CHAPTER I. MISSION STATEMENT
In paragraph 1 (introduction to the Platform's objectives), the EU proposed a redraft, which added a reference stating that equality between women and men is a matter of human rights, and included aspects of paragraph 2 (immediate action required). The G-77/China proposed that the paragraph begin with a reference to accelerating the implementation of the Nairobi Strategies. Australia, working from the G-77/China text, called for full and equal "participation" rather than share and for the "protection and promotion" of rights, rather than safeguarding. The EU objected to the placement of the reference to the Nairobi Strategies, stating that the FWCW should go beyond the earlier agreement. Canada supported the Nairobi linkage, noting that the FWCW is taking place, in part due to the lack of Nairobi Strategy implementation. The US proposed a reference to promoting women's empowerment. Iran proposed a new paragraph recognizing the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and international law, and calling for respect of the political and cultural conditions of all nations. Iran also added a reference to "equitable" as well as equal participation. Egypt suggested that both "equal" and "equitable" be bracketed. The Holy See proposed a reference to "universally recognized" human rights. Canada proposed an additional paragraph regarding the respect for and value of the full diversity of women. Mexico proposed making the paragraph consistent with language throughout the text.
In paragraph 2 (immediate action required), the Holy See proposed a reference to universal human rights and fundamental freedoms. The EU questioned the G-77/China draft reference to a "humane world" and objected to the reference to "equitable." The US introduced a paragraph 2(bis), reaffirming the Vienna Declaration and other human rights instruments.
In paragraph 3 (requirements for success), the EU called for the commitment of "strong" institutions, thereby including NGO participation, and called for "adequate" rather than "new and additional" resources. The G-77/China agreed to "strong" institutions but opposed "adequate" resources. India proposed a compromise of adequate human and financial resources for effective implementation.
CHAPTER II. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK
The G-77/China proposed a paragraph 5(bis), noting that the Platform complements the Nairobi Strategies and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in establishing priority activities. The EU questioned whether the paragraph was appropriately placed, and noted that, if it remained, it should be amended to include other international agreements. Japan reiterated her preference for a short and concise "Global Framework" section. The US suggested adding references to documents from Rio, Cairo and Copenhagen and the Holy See added a reference to the Vienna Declaration.
In paragraph 6 (changes at the end of Cold War), the EU deleted the reference to the rise in the power of transnational corporations. The G-77/China added references to civil wars, terrorism, trafficking and trade in arms and debt burdens. Croatia and the US amended the paragraph to refer to ethnic cleansing and its effects on women. Algeria cautioned against specific details in this section of the text, and proposed linking the references to the overall situation to the promotion of the status of women.
In paragraph 7 (worldwide move to democracy), the G-77/China deleted the references to specific nations (South Africa and Eastern Europe), and noted that, in many nations, the goal of women as equal partners in decision-making has not yet been achieved. Croatia stated that the transition to parliamentary democracy has not been peaceful in all countries. The EU called for "full and equal participation" by women in decision-making, rather than a role as "equal partners."
In paragraph 8 (development goals set back by recession), Mexico elaborated on the effects of the economic recession on developing countries and on women. Australia added a reference reaffirming the importance of trade liberalization and access to open markets. Japan objected to the reference to the decline in international development assistance. The G-77/China added a reference to the effects of SAPs on women. The EU deleted the reference to the creation and strengthening of regional trading blocs, and noted the "overall" decline in development assistance.
In paragraph 9 (peace, the environment and society), the EU added a reference to people-centered sustainable development, and called for "equal, active and balanced partnership" between women and men. The G-77/China proposed a reference to a just and equitable social and economic order.
The G-77/China proposed a new paragraph 9(bis), referring to the World Conference on Human Rights and the priority objective of full and equal participation of women at all levels and in all spheres. The EU noted that they had made the same proposal.
In paragraph 11 (Agendas for Peace and Development), the EU questioned the location of the paragraph. The G-77/China added a reference to the series of recent UN global conferences. Mexico noted that the text assumed nations had accepted the Agenda for Peace and Agenda for Development, which may not be the case.
In paragraph 12 (women and peace), the EU deleted the reference to nationalistic and ethnic conflicts, and called for "full" rather than "equal" participation in decision-making. The G-77/China added a reference to continuing foreign occupation and armed conflict, and noted that women's participation in decision-making is essential for peace.
In paragraph 13 (global process for women's issues), the EU deleted the reference to gender disaggregated statistics, and added a sentence noting that knowledge of the status of women and men fosters further actions aimed at promoting gender equality. Canada called for continued collection of gender disaggregated data.
In paragraph 14 (UN Decade for Women), the EU added a sentence noting that "states were prompted to adapt their legislative, political, economic and social structures" so that equality between women and men could prevail. Norway added a paragraph 14(bis), drawn from the ESCAP regional document, noting that social change has been accompanied by changes in relationships between women and men.
In paragraph 15 (women as political decision-makers), the EU added a reference to the role that political commitment and active NGO's can play in female participation in elective bodies. The G-77/China opposed the specific reference to Sweden, combined the paragraph with 16 (women in the UN), and added a sentence regarding exclusion of women from the decision-making process at rural and grassroots levels. The US noted the UN's failure to implement commitments to achieve gender balance.
In paragraph 17 (UN conferences and conventions), the EU added a reference to the role of feminist movements.
CHAPTER III. CRITICAL AREAS OF CONCERN
In paragraph 34 (introduction), the EU proposed a reference to emphasize the rights of individuals and a reference to reflect the contributions of women to the economy. The G-77/China reserved on the reference to rights, and proposed that the advancement of women and achievement of equality "should not be seen in isolation as a women's issue." The G-77/China proposal was accepted and both EU proposals were bracketed. Delegates also bracketed the Holy See's reference to achieving respect for the innate dignity and the fundamental equality between women and men, as well as the G-77/China's proposed reference to "equity."
In paragraph 35 (impediments to progress since Nairobi), the G-77/China added a reference to colonial and foreign occupation. The US added ecological upheavals and the lack of implementation of gender policies as impediments to achieving the Nairobi Strategies, and objected to the G-77/China proposal. Canada suggested references to the impediments of "systemic discrimination" and "failure to protect the human rights of all women." Tunisia added a reference to "increased prejudice." Iran proposed a reference to the right to development.
In paragraph 36 (priorities), Norway suggested removing the reference indicating that the priority concerns were "equal." The US added a reference to the need for implementation mechanisms. The G-77/China stressed its preference to leave the paragraph as drafted, but proposed bracketing the first sentence.
In paragraph 37 (obstacles to women's participation), the G-77/China called for promoting as well as protecting women's human rights. The EU, supported by Norway, proposed deleting the first sentence, so that the chapeau would simply introduce the critical areas of concern. The Holy See added language to "protect women's dignity" and to "promote the full and equal enjoyment by women of all" human rights, and added references to the "family as the basic unit of society" and "full respect for religious and ethical values, cultural backgrounds and philosophical convictions in conformity with all human rights and fundamental freedoms." The EU questioned placing the reference to values and cultures in this paragraph. Algeria added a reference to religious extremism to the values proposal, and Tonga suggested respect for "positive" religious values. Iran proposed including "equity" after "equality," but the EU objected.
In the bulleted section listing the critical areas of concern, the EU proposed moving the bullet regarding women's human rights up in the listing. All of the bulleted text is bracketed, pending the outcome of discussion of the areas of concern in more detail in Chapter IV (Strategic Objectives and Actions). In bullet 2 (educational opportunities), Chile proposed a reference to poor quality as well as unequal access of educational opportunities. Canada added a reference to training opportunities. In bullet 3 (inequalities in health status and services), the G-77/China reformulated the sentence to refer to access to health care and related services. In bullet 4 (violence against women), India proposed adding a reference to "all forms of" violence, but the G-77/China preferred the text as drafted. In bullet 5 (effects of conflict on women), Canada proposed a reference to persecution and the G-77/China proposed a reference to colonial domination or foreign occupation. The US objected to the G-77/China proposal. In bullet 8 (mechanisms to promote advancement), Croatia added a reference to the "equal opportunities for women and men as essential for" the advancement of women. In bullet 9 (women's human rights), the G-77/China proposed noting the lack of "promotion and protection" of women's human rights. The EU altered the text to read "Enjoyment of human rights by women." In bullet 10 (mass media), the G-77/China proposed referring to the media's insufficient mobilization to "convey positive images of women to the public and women's positive contributions to society." Australia replaced "mass media" with "communications industry." In bullet 11 (women's contribution to managing natural resources), the G-77/China proposed a reference to the transfer of appropriate technology, but the US reserved.
The G-77/China proposed a critical area on the girl-child, but the EU reserved on the new section. Hungary added a critical area of concern regarding human settlements.
CHAPTER IV. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND ACTIONS
New Zealand proposed adding "to address the critical areas" to the chapter title. The G-77/China proposed ending paragraph 38 (introduction to Chapter IV) with a sentence noting that the Platform is intended to improve the condition of all women, and highlighting the needs of high risk groups, specifically noting rural, indigenous, disabled and displaced women. Norway indicated support, but asked for time to study the list of groups, and suggested that the sentence should be placed earlier in the document. The EU added a 38(bis), calling for the integration of a gender perspective in general policies relating to all spheres of society. China added a reference to adequate institutional and financial support at all levels, at the end of 38(bis).
A. THE PERSISTENT AND INCREASING BURDEN OF POVERTY ON WOMEN: In paragraph 39 (situation of poverty), the G-77/China preferred a reference to poverty's "origins in the national and international domain." The EU proposed eliminating the original paragraph and replacing it with two paragraphs, the first noting the manifestations, characteristics and occurrences of poverty and the second elaborating on the causes of poverty. The EU also highlighted the importance of democratic participation and changes in economic structures for poverty eradication. Mexico proposed a reference to the number of people affected by poverty. The US added a reference to health care, and, with Canada, "genderized" some of the EU's references to poverty. Canada also added language on the application of gender analyses to a wide range of policies and programmes.
In paragraph 40 (empowerment of women), the US, supported by the Holy See, proposed a re-ordering of the text. Australia proposed replacing "productive potential" with "full and equal participation of women is essential to the eradication of poverty." The G-77/China indicated satisfaction with the existing language and requested that the US amendment be bracketed. Israel proposed a reference to the "rights" of women. The Holy See proposed a reference to the "full realization of universally recognized human and legal rights." The EU bracketed the amendments on rights.
In paragraph 41 (causes of women's poverty), the G-77/China suggested deleting the reference to countries "which themselves are poor," and added references to unfavorable international trade, the economic environment and training in addition to education. Chile added a reference to women's lack of power. The EU suggested attributing poverty to economic factors, inadequate design and inadequacies in democratic participation processes, in addition to the negative impact of structural adjustment. The EU also added two sentences regarding the failure of Governments to incorporate a gender perspective in economic analysis and the need for economic policies to address structural causes of poverty. Norway added a reference to economic growth in the context of sustainable development. The US added a reference to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The G-77/China bracketed the EU reference to inadequacies in the democratization process. Iran suggested inserting a reference to emerging cultural, social and economic factors that contribute to instability and deterioration of the family. Canada added feminization of poverty to the EU proposal.
In paragraph 42 (disproportionate burden of poverty), the EU offered an extensive amended version, attributing the disproportionate burden of poverty on women to the "gender division of labour" and listing categories of the most disadvantaged. A number of countries sought to insert or alter specific categories of the most disadvantaged: "single mothers" and "young girls and women with disabilities" (G-77/China); "divorced women" (Holy See); "urban slum dwellers" (India); "women in zones of armed conflict" (Iran); and "internally" displaced women (Croatia). The EU amendment also notes that the welfare systems of too many countries fail to take disadvantaged groups into account, and identifies a number of obstacles and burdens. Australia proposed specifying the "feminization" of poverty. The G-77/China proposed a sentence indicating that more than one billion persons in the world live in poverty, the majority of which are women. The only agreed amendment, from the EU, inserted "and production" after consumption.
In paragraph 43 (lack of access to services), Australia proposed a reference to women with disabilities and indigenous women. The EU noted the benefits of equal opportunities in education and employment. The G-77/China noted women's inadequate control over resources. The US added a reference to the obstacles faced by older women. Chile noted that women's poverty is related to lack of access to power. The Holy See added references to the lack of affordable housing and adequate benefits. Fiji added lack of access to reproductive health services. Honduras noted that "male irresponsibility" has impacted women's poverty. Malta and Egypt proposed references to the ICPD after "reproductive health services." All proposals were bracketed.
The EU introduced two new paragraphs, 43(bis) (risk for older women) and 43(ter) (poverty in developed countries and countries with economies in transition). The Chair asked the EU and the US to coordinate their proposals on references to older women.
In paragraph 44 (investments that increase productive capacities), the G-77/China proposed that, in the first sentence of the paragraph, the productive capacity of women be "increased through access to capital, resources, credit, land, technology, information, technical assistance and training." The EU proposed that the paragraph refer "particularly to developing countries," and that the last sentence refer to enhancing the productive potential of women, noting the essential role of women in decision-making and in designing macroeconomic interventions. The Chair noted the apparent compatibility of the two proposals, and encouraged informal consultations between the regional groups.
In paragraph 45 (improving the status of women), the EU added a reference to the political, legal and cultural status of women, and proposed deleting a reference to women's families, to which Honduras objected. Canada added a reference to people-centered development and empowerment. The G-77/China: added a reference to sustainable economic growth and training; proposed deleting a reference to the "poorest of the poor;" suggested joining the last two sentences; and added a final sentence noting that the challenge to overcome poverty and involve women in achieving economic and political power is a moral obligation and a responsibility of governments. The Holy See added a reference to access to quality education, and objected to the G-77/China proposal to delete the reference to the "poorest of the poor." The US, supported by India, proposed changing sustained economic growth to "people-centered sustainable development." The EU suggested incorporating the G-77/China amendment into a new paragraph, 45(bis). The G-77/China bracketed the EU proposal to delete the sentence referring to skills.
The EU added its own paragraph 45(bis), calling on governments and other actors to "promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective into all" policies to address poverty. Australia amended the paragraph to ensure that all such policies are "informed by" gender analysis and include ameliorating measures.
Strategic objective A.1. Adopt and maintain macroeconomic policies and development strategies that address the needs and efforts of women to overcome poverty: Delegates called for "reviewing" as well as adopting and maintaining macroeconomic policies and development strategies in the title.
The G-77/China proposed two new introductory paragraphs to paragraph 46 (governmental action on poverty). The new sub-paragraph 46(a) calls for a review, modification and integration of macroeconomic and social policies to promote growth, equality and new opportunities for women and the poor. The new sub-paragraph 46(b) calls for development policies to improve the living conditions of the poor and to guarantee equitable participation of women in their design and implementation.
The G-77/China also proposed an amended version of paragraph 46(a) (gender sensitive policies) calling for equal participation of women in policy design and for "sustainable" development strategies. The US suggested "people-centered sustainable development." The EU called for policies addressing the structural causes of poverty to be designed with female participation. Mexico suggested a separate section on macroeconomic policies. Japan reserved on the G-77/China proposals.
Canada proposed an additional 46(a)(bis), using Copenhagen language to call for analysis of macroeconomic instruments with respect to their impact on women and men in relation to poverty and inequality.
In sub-paragraph 46(b) (allocation of public expenditures), the G-77/China added family planning and breast feeding to the list of social services to be supported. The EU also proposed a reference to reproductive health services. The Holy See stated that, if some services were to be itemized, they would offer a long list of services, and also insisted on a reference to the ICPD if reproductive health services were to be included. The US refocused the paragraph on women's economic opportunities, and added child care to the list of services.
In sub-paragraph 46(c) (food security), the G-77/China focused the text on developing the agricultural and fishing sectors. The EU agreed, but proposed that resources be allocated "where food security is a problem." The G-77/China opposed the amendment because it narrowed the text's scope. The US provided an amendment that incorporated issues from sub-paragraphs (g) (policies to encourage women producers), (m) (resources for subsistence farmers) and (f) (agricultural policies in support of female-headed households), calling for support for cooperatives to increase women's income and promote household food security, and encouraging environmentally sound agricultural practices and appropriate technology.
In sub-paragraph 46(d) (safety nets), the G-77/China proposed safety "mechanisms" rather than safety nets and preservation of the poor's "revenues" rather than assets. Delegates agreed to the changes.
In sub-paragraph 46(e) (economic policies and female employment), the EU focused the text on employment opportunities for low-income women workers. The G-77/China added a reference to formal and informal sectors. Slovakia added a reference to the full participation of women.
The EU proposed a new paragraph, 46(e)(bis): "Generate macro-economic policies and specific measures against women's unemployment, in particular against long term unemployment."
In sub-paragraph 46(f) (female-headed households), the G-77/China added a reference to social policies, and the EU suggested adding "when necessary" after "formulate and implement." The G-77/China and EU proposals were accepted.
In sub-paragraph 46(g) (female food producers), the G-77/China added references to control of land, means of production, infrastructure and credit facilities. The EU added "when necessary" after develop. Norway added a reference to fisheries. Israel called for environmentally sound and user friendly technologies built on women's local knowledge and skills. The US suggested that all of paragraph 46 be revised.
In sub-paragraph 46(h) (food pricing policies), the G-77/China opposed the EU's proposal to delete the sub-paragraph. The G-77/China proposed adding the qualification "where deemed appropriate."
In sub-paragraph 46(i) (integration and recognition of displaced women), the EU called for measures to "integrate or reintegrate poor women" into productive employment and measures to ensure full access to economic opportunities, including recognition of qualifications and skills. The G-77/China added a reference to "women living in poverty" and accepted the amended EU sub-paragraph.
The G-77/China proposed a 46(i)(bis) calling for an "easing of stringent and restrictive migration policies" and for the establishment of necessary measures for full recognition of migrants, returned patriots and internally displaced migrants. Norway proposed a reference to refugees.
In sub-paragraph 46(j) (affordable housing and access to land), the G-77/China indicated that they would offer a reformulation later. The EU added references to refugees and rural women. The US called for removing legal constraints, constraints to financial services and constraints to women's access to housing and land.
In sub-paragraph 46(k) (needs of those without resources), delegates agreed to Norway's suggestion that, if the G-77/China proposal to identify the groups at risk in the chapeau was accepted, this paragraph would not be necessary.
The G-77/China expressed strong reservations about an EU proposal to delete paragraph 46(l) (macro-level resource allocations). The G-77/China proposed an amendment calling for gender disaggregated data and mechanisms to ensure that resource allocation at the macro, sectoral and project levels reflect the value of women's work. The EU expressed reservations, and Canada asked that the phrase "women's work" be replaced with "remunerated and unremunerated work performed by women."
Delegates reformulated or offered new sub-paragraphs near sub-paragraph 46(m) (resources to subsistence farmers), but none supported the draft text. The US incorporated 46(m) into another paragraph. The G-77/China reformulated the text to call for finance extension services, technology training and inputs. Ecuador and Mexico offered sub-paragraphs regarding indigenous populations. Mexico also proposed a sub-paragraph regarding women wage earners. The G-77/China proposed sub-paragraphs regarding: women's work in the informal sector; legal literacy of women; and unilateral measures not in accordance with the UN Charter. The EU also proposed a sub-paragraph regarding legal literacy, and added one regarding social security systems. Delegates accepted the EU social system proposal.
In paragraph 47 (institutions and donors), the EU proposed replacing "especially" the international financial institutions with "including," but the G-77/China objected. Japan suggested deleting the specific references to the international financial institutions. Switzerland proposed a reference to the World Trade Organization, which was bracketed.
In sub-paragraph 47(a) (resources for poverty elimination), the EU added a reference to absolute poverty, but the G-77/China objected. The G-77/China called for allocation of resources to developing countries. The US proposed a reference to the appropriate allocation of resources. The Holy See added a reference to families.
In sub-paragraph 47(b) (gender issues and lending programmes), the G-77/China added a reference to economic recovery programmes. Canada added a reference to analytical capacity. The EU proposed a reference to strengthen gender issues.
In sub-paragraph 47(c) (debt reduction), the EU questioned the link between debt and poverty, and proposed alternative wording. The G-77/China reformulated the text, calling for debt reduction or cancellation to finance development and women's programmes, and added 47(c)(bis), calling for a review of the impact of SAPs and ameliorative policies.
In sub-paragraph 47(d) (impact of SAPs), the G-77/China objected to the qualification that actors not shift the burden from Government to women "without compensation." The EU proposed a reformulation calling for gender-sensitive analysis of SAPs. The G-77/China opposed an EU proposal to delete sub-paragraph 47(e) (creating an enabling environment). Malaysia noted the lack of reference to NGO actions, and the Chair suggested inviting NGOs to draft a paragraph for the strategic objectives section on their contribution.
Strategic objective A.2. Revise laws and administrative practices that limit disadvantaged women's access to economic resources: The G-77/China and Israel supported a revised section title: "Revise laws and administrative practices to ensure women's rights and access to economic resources." The EU suggested moving both sub-paragraphs in the government action section.
In sub-paragraph 48(b) (laws that exacerbate poverty), the G-77/China, with EU support, proposed a reformulation supporting legislative and administrative reforms to give women access to resources. Sierra Leone proposed a reference to customary barriers facing women in leadership.
Switzerland added a sub-paragraph calling for laws to prevent rural and indigenous community resources from passing into the hands of the private sector and transnational corporations. The G-77/China proposed two new paragraphs, 48(c) and 48(d), referring to the rights of indigenous peoples.
Strategic objective A.3. Provide women with access to credit and savings: The G-77/China suggested deleting the reference to savings in the title. The Secretariat explained that the reference indicated the need for access to savings institutions.
In sub-paragraph 49(a) (institutions that service disadvantaged women), Turkey proposed a reference to women entrepreneurs. Australia added references to links between formal banks and intermediary lending organizations, legislative support and training for women. The EU suggested moving the sub-paragraph. The G-77/China supported the original text.
In sub-paragraph 49(b) (financial organizations and NGOs), the EU, supported by Mexico, proposed deleting the reference to the Grameen Bank, but the G-77/China and Bangladesh objected. In paragraph 50 (action by commercial banks), the EU proposed that delegates invite private sector actors to examine their policies on the specified issues. The G-77/China supported the original text. In sub-paragraph 50(c) (requirements for bank accounts), delegates agreed to the EU and US proposals for "simplifying banking practices."
In paragraph 51 (development cooperation organizations), the US proposed a reference to all official development cooperation organizations, and called for support through "appropriate" provision of resources. Canada suggested deleting the reference to provision of capital. Ecuador added a reference to small-scale women entrepreneurs, and New Zealand added a reference to specialized support. The G-77/China preferred the original text. In paragraph 52 (governments and multilateral financial institutions), the EU suggested adding "or." The G-77/China objected. In sub-paragraph 52(a) (review procedures of international financial institutions), Canada suggested an alternate paragraph: "Support institutions that meet performance standards in reaching large numbers of women and men through capitalization, refinance and institutional development support, in forms that foster self-sufficiency."
In sub-paragraph 52(b) (parity in resources for low-income earners), the EU, supported by Japan, proposed deleting the paragraph. The EU supported a US reformulation of sub-paragraph 52(c) (financial, technical and institutional support), calling for support from "participatory specialized institutions and NGOs where appropriate." The G-77/China suggested deleting the specification of "1000" participatory institutions; Australia suggested deleting the target year, 2005.
The EU, supported by the US, proposed replacing the call for increased funding with "adequate" funding in paragraph 53 (action by international organizations). The G-77/China preferred the original text. The US proposed a reference to entrepreneurial activities "for the income generation of women living in poverty" rather than among disadvantaged women, but the G-77/China objected.
Strategic objective A.4. Conduct research that enables women to overcome poverty: Israel added a reference to overcoming employment discrimination in the title.
In sub-paragraph 54(a) (incorporate gender perspectives into policies), the EU proposed changing the reference to structural adjustment "programmes" to "planning." The Chair offered the compromise of including both words.
In sub-paragraph 54(b) (gender impact studies of SAPs), the EU called for gender impact analysis of sectoral and development policies, budgets and trade agreements. China reserved, and the G-77/China supported the original draft. The US simply called for gender impact analyses of policies and programmes.
In sub-paragraph 55(b) (data on women's unpaid work), Canada specified that data collection be "for use in research on the relationship of women's unpaid work to the incidence of their vulnerability to poverty." The Holy See proposed publicizing the data.
B. UNEQUAL ACCESS TO AND INADEQUATE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES: In paragraph 56 (education as a basic human right), the US proposed that education and equal access to education are basic rights. Norway proposed a reference to literacy. Canada added references to "formal" and "non-formal" education. The EU specified that sustainable development be "people-centered;" the G-77/China added "sustained economic growth;" the Holy See added development "centered on the human person;" and Australia inserted "and alleviating poverty." Canada added a reference to equality of attainment as well as access to education.
In paragraph 57 (access to education), the G-77/China proposed a reference to inadequate educational facilities in sub-Saharan Africa in the first sentence, deleted a reference to developed countries and Eastern Europe in the second sentence, and deleted references to specific regions in the last sentence. Canada added a reference to tertiary education. The Holy See proposed a reference to private schools, which Norway and the EU bracketed. Israel proposed a reference to girls and women with disabilities, which the EU bracketed. Egypt proposed inserting "some" before Arab states, to avoid a generalization about illiteracy in Arab states.
In paragraph 58 (discrimination in access to education), the G-77/China and the EU supported the original draft. Iran proposed deleting the reference to early marriage, while Turkey proposed that the reference refer to marriages up to 18 years of age. The Holy See proposed referring to domestic "work" rather than chores. Uganda noted the need for basic math and science education and training for girls. The G-77/China then provided a reformulated text.
Canada proposed a new paragraph, 58(ter), referring to life-long learning. Iran proposed a paragraph 58(bis), calling for an educational and social environment that fosters moral and spiritual values. The Holy See added a reference to parental rights and responsibilities. The Côte d'Ivoire and the EU proposed moving the sub-paragraph.
In paragraph 59 (gender and teaching materials), the EU added a reference to the "profound effect on women and men" of the absence of reproductive health education. The Holy See insisted that the EU proposal be followed by a reference to parental responsibilities. The G-77/China deleted a reference to "school counselors." Uganda noted the gender bias of science education, which fails to reflect women's and indigenous knowledge systems.
In paragraph 60 (science and technology education), Canada noted that technology is changing the world, not only developing countries. The EU and the G-77/China proposed deleting the last sentence regarding inadequate preparation for employment.
The EU added paragraph 60(bis), noting that girls at all levels of education, particularly in developing countries, remain concentrated in too few sectors and encounter prejudice even at higher levels. Malta inserted "in a number" of sectors.
In paragraph 61 (mass media and education), the US added references to computerized education systems that are accessible and affordable and to efforts to overcome sex stereotyping. Canada noted television's ability to shape attitudes, perceptions and values. Ecuador objected to the reference to values. In paragraph 62 (education resources), the EU suggested that SAPs be "taken into account" and specified that "insufficient resources" have long-term effects.
Strategic objective B.1. Ensure equal access to education: New Zealand added "equitable" to the title. The EU and Japan reserved. In sub-paragraph 63(a) (primary education), the G-77/China proposed adding a reference to equal access and deleting the reference to special emphasis on girls. Norway opposed the deletion and added a reference to closing the gender gap. The US proposed a new first sentence referring to the prohibition of discrimination in education. The US proposed replacing the reference to completion by "at least 80 percent" with "all," and deleted the reference to the year 2005. Norway opposed the deletion. The US added a reference to the removal of economic barriers to universal access to education. Canada proposed replacing "disadvantaged" with "children with learning disabilities." Japan added a reference to primary school aged children.
In sub-paragraph 63(c) (gender sensitive education), the EU replaced "equal" with "full" participation in educational opportunities. The G-77/China and Japan preferred the original text. The US added sub-paragraph 63(c)(bis), calling on Governments, parents, businesses, NGOs and communities to assist in providing young women's academic and technical training, planning and work experience.
In sub-paragraph 63(d) (increase enrollment of girls), Afghanistan called for respect for the rights of women and girls to freedom of conscience and religion in educational institutions. Iran called for the repeal of discriminatory laws. The EU added a reference to "adequate budgetary resources" to facilitate increased enrollment, while Japan preferred "appropriate" resources. The Holy See called for parental choice of quality education for the girl-child. In sub-paragraph 63(b) (third-level education), Uganda called for reduced disparities in all subject areas. The EU proposed education throughout women's life-time. A Canadian reformulation added a reference to child care.
Several countries proposed sub-paragraphs to follow paragraph 63. The US proposal emphasized the need for child care facilities. The Iranian proposal called for education to provide women with useful knowledge, reasoning ability, skills and ethical values. Australia added a sub-paragraph calling for ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The Holy See added a sub-paragraph calling for educational opportunities for refugee women and girls.
Strategic objective B.2. Eradicate illiteracy among women world wide by the year 2000: In sub-paragraph 64(a) (reduction of adult illiteracy), the G-77/China replaced adult with "female" illiteracy and replaced the emphasis on female literacy with emphasis on "rural women." The US added "migrant, refugee, displaced and disabled women." Canada added sub-paragraph 64(a) (bis), calling for universal access to and gender equality in primary education for girls by the year 2000. The G-77/China deleted the target year from sub-paragraph 64(b) (eliminate gender gap in literacy by 2000) and moved the reference to narrowing disparities between developed and developing countries to a new sub-paragraph 64(c)(bis). The G-77/China also added sub-paragraph 64(d)(bis), calling for inclusion of scientific and technological knowledge in the definition of literacy.
Strategic objective B.3. Improve access to vocational training, science and technology and continuing education: In the chapeau to paragraph 65 (actions by Governments and others), Norway added a reference to trade unions. The G-77/China added references to workers and international and non-governmental organizations. The EU added references to educational and academic institutions. The G-77/China preferred to keep the reference to workers, and Australia insisted on retaining the reference to youth organizations.
In sub-paragraph 65(a) (education and training focused on women), the EU added a reference to "women re-entering the labor market." The G-77/China called for implementing as well as developing education "for women" to meet "the needs of changing socio-economic contexts for improving their employment opportunities."
Canada added sub-paragraph 65(a)(bis), to provide women with information about the availability and benefits of training and education programs. Slovenia proposed sub-paragraph 65(a)(bis)(bis), regarding education and training programs for women who are unemployed.
In sub-paragraph 65(b) (diversify vocational and technical training), the G-77/China called for "improved" access to education and "retention of girls and women in such training." The G-77/China also called for education in "law, business and finance." The EU offered a similar proposal.
The G-77/China added sub-paragraph 65(b)(bis), calling for the promotion of women's role in food and agriculture research and extension and education programmes. In sub-paragraph 65(d) (practical training opportunities), the G-77/China added references to agricultural extension training, fisheries, arts and crafts, grassroots women's organizations, and women's contributions to business, science and technology.
The EU proposed 65(d)(bis), to ensure access to education and training for specific groups of women. Japan added a reference to "documented" migrant women. The G-77/China added a new paragraph calling for programmes to increase female participation in non-traditional fields.
In sub-paragraph 65(c) (adapt teaching materials to promote non-traditional careers), the EU replaced "adapt" with "encourage the adaption" of materials. The G-77/China proposed promoting "new traditional careers for women." Australia proposed encouraging a supportive training environment and taking affirmative action. The EU preferred "positive" to "affirmative" action. The US called for multidisciplinary courses for science and mathematics teachers to sensitize them to the relevance of science and technology in women's lives. Canada added a reference to apprenticeship programmes.
Strategic objective B.4. Develop non-discriminatory education and training: In sub-paragraph 66(a) (elimination of gender stereotypes in education), the EU proposed reformulating the paragraph to include references to professional activities, publishers, teachers, public authorities and parents' associations.
In sub-paragraph 66(b) (equality and cooperation from the pre-school level), the G-77/China added a reference to the contribution of women and men, proposed deleting the reference to the pre-school level, and added references to the rights and duties of specific groups responsible for children's welfare. The EU added a reference to the need for boys to acquire the skills necessary to assume their share of domestic responsibilities.
The EU proposed sub-paragraph 66(b)(bis) regarding teachers' awareness of their role in gender-sensitive education. Canada proposed sub-paragraph 66(b)(ter), regarding peace education and peaceful conflict resolution. In sub-paragraph 66(c) (women in educational decision making), the G-77/China added "access" for a "greater" proportion of women, "particularly by teachers." She also referred to "traditionally male dominated" disciplines of science and technology.
In sub-paragraph 66(d) (gender studies and research), the EU inserted reference to "university curricula," and Turkey added "post-graduate programs." The US added sub-paragraph 66(d)(bis), calling for leadership training and opportunities for all women. In sub-paragraph 66(e) (sharing domestic responsibilities between girls and boys), Australia proposed deletion of "especially daughters." The G-77/China inserted "appropriate" education, and "with due respect for multilingualism."
The EU added sub-paragraph 66(e)(bis) regarding the study of human rights of women as they appear in UN conventions. Cyprus amended sub-paragraph 66(e)(bis) to call for human rights education that incorporates the gender dimension. Australia added language from the indigenous women's NGO caucus, calling for recognition of indigenous women's right to appropriate education. Canada added sub-paragraph 66(e)(bis)(bis), calling for recreational and sporting facilities and educational programmes for girls and boys. The EU suggested two sub-paragraphs: one calling for removal of legal and regulatory barriers to sexual reproductive health education; and the other encouraging, with parental support, educational programs and integrated services related to youth sexuality. Bulgaria and Japan expressed reservations about "integrated services."
The G-77/China proposed six new sub-paragraphs, 66(f-k). Sub-paragraphs 66(f) (pluricultural and plurilingual educational systems) and 66(g) (respect for gender, cultural and religious diversity in educational institutions) were bracketed. Sub-paragraphs 66(h) (education and training in rural areas through technology and media) and 66(i) (non-formal education for rural women) were accepted. Sub-paragraph 66(j) (gender-sensitive sports programmes) will be merged with an earlier Canadian proposal. Sub-paragraph 66(k) (young mothers' education) was amended by the US to include references to child care and the education of pregnant girls and young mothers. Both amendments were bracketed.
Strategic objective B.5. Allocate sufficient resources for educational reforms and monitor implementation: The G-77/China proposed a reformulation of sub-paragraph 67(a) (increased funding for basic education). The EU amended the G-77/China proposal with a reference to increased funding "as appropriate," which was then accepted. In sub-paragraph 67(b) (monitoring mechanisms for educational reforms), the US proposed addressing issues raised by monitoring. The G-77/China inserted a reference to establishing mechanisms "at appropriate levels."
In paragraph 68 (institutions and organizations to fund education), the US deleted references to Governments and the private sector and added a reference to the costs of education for all girls and women. Several countries opposed deleting "Governments." The G-77/China called for mobilizing funds in the private sector "whenever necessary." The US proposed a new sub-paragraph 68(a)(bis), referring to funding for programmes in mathematics, science and computer technology. The US suggested increased educational funding, with "a particular emphasis on under-served populations," in sub-paragraph 69(a) (multilateral and bilateral education funding).
In paragraph 70 (action by international and intergovernmental organizations), the G-77/China proposed that, rather than calling on the organizations to monitor educational progress, the organizations should provide technical assistance, upon request, to developing countries to monitor such progress. The EU suggested a reformulation calling for educational indicators and government accountability. The G-77/China introduced new sub-paragraphs regarding an international campaign to promote female rights to education and calling for the allocation of a minimum percentage of assistance to basic education for women and girls.
Canada proposed a new strategic objective, calling for life-long learning for girls, training for sustainable communities, provision of child care and flexible education.
C. INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH STATUS AND UNEQUAL ACCESS TO AND INADEQUATE HEALTH CARE SERVICES: The G-77/China proposed shortening the title. The EU proposed extensive revisions to this section's introductory paragraphs (71-79). Canada suggested replacing paragraph 71 (right to health) with two paragraphs, noting that the complex factors constituting women's health are determined by social, political and economic contexts and that inequality has a negative effect on women's health. Mexico suggested a reference to the inequitable distribution of food in the household.
In paragraph 72 (women's health concerns), the G-77/China proposed: adding a reference to women's ability to negotiate safe sex; moving references to shared family responsibilities, development and peace to paragraph 71; and noting that the consequences of HIV/AIDS reach beyond women's health. The EU suggested combining paragraphs 72 and 76 (sexual violence and STDs), and added a reference to shared decision-making in reproduction and sexuality. The US added references to gender equality. Canada added a reference to the negative impact of socio-economic factors on women's health, which was accepted, and a reference to indigenous women, which was bracketed. The US proposed moving the sentence on HIV/AIDS to paragraph 76. The Holy See proposed replacing the reference to the negotiation of safe sex with a reference to the inability of women to insist on responsible sexual behavior by their partners, and insisted on bracketing reproductive rights.
In paragraph 73 (threats to women's health), the EU proposed deleting sentences referring to the fact that social and behavioral factors jeopardize women's health and to the lack of support for women care givers. The EU also proposed that the references to deteriorating public health systems and spending refer to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The G-77/China preferred retaining all sentences, specified that a decrease in public health spending has occurred in "many" countries, and added a reference to women's need for psychological support.
The EU added a new paragraph, drawn from the Cairo document, regarding reproductive health, reproductive rights and sexual health. The EU also proposed a paragraph regarding sexual rights. Canada proposed a new paragraph regarding gender biases in access to and provision of health care services.
In paragraph 74 (safe and effective contraceptive and maternal care), the EU proposed a reformulation reflecting the ICPD view that sexual and reproductive health and rights are essential to the empowerment of women, and reconfirming the right to information about and affordable access to family planning. The G-77/China noted that improved access to adequate health care services could prevent many women's deaths. Canada noted that reproductive rights are human rights.
Delegates discussed paragraphs 75 (discrimination in access to health care) and 77 (vulnerability of adolescent girls) together. The EU noted that son preference and female genital mutilation "should be actively discouraged," rather than "pose unnecessary health risks." The G-77/China called for greater attention to the reproductive health needs of female adolescents and young women to reduce maternal morbidity. The Holy See and Australia added references to prostitution. Iran objected to the term "unsafe abortions." The reference to "unprotected" sexual relations was bracketed, as were the options "premarital"(Iran) and "premature"(Holy See). The Holy See bracketed EU proposed references to reproductive and sexual counseling services for adolescents and to the lack of education for young men about their reproductive responsibilities.
Norway proposed a multi-paragraph reformulation of paragraph 77, drawing all but three lines from the Cairo document. The addition included references to: reproductive health needs of adolescents; the impediment of early child-bearing; poor education and economic opportunities as factors in high levels of adolescent child-bearing; pressures to engage in sexual activity by adolescents; and the need for adolescents to be involved in planning, implementing and evaluating development activities that affect their daily lives.
CHAPTER V. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
Norway proposed combining Chapters V and VI (Financial Arrangements) and entitling both "Implementation and Monitoring," with sub-sections on institutional and financial arrangements.
In paragraph 183 (implementation), the G-77/China proposed that the term "region/sub-region" be used throughout the section. Norway added a reference to the responsibility of Governments. The G-77/China proposed merging paragraphs 184-186 (perspectives on the Decade for Women). The EU preferred to delete them. Delegates agreed to postpone discussion of paragraphs 187 and 188 (merger of INSTRAW and UNIFEM).
In paragraph 189 (national and international institutions), the G-77/China proposed deleting the reference to NGOs and grassroots organizations and added paragraph 189(bis) outlining the role of NGOs in creating the environment for the realization of women's aspirations. The US cautioned that paragraph 189(bis) would remove the link between government and NGO activity. The EU proposed deleting paragraph 190 (changes required for implementation). The G-77/China proposed deleting the reference to "sexual harassment." The Holy See called for the elimination of treatment of women as sexual objects. Algeria added the achievement of equal opportunities in "health and education."
In paragraph 191 (implementation by institutions), the G-77/China added references to national, regional/sub-regional and international institutions. Iran proposed references to equity and cultural values, which were bracketed.
A. NATIONAL LEVEL: The EU, supported by the G-77/China, proposed moving paragraph 195 (national mechanisms) to follow paragraph 192 (primary responsibility to Governments). The G-77/China proposed that the actions in paragraph 195 take place "within a period of five years," but the US and Pakistan objected. The Holy See called for a reference to a "broad spectrum of institutions." The G-77/China called for implementation in institutions, "including the private sector." In paragraph 193 (broad range of actors), the G-77/China proposed encouraging "the active support and participation" of actors, including "supportive religious groups." The EU added "women's movements and feminist associations." The US suggested that Governments consult and coordinate with NGOs, including women's organizations. The Holy See supported the inclusion of "religious groups," but Sudan, Mexico and Japan reserved. Japan suggested deleting the G-77/China proposed end-of-the-year deadline for Governments to implement and coordinate implementation strategies.
In paragraph 194 (strengthening national mechanisms), the EU deleted the reference to national statistic services and replaced the reference to "ministerial focal points" with "appropriate interministerial procedures." The US reformulated the first sentence to include a reference to Governments, and added a last sentence referring to the promotion of public awareness through mass media and public education. The G-77/China added references to broadening women's participation in the political process and to the creation of a high level position to liase with women's machinery at the national level. Canada added references to programmes and the effective functioning of national machineries.
In paragraph 196 (Platform implementation), the EU suggested creating two paragraphs, one addressing national mechanisms and the other, NGOs. The EU noted that Governments, where necessary, could enlist the support of the international community. The US called for action as soon as possible, preferably by the end of 1996. The G-77/China offered a reformulated text, adding references to: support, including financial, from the international community, where necessary; and to NGOs designing their own implementation programmes.
In paragraph 197 (gender parity in national bodies), the G-77/China proposed that Governments "ensure equal representation (gender balance) between women and men" in all national committees, boards and other official bodies. The EU preferred calling on Governments to create mechanisms to achieve gender balance in all governmental bodies. Norway suggested moving the paragraph to another section, and expressed reservations about the EU amendment, suggesting that "governmental bodies" was not specific. Japan proposed that Governments "make every effort" to create mechanisms. The US added a reference to countries' missions and delegations to the UN.
B. REGIONAL LEVEL: In paragraph 198 (implementation by regional commissions), Norway proposed a reference to the mandates of regional commissions and coordination between regional plans and the Platform. The EU added a reference to follow-up in economic, social and related fields, and proposed deleting a reference to UN systems dealing with women's issues. The G-77/China proposed references to regional/sub-regional levels and structures, to assisting pertinent national institutes in monitoring and implementation, and to the committee monitoring the implementation of the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Violence Against Women.
In paragraph 199 (regional commission focal points), the EU provided a new text, specifying roles for the regional offices of the specialized UN agencies and calling for UN agencies to coordinate action on the Platform through regular meetings. The G-77/China accepted the EU proposal, and added an introductory sentence, which included a call for monitoring, implementation and evaluation.
In paragraph 200 (collaboration by UN regional commissions), the EU proposed a reformulation of the paragraph, calling on regional commissions, including regional organizations of the UN system and other relevant organizations, to play an active role, within their mandates.
In paragraph 201 (regional NGO networks), the EU proposed that NGOs be "supported in their efforts." Romania introduced a proposal from the Vienna regional platform, calling for regional and sub-regional NGO centers to coordinate and facilitate contacts between NGOs, the UN system and Governments.
C. INTERNATIONAL LEVEL: The EU proposed reordering the topics in this section as follows: 1) General Assembly; 2) ECOSOC; 3) CSW; 4) Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and other treaty bodies; 5) UN Secretary-General; 6) Division for the Advancement of Women; 7) INSTRAW/UNIFEM; and 8), 9) and 10) as in original. The proposal met with general approval, but the G-77/China and Japan opposed merging the paragraphs on UNIFEM and INSTRAW, and Mexico suggested a different order of the first three topics.
In paragraph 202 (strengthen the UN's capacity), the G-77/China proposed adding a reference to agencies with special mandates to promote the advancement of women. The EU proposed replacing paragraph 202 with paragraph 205 (eliminate barriers in the UN). Paragraph 202 would then become 202(bis), in which the EU called for improving the UN's working methods. The G-77/China preferred the original paragraph order, and proposed that paragraph 205 call on the UN and other international organizations to eliminate barriers within their organizations, and deleted references to power and culture, which the EU had maintained.
The EU proposed paragraph 202 (ter), placing responsibility for Platform implementation within the UN system at the highest levels. The US proposed a paragraph 202 (bis), calling for the creation of a high-level post in the office of the Secretary-General to advise on integrating gender concerns throughout the UN system. The G-77/China reserved. Norway and the EU made similar proposals calling for high-level support within the UN system for the implementation of the FWCW Platform. Norway called for renewal, reform and revitalization of various parts of the UN system to ensure effective support for gender equality. The proposal would strengthen the advisory, catalytic and monitoring functions and establish separate gender units for effective mainstreaming.
In paragraph 203 (resources for and coordination of follow-up), the EU replaced a reference to the Secretariat with "all entities," and replaced a reference to necessary "resources" with "support." The G-77/China added a reference to "all entities of the UN," preferred both "support and resources," and added references to sub-regional groups and national machineries. The G-77/China opposed an EU proposal to delete paragraph 204 (capacity of entities promoting the advancement of women).
In paragraph 206 (implementation through the UN system), the EU deleted the reference to implementation through the UN system and called for a framework for cooperation on gender issues. The G-77/China deleted the list of conferences, replaced "all organs of the UN system" with "all pertinent organs," and deleted references to the Agenda for Peace and the Agenda for Development. Norway called for coordinated follow-up strategies. The G-77/China added 206 (bis), calling on the UN to organize a mid-term world conference on women to assess implementation of the Platform for Action.
In paragraph 207 (CSW role in implementation), the EU proposed inserting the first sentence of paragraph 208 at the beginning of the paragraph, noting the CSW's original mandate, and described the CSW as the body responsible for promoting and monitoring the implementation of the Nairobi Strategies. The G-77/China proposed that the CSW be given an extended mandate to enable its "central role in developing a coherent system in monitoring, coordinating and reporting on a regular basis on the implementation of the Platform." Norway preferred the EU position.
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