AND POLICIES [AND THE PRODUCTIVE PROCESS ITSELF] [ECONOMIC POTENTIAL AND INDEPENDENCE OF WOMEN] [GENDER EQUALITY IN THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURES, POLICIES AND IN ALL FORMS OF PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY]: This section notes that considerable differences in women"s and men"s access and opportunities to exert power over economic structures exist and states that continuing obstacles hinder their ability to achieve economic autonomy.
Bracketed text in the introduction includes references to: women"s participation in remunerated economic life; women"s increasing share in the labor force but lack of corresponding change in responsibility for unremunerated work in the household; the contribution of women migrant workers; and obstacles for women in paid work. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives include the following:
F.1. [Promote women"s self-reliance and guarantee economic opportunities]: equitable rights; measures for transparent budget processes; integration strategies for migrant women; compliance of transnational corporations with national laws and codes; and the use of [contract compliance regulations] in pursuit of equal opportunity provision.
F.2. Take positive action to facilitate women"s equal access to resources, employment and markets: [equitable] state employment opportunities and strategies for international [development] institutions to assist micro to medium scale enterprise.
F.3 Provide business services and access to markets, information and technology to low-income women: actions [by Governments in cooperation with NGOs at the community and national levels and the private sector].
F.4. Strengthen women"s economic capacity and commercial networks: actions to be taken by [transnational and national corporations] and [by the private sector].
F.5. Eliminate occupational segregation and all forms of employment discrimination: the extension of international labor standards to females in expert processing zones; measures to prohibit and redress direct and indirect sexual/parental status discrimination; and employment of migrant women and those re- entering the labor market.
F.6. [Create a flexible work environment]: [actions to be taken]; an introductory reference to [better harmonization of work and family responsibilities]; and extension of protection to part-time and temporary employment, protection for atypical workers and parental leave benefits.
SECTION G. INEQUALITY BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN IN THE SHARING OF POWER [FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES] AND DECISION- MAKING AT ALL LEVELS: The introduction to this section notes that: improvement of women"s social, economic and political status depends on the sharing of power between women and men and women"s equal participation in decision- making at all levels, from the household to the highest levels of Government; women are under-represented at all levels of government and economic and political decision- making; and structural and attitudinal barriers to their advancement to top levels exist. In the introduction, brackets remain around references to: the functioning of democracy; the culture of many political parties and government structures; unbalanced power relations between women and men within the family; and diplomats and negotiators. Bracketed text in the strategic actions include references to:
G.1. Ensure women"s equal access to and full participation in power structures and decision-making: electoral systems; increasing the number and raising the position of women in Government-funded organizations; ensuring women"s participation in the leadership of political parties; equity; the impact of data on women and men in decision-making and the progress towards the S-G"s goals for women in decision-making positions; the integration of women into elective and non-elective public positions; shared work and parental responsibilities; monitoring women"s access to senior levels of decision-making; policies to achieve gender parity in employment by the year 2000; and the use of databases in appointing women to senior decision-making positions.
G.2. Increase women"s capacity to participate in decision-making and leadership: no brackets remain in this section.
SECTION H: INSUFFICIENT MECHANISMS AT ALL LEVELS TO PROMOTE THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN: This section notes that gender factors often are not taken into account in policy and programme planning. It notes that national machinery for the advancement of women is the central policy- coordinating unit inside government, should be located at the highest possible level in the government and should have sufficient resources in terms of budget and professional capacity.
Brackets in the introduction remain around references to: limited resources of the CSW and CEDAW and international mechanisms that facilitate decentralized planning with a view to involving NGOs. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives sections include the following:
H.1. Create or strengthen national machineries and other governmental bodies: action by INSTRAW and UNIFEM.
H.2. Integrate gender perspectives in all legislation, public policies, programmes and projects: paragraphs regarding mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies, ensuring that analysis of the impact on women and men is carried out before policy decisions are taken, systematic review of policies and regular review of national policies to ensure that women are beneficiaries of development; legal reform with regard to the family, conditions of employment and other matters; and promoting increased participation of women in the development process.
H.3. Generate and disseminate gender-disaggregated data and information for planning and evaluation: collection of data that reflects problems and questions related to men and women in society; [measure] [make visible] the full contribution of women and men to the economy; satellite accounts of women"s and men"s unremunerated economic contribution; data collection on access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services; statistical methods of data collection for use by the CSW and other UN bodies; and development of national capacity to measure remunerated and unremunerated work done by women.
SECTION I: LACK OF AWARENESS OF AND COMMITMENT TO [INTERNATIONALLY AND NATIONALLY] RECOGNIZED HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN. [THE ENJOYMENT OF [ALL] [UNIVERSAL] HUMAN RIGHTS BY WOMEN.]: This section defines the human rights of women, urges governments to close the gap between women"s de jure and de facto human rights, notes different forms of violence that constitute human rights violations and groups particularly vulnerable to human rights violations, and calls for legal literacy so that women may become aware of their rights.
In the introduction, brackets remain around references to: the requirements of international law; [all the major international human rights instruments include sex as one of the grounds upon which States may not discriminate]; reservations contrary to international treaty law; de jure equality; factors undermining women"s enjoyment of equal rights; negative effects of SAPs; integration of women"s human rights into all UN human rights activities; reproductive rights; and feminist groups. Paragraphs referring to the definition of human rights, systematic discrimination against women, violence and women in vulnerable circumstances remain bracketed. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives sections include:
I.1. Promote and protect [all] the human rights of women through the implementation of all [international] human rights instruments: the option to [consider] ratification and implementation of international human rights treaties; withdrawing reservations to CEDAW; [independent] national institutions; the sale of children"s organs; the drafting of an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; links between human rights, military aggression, ethnic cleansing, genocide, refugees and displaced women; reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women; the mandate of CEDAW; drafting an Optional Protocol to the Convention; an international convention against sexual exploitation; and cooperation between the UNHCHR and the UNHCR.
I.2. Ensure equality and non-discrimination under the law: customary laws and legal practices and the right of women to be judges; reproductive rights; violence resulting from traditional or customary practices; sexual orientation or lifestyle; the right of women to be members of professional organizations; and the human rights of women activists in the field of human rights.
I.3. To Achieve legal literacy: human rights education programmes for military, law enforcement personnel, and judiciary, legal and health professionals, as well as for women themselves.
SECTION J: INEQUALITY IN WOMEN"S ACCESS TO AND PARTICIPATION IN ALL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS, ESPECIALLY THE MEDIA, AND THIER INSUFFICIENT PROMOTION OF WOMEN"S CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETY [MOBILIZE THE MEDIA TO PORTRAY WOMEN"S CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIETY] [RESPONSIBILITY OF THE MEDIA FOR THE IMPACT OF THEIR CONTENT ON WOMEN] [WOMEN AND THE MEDIA]: The introduction to this section notes that: the media exerts a great influence, especially over children and adolescents; there are few women at decision-making levels; negative images of women do not accurately reflect their contributions to the world; and women should be more involved with the development of information systems. In the introduction, brackets remain around references to the negative effect of pornography and the control or influence of transnational corporations. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives include the following:
J.1. Participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new communication technologies: [ensure][promote] women"s access; professional guidelines and rules of conduct; regulatory mechanisms; non-stereotyped portrayals of women; reflection of cultures, cultural values, and moral, ethical and religious systems; and reflecting indigenous [cultural values] in the media.
J.2. Promote a [positive][balanced and non-stereotyped] portrayal of women in the media: [positive][non-stereotyped] images of women; regulatory mechanisms; professional guidelines and codes of conduct; gender equality and non- stereotyped roles within the family; the role of women as mothers and nurturers of families; the rights of women as provided for in international human right instruments; encouraging the media to present women as contributors to and beneficiaries of the development process rather than as a sexual objects and commodities; professional guidelines and codes of conduct for violent, degrading and pornographic materials in the media; and the development of a new alternative media to address women"s concerns.
SECTION K. [LACK OF ADEQUATE RECOGNITION AND SUPPORT FOR] [PROMOTE] [WOMEN"S CONTRIBUTION TO MANAGING NATURAL RESOURCES AND SAFEGUARDING THE ENVIRONMENT] [WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT]: This section notes that women have an essential role to play in the development of sustainable and ecologically sound consumption and production patterns and natural resource management. It also notes that they have often played leadership roles in promoting an environmental ethic.
Bracketed references in the introduction include: the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries; the relation between poverty and environmental degradation; and women"s role in promoting sustainable development. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives include the following:
K.1. Involve women actively in environmental decision-making: empowerment of women as consumers and GEF projects for women.
K.2. Ensure integration of gender concerns and perspectives in policies and programmes for sustainable development: women"s [control over resources].
K.3. Establish or strengthen mechanisms at all levels to assess the impact of development and environmental policies on women: prohibition of [transboundary movement of hazardous toxic and radioactive material waste].
SECTION L. [PERSISTENT DISCRIMINATION AGAINST AND VIOLATION OF THE RIGHTS OF][SURVIVAL, PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF] THE GIRL CHILD: This section notes that girls are often treated as inferior and that education, society and media reinforce gender stereotypes. Discrimination against the girl child in access to nutrition and physical and mental health services, and the devastating effect on children"s health of sexual violence and sexually transmitted diseases, are also identified.
Bracketed text in the introduction includes references to: the rights and duties of parents; reasons that boys have fared better than girls in education, including customary attitudes, child labor and teenage pregnancies; responsible sexual behavior and sexual education; and trafficking in human organs and tissues. Bracketed references in the strategic objectives are as follows:
L.1. Eliminate all forms of discrimination: ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child; equal succession and inheritance rights; laws ensuring that marriage is not entered into without the consent of the intending spouses; and universal human rights.
L.2. Eliminate negative cultural attitudes and practices: ensure that religious attire and practices are not the basis for discrimination at educational institutions; eliminate the root causes of son preference; and provide programmes to educate parents about sexual abuse, rape and incest.
L.3. Increase public awareness of the girl-child"s value, needs and rights: international human rights instruments.
L.4. Eliminate discrimination in education, skills development and training: this section is bracket free.
L.5. Eliminate discrimination in health and nutrition: recognize the rights, duties and responsibilities of parents; sexual and reproductive health care programmes; education and outreach programmes regarding HIV/AIDS and STDs, [as contained in the ICPD report]; and family planning.
L.6. [Eliminate the economic exploitation of child labor and protect young girls at work]: minimum age for child [employment].
L.7. Eradicate violence against girls: effective actions and measures to enact and enforce legislation; gender sensitization training; female feticide/pre-natal sex selection; safe and confidential programmes; and medical and psychological support.
L.8. Educate about social, economic and political issues and problems: this section is bracket free.
L.9. [Strengthen [the role of the] family [responsibility] to advance the status of the girl-child]: education and campaign for parents to enhance equal treatment and to ensure shared responsibilities between girls and boys in the family.
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