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Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB)

Volume 12 Number 645 | Sunday, 11 October 2015


Summary of the 42nd Session of the IPCC

5-8 October 2015 | Dubrovnik, Croatia


Languages: EN (HTML/PDF) JA (HTML/PDF)
Visit our IISD/ENB Meeting Coverage from Dubrovnik, Croatia at: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/ipcc42/

The 42nd session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-42) convened from 5-8 October 2015, in Dubrovnik, Croatia, and brought together 424 delegates from 136 countries. The main focus of the meeting was the election of members of the IPCC Bureau and the Task Force Bureau (TFB), including the IPCC Chair, IPCC Vice-Chairs, Co-Chairs of the Working Groups (WGs) and TFB, Vice-Chairs of the WGs and TFB members. An informal session, hosted by the Croatian Government provided the candidates for IPCC Chair with a forum to present themselves to delegates. The Panel elected Hoesung Lee (Republic of Korea) as IPCC Chair for the sixth assessment cycle.

Also on the agenda of IPCC-42 was: approval of the draft report of IPCC-41; the IPCC programme and budget; reports on IPCC activities and intersessional meetings, workshops and clinics; procedural matters relating to the election; implementation of the IPCC Error Protocol; matters related to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and special reports (SRs).  

The session was chaired by Acting IPCC Chair Ismail El Gizouli, who was appointed following the resignation of IPCC Chair Pachauri just before IPCC-41 in February, pending the election of a new Chair at IPCC-42.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE IPCC

The IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess, on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis, the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding human-induced climate change, its potential impacts, and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC is an intergovernmental and scientific body with 195 country members. It does not undertake new research, nor does it monitor climate-related data. Instead, it conducts assessments of knowledge on the basis of published and peer-reviewed scientific and technical literature. IPCC reports are intended to be policy relevant but not policy prescriptive.

The IPCC has three WGs: Working Group I (WGI) addresses the physical science basis of climate change; Working Group II (WGII) addresses climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and Working Group III (WGIII) addresses options for limiting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigating climate change. Each WG has two Co-Chairs and six Vice-Chairs, except, for the fifth assessment cycle WGIII had three Co-Chairs. The Co-Chairs guide the WGs in fulfilling the mandates given to them by the Panel and are assisted in this task by Technical Support Units (TSUs).

The IPCC also has a Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (TFI) to oversee the IPCC National GHG Inventories Programme, also supported by a TSU. The Programme aims to develop and refine an internationally-agreed methodology and software for the calculation and reporting of national GHG emissions and removals, and encourage its use by parties to the UNFCCC.

The Panel elects its Bureau for the duration of a full assessment cycle, which lasts between five and seven years and includes the preparation of an IPCC assessment report. The Bureau’s role is to assist the IPCC Chair in planning,       coordinating and monitoring the IPCC’s work, and is composed of climate change experts representing all regions. Currently, the Bureau comprises 34 members, having expanded from 31 as of the elections held at this session (IPCC-42) per a decision taken at IPCC-41, and includes the IPCC Chair and Vice-Chairs, the WG Co-Chairs and Vice-Chairs, and the TFI Co-Chairs and its members. In 2011, the IPCC established an Executive Committee (ExComm) to assist with intersessional work and coordination among the WGs. The ExComm consists of the IPCC Chair, IPCC Vice-Chairs, WG and TFI Co-Chairs, and advisory members, including the Head of the IPCC Secretariat and the four Heads of the TSUs. The IPCC Secretariat is located in Geneva, Switzerland, and is hosted by the WMO.

IPCC PRODUCTS: Since its inception, the IPCC has prepared a series of comprehensive assessment reports, special reports and technical papers that provide scientific information on climate change to the international community and are subject to extensive review by experts and governments.

The IPCC’s First Assessment Report was completed in 1990; the Second Assessment Report in 1995; the Third Assessment Report in 2001; the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) in 2007; and the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) in 2014. Currently, the assessment reports are structured in three parts, one for each WG. Each WG’s contribution comprises a Summary for Policymakers (SPM), a Technical Summary and an underlying assessment report. All sections of each report undergo an intensive review process, which takes place in three stages: a first review by experts; a second review by experts and governments; and a third review by governments. Each SPM is then approved line by line by the respective WG. A Synthesis Report (SYR) is then produced for the assessment report as a whole, which highlights the most relevant aspects of the three WG reports, and an SPM of the SYR is then approved line by line by the Panel.

In addition to the comprehensive assessments, the IPCC produces SRs, methodology reports and technical papers, focusing on specific issues related to climate change. Thus far, SRs include: Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (2000); Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (2005); Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SREN) (2011); and Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) (2011). Technical papers have also been prepared on, among other things, Climate Change and Water (2008).

In addition, the IPCC produces methodology reports or guidelines to assist countries in reporting on GHGs. Good Practice Guidance reports were approved by the Panel in 2000 and 2003, and the latest version of the IPCC Guidelines on National GHG Inventories was approved in 2006. The IPCC also adopted the 2013 Supplement to the 2006 Guidelines for National GHG Inventories: Wetlands (Wetlands Supplement), and the 2013 Revised Supplementary Methods and Good Practice Guidance Arising from the Kyoto Protocol (KP Supplement).

For its work and efforts “to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about manmade climate change, and to lay the foundations needed to counteract such change,” the IPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, jointly with former US Vice President Al Gore, in December 2007.

IPCC-28: During this session (9-10 April 2008, Budapest, Hungary), the IPCC agreed to prepare AR5 and to retain the current structure of its WGs. In order to enable significant use of new scenarios in AR5, the Panel extended the timeframe of the cycle from five to seven years, requesting the IPCC Bureau to ensure delivery of the WGI report by early 2013 and completion of the other WG reports and the SYR as early as possible in 2014.

IPCC-29: This session (31 August – 4 September 2008, Geneva, Switzerland) commemorated the IPCC’s 20th anniversary. The Panel elected the new IPCC Bureau, and reelected Rajendra Pachauri (India) as Chair. The Panel also continued discussions on the future of the IPCC and agreed to create a scholarship fund for young climate change scientists from developing countries with the funds from the Nobel Peace Prize.

IPCC-30: During this session (21-23 April 2009, Antalya, Turkey), the Panel focused mainly on the near-term future of the IPCC and provided guidance for an AR5 scoping meeting, which was held in Venice, Italy, from 13-17 July 2009.

IPCC-31: This session (26-29 October 2009, Bali, Indonesia) approved the proposed AR5 chapter outlines. The Panel also considered progress on implementing decisions taken at IPCC-30 regarding the involvement of scientists from developing countries and countries with economies in transition, use of electronic technologies, and the longer-term future of the IPCC.

INTERACADEMY COUNCIL (IAC) REVIEW: In response to public criticism of the IPCC related to inaccuracies in AR4 and the Panel’s response to the criticism, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and IPCC Chair Pachauri requested the IAC to conduct an independent review of IPCC processes and procedures and to present recommendations to strengthen the IPCC and to ensure the quality of its reports.

The IAC presented its results in a report in August 2010 and made recommendations regarding, inter alia: the IPCC’s management structure; a communications strategy, including a plan to respond to crises; transparency, including criteria for selecting participants and the type of scientific and technical information to be assessed; and consistency in how the WGs characterize uncertainty.

IPCC-32: This session (11-14 October 2010, Busan, Republic of Korea) addressed the recommendations of the IAC Review. The Panel adopted a number of decisions in this regard, including on the treatment of gray literature and uncertainty, and on a process to address errors in previous reports. For recommendations requiring further examination, the Panel established task groups on processes and procedures, communications, the Conflict of Interest Policy (COI), and governance and management. The Panel also accepted a revised outline for the AR5 SYR.

IPCC-33: The session (10-13 May 2011, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) focused primarily on follow-up actions to the IAC Review. The Panel established an ExComm, adopted a COI Policy, and introduced several changes to the procedures for IPCC reports. The Panel also considered progress on AR5. 

IPCC-34: This meeting (18-19 November 2011, Kampala, Uganda) adopted revised Procedures for the Preparation, Review, Acceptance, Adoption, Approval and Publication of IPCC Reports, as well as Implementation Procedures and the Disclosure Form for the COI Policy.

IPCC-35: This session (6-9 June 2012, Geneva, Switzerland) concluded the Panel’s consideration of the recommendations from the IAC Review by approving the functions of the IPCC Secretariat and TSUs, and the Communications Strategy.

WGI-12 and IPCC-36: During these meetings (23-26 September 2013, Stockholm, Sweden), WGI finalized its AR5 contribution: “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis.” The Panel then approved the WGI SPM and accepted the underlying report, including the Technical Summary and annexes.

IPCC-37: During this session (14-17 October 2013, Batumi, Georgia), the Panel decided to establish a Task Group on the Future Work of the IPCC. It also considered and adopted two methodology reports, the 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories: Wetlands Supplement and KP Supplement. The IPCC also undertook initial discussions on mapping the IPCC’s future.

WGII-10 and IPCC-38: These meetings (25-29 March 2014, Yokohama, Japan) finalized the WGII contribution to AR5: “Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.” The Panel then approved the WGII SPM and accepted the underlying report, including the Technical Summary and annexes.

WGIII-12 and IPCC-39: These meetings (7-12 April 2014, Berlin, Germany), finalized the WGIII contribution to AR5: “Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change.” The Panel then approved the WGIII SPM and accepted the underlying report, including the Technical Summary and annexes. The Panel also discussed, inter alia, COI and future work of the IPCC.

IPCC-40: This meeting (27 October - 1 November 2014, Copenhagen, Denmark) considered and finalized the SYR, which integrates the findings from the three IPCC WGs. The Panel also approved the SYR’s SPM line by line, and adopted the longer SYR section by section.

IPCC-41: This meeting (24-27 February 2015, Nairobi, Kenya) addressed the future work of the IPCC, including the recommendations of the Task Group on the Future Work of the IPCC, and took a decision on the size, structure and composition of the IPCC Bureau and TFB. The Panel also adopted decisions on: IPCC products, their timing and usability; IPCC structure; respective roles of the IPCC Secretariat and the IPCC TSUs; options for the selection of and support to Coordinating Lead Authors and Lead Authors; and improving the writing and review process. Following the resignation of IPCC Chair Pachauri, Ismail El Gizouli (Sudan) was appointed Acting IPCC Chair, pending the election of a new Chair at IPCC-42.

IPCC-42 REPORT

Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli opened IPCC-42, thanking the Government of Croatia for hosting the session and noting that its main objective was to elect a new Bureau. He highlighted the departing Bureau’s accomplishments, noting the AR5 was the most thorough assessment of the science of climate change ever undertaken. He said that the 20th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 20) to the UNFCCC formally recognized the AR5 as a key input into the UNFCCC process and highlighted the IPCC’s unprecedented outreach during the AR5 cycle.

Underlining the importance of 2015 for the UNFCCC and the IPCC, Florin Vladu, UNFCCC Adaptation Programme Manager, pointed to the agreement expected in Paris, France, at COP 21 in December. He supported targeted IPCC SRs, including those related to monitoring the aggregated progress in emission reductions and the science-based management of the pathway of global emissions, as evolving needs of the UNFCCC, and expressed hope that the IPCC reports would help to continuously strengthen UNFCCC Parties’ level of ambition.

Merlyn Van Voore, on behalf of UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner, called for echoing the successful recent adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals by reaching a transformative agreement at COP 21. She stressed the IPCC’s achievement in supporting global recognition of climate change as a defining social, political and economic issue, and underscored that the level of investment needed globally is not insurmountable.

Jeremiah Lengoasa, WMO Deputy Secretary-General, highlighted work undertaken by the WMO, including workshops for weather presenters and an update on the 2015-2016 El Niño/Southern Oscillation, which is predicted to further strengthen by the end of the year and likely to be placed among the strongest since 1950. He called on the IPCC to consider the bigger picture, stressing the importance of clear and widely accessible IPCC outputs.

Mihael Zmajlović, Minister of Environmental and Nature Protection, Croatia, emphasized that climate change is a primary and present challenge of mankind. He supported a multi-faceted agreement in Paris, including ambitious goals and significant contributions by the highest-emitting countries, and highlighted Croatia’s energy efficiency and recovery programmes.

ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA: Acting IPCC Secretary Bruce Stewart presented the agenda for the session (IPCC-XLII/Doc.1 Rev.2 and Add.1).

TFI Co-Chair Taka Hiraishi noted that IPCC-XLII/INF.9 on the TFI Work Programme and Budget for 2016-2018 includes action proposals related to the future activities of the TFI and requested that the Panel consider INF.9 as a “sDOC” document, on which the Panel would be required to make a decision, in order to address budgetary issues.

Monaco, Norway, Ireland, Spain, the US, New Zealand, Germany, Canada and Switzerland requested an agenda item on proposals for SRs to begin initial discussions of the issue. Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Mali, Argentina, Brazil, Tanzania and Sudan objected, saying this would be best undertaken by the new Bureau. 

 Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart suggested the agenda item could be included under “Other Matters” with the caveat that it would be addressed if time permitted. He noted the existing Bureau would remain in place through the end of the session.

The Panel adopted the agenda as amended.

APPROVAL OF THE DRAFT REPORT OF THE 41ST SESSION

On Monday morning, Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli and Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart presented the draft report of IPCC-41 (IPCC-XLII/Doc.3). Venezuela recalled the compromise that followed their acceptance to increase group representation for Regions I (Africa) and II (Asia) at IPCC-41 given the lack of time for further consultations, which was conditional on consideration of a similar revision of Region III (South America) during the next assessment cycle. The Panel accepted the report, with Venezuela’s intervention included as an annex to the report.

IPCC PROGRAMME AND BUDGET

On Monday morning, Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli introduced this agenda item (IPCC-XLII/Doc.2 Rev.1 and IPCC-XLII/INF.2). Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart said that CHF1.5 million had been received this year, noting the financial trend had been a net drop in savings. He highlighted that by the end of the AR6 cycle the IPCC would be in a difficult situation if this trend continues.

The US expressed concern about the trend and called for the Financial Task Team (FiTT) to address how to reverse the declining number of contributors and raise the resources required. The FiTT convened throughout the meeting to consider the IPCC Programme and Budget.

On Thursday afternoon, Nicolas Beriot (France), for the FiTT, reported on the FiTT. He noted that the 2016 budget will be finalized after scoping for the AR6 cycle. He highlighted options identified for addressing the downward trend in contributions, such as: exploring models from other organizations; identifying cost-cutting measures; making efforts to mobilize new resources; and exploring other sources of support, including non-governmental foundations.

He said the FiTT report: recommends reviewing costs and missed savings during the AR5 cycle, perhaps with assistance from the WMO or UNEP; and calls for a special agenda item on the IPCC’s financial situation at IPCC-43 and a decision on SRs, which is critical for financial planning.

Saudi Arabia called for ensuring at least the minimum number of Bureau meetings required in the Rules of Procedure rather than replacing them with special topic-specific meetings. The US noted the cost of holding Bureau meetings and suggested that these be defrayed by streamlining, such as holding Bureau meetings back-to-back in the same location as regular IPCC sessions. The Secretariat stated that two Bureau meetings per year are budgeted, but also noted the Secretariat workload and time commitment required for two Bureau and two plenary meetings per year.

The US proposed that the new Bureau and Chair consider how to solicit the required resources and proposed approaching private philanthropic organizations. Canada said both the Chair and the Secretariat should be charged with exploring ways to reverse the downward trend in contributions.

WGI Co-Chair Thomas Stocker (Switzerland) asked for information on in-kind contributions from TSU host countries. Beriot noted the difficulty of calculating in-kind contributions but agreed that estimates were needed for IPCC-43.

The FiTT report was adopted with the proposed amendments. 

ADMISSION OF OBSERVER ORGANIZATIONS

On Monday morning, Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli informed the Panel that there were no current requests for admission.

REPORTS

COMMUNICATION AND OUTREACH ACTIVITIES: On Monday afternoon, Jonathan Lynn, Head, Communications and Media Relations, IPCC Secretariat, reported on this item (IPCC-XLII/INF.11), noting that the focus this year had been on outreach related to AR5. He underscored that outreach had been scaled up, and outlined the new IPCC website for AR5, aimed at making the material more accessible. He highlighted that the SPM had been downloaded over 1.5 million times.

The US stressed the importance of outreach and commended the Secretariat and contributing countries for their work on this issue. Mali, Peru, the Russian Federation and Argentina welcomed specific regional-level outreach activities. The Panel took note of the report. 

IPCC SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME: On Monday afternoon, Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart reported on this item (IPCC-XLII/INF.10), thanking the Prince Albert II of Monaco and Cuomo Foundations for their contributions. He highlighted the diversity of scholarship recipients, including scholars from Colombia, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Nepal, Morocco, Albania, Kenya, Benin, Ethiopia and Bangladesh. The Panel took note of the report.

EXPERT MEETING ON SCENARIOS: WGIII Co-Chair Ramón Pichs-Madruga (Cuba) reported on this Expert Meeting (IPCC-XLII/INF.15) held in Laxenburg, Austria, in May 2015, which resulted in recommendations for both the IPCC and for the scenario research community. He highlighted the recommendation to the IPCC that scenarios should play a key role in the AR6 cycle in order to improve the integration of knowledge across the three WGs, which could include the development of an IPCC SR on the integrative use of scenarios, joint WG chapters on scenario-related issues, or installation of an “author scenario group” coordinating the use of scenarios throughout the writing process. Pichs-Madruga said the Expert Meeting had also concluded that the IPCC should increase participation of developing countries in scenario development and capacity-building activities, and pursue synergies with other organizations and assessment bodies interested in scenario analysis.

The US welcomed the results of the Expert Meeting and commented on the critical importance of improving the utilization of scenarios across the WGs. The Panel took note of the report.

EXPERT MEETING ON CLIMATE CHANGE, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE: WGII Co-Chair Chris Field (US) reported on this Expert Meeting, held in Dublin, Ireland from 27-29 May 2015 (IPCC.XLII/INF.12, Corr.2). He noted the request of CGIAR for this meeting and said no other sector: is as implicated in forcing climate change; faces as many impacts from climate change; is as linked to other issues, such as health and sustainable development; or offers as rich a set of opportunities for addressing climate change.

He reported that the meeting drew 55 participants from within and outside the IPCC, including 24 from developing countries, who considered recommendations on opportunities and options for pursuing this agenda in the future, including concentrating on new research, undertaking a possible SR, and incorporating new thinking and learning about this issue area into the scoping for AR6. The Panel took note of the report.

TASK GROUP ON DATA AND SCENARIO SUPPORT FOR IMPACTS AND CLIMATE ANALYSIS (TGICA): On Monday afternoon, the Panel considered the report on TGICA activities (IPCC-XLII/INF.14), including on: TGICA-22; the Expert Meeting on Decision-Centered Approaches to the Use of Climate Change Information; and the Clinic to Work Through Real World Cases Brought by Participants.

TGICA Co-Chair Timothy Carter (Finland) provided an update on the Data Distribution Centre (DDC), saying the most recent addition is information on extremes, and noted the opportunity is still available for users to provide feedback through a DDC User Survey. He outlined general activities, including TGICA participation in preparations for Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, feedback to authors of the Scenario Model Intercomparison Project and the IPCC Expert Meeting on Scenarios. He recalled the decision at IPCC-41 to revisit the mandate of TGICA at IPCC-43. He said a Scientific Steering Committee has been selected and will undertake preparations for such a discussion.

The Russian Federation called for ensuring access by all authors to a complete e-Library of articles to improve the success of AR6.

TGICA Co-Chair Carter stressed that accessibility of information is an area that concerns TGICA, saying that ensuring access by all countries to material in the DDC would be a top priority if the TGICA mandate is extended.

TGICA Co-Chair Bruce Hewitson (South Africa) reported on the Expert Meeting on Decision-Centered Approaches, held from 30 June – 2 July 2015, in New York, US, noting there were 46 participants, including 21 from developing countries or economies in transition. He explained that the meeting focused on how to use climate information to support adaptation and climate risk management, and undertook a participatory process to present and explore approaches. Hewitson outlined key messages, including: the opportunity for greater “intellectual investment” in private sector partnerships and in climate services; a strong need for smaller information-based products that complement larger assessment reports; and greater knowledge sharing with other relevant organizations. The Panel noted the report.

TFI: The Expert Meeting for Technical Assessment of IPCC Inventory Guidelines (Energy, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste Sectors) (IPCC-XLII/INF.7 Corr.2 and IPCC-XLII/INF.9 Corr.2), the Expert Meeting for Technical Assessment of IPCC Inventory Guidelines (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Sector) (IPCC-XLII/INF.8 Corr.2 and IPCC-XLII/INF.9 Corr.2) and the Expert Meeting to Collect Emission Factor Database and Software Users’ Feedback (IPCC-XLII/INF. 6, Corr. 2) were taken up jointly and presented by TFI Co-Chairs Thelma Krug (Brazil) and Hiraishi on Monday afternoon. They reported that the Expert Meetings had concluded that certain methodological refinements are required to improve the 2006 IPCC GHG Inventory Guidelines in particular sectors, and that, while many of these refinements could be undertaken via existing methods, others might require a methodological report, possibly to be prepared by 2019. The TFI Co-Chairs suggested a scoping meeting be held to address the issue.

Germany, with Denmark and Norway, objected to undertaking such a methodological report saying that its uptake by the UNFCCC was uncertain, and called for working with supplements to the guidelines that could more easily be adopted. Noting significant improvements since 2006, Australia and the US disagreed, welcoming the work programme proposed by the TFI Co-Chairs. Japan stressed the importance of the TFI’s work and of the Guidelines, and said he looked forward to further enhancement of the Guidelines.

Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli proposed, and the Panel agreed, to: take note of the reports and of the comments raised by Parties; request the incoming TFI Chairs to take these comments into account in a future report to the plenary and in developing the work programme of the TFI; and request the FiTT to consider the budget implications.

WORKSHOP ON REGIONAL CLIMATE PROJECTIONS AND THEIR USE IN IMPACTS AND RISK ANALYSIS STUDIES: On Monday afternoon, WGI Co-Chair Stocker reported on this workshop (IPCC-XLII/INF.18), which took place from 15-18 September 2015, in São Paulo, Brazil. He said the workshop brought together a unique combination of scientists to provide more links and collaboration between WGI and WGII. He highlighted recommendations and needs that were identified, saying an information paper would be developed as an input into AR6, and pointed to four outreach activities aimed at reaching: school students, about climate change; Brazilian scientists, to respond to questions on global climate modeling, regional modeling and downscaling; users and practitioners, to examine tools to access information from climate models and simulations; and media, to communicate AR5. The Panel took note of the report.

UPDATE ON THE DECISION PATHWAY FOR CONSIDERATION OF REQUESTS FROM RESEARCHERS FOR ACCESS TO NON-PUBLIC MATERIAL OR MEETINGS: On Monday afternoon, WGIII Co-Chair Pichs-Madruga reported on this Update (IPCC-XLII/INF.17), which was submitted by the Acting IPCC Secretary and prepared by the Co-Chairs of WGIII. He outlined a number of actions to be taken once such a request has been approved. In response to a question by Germany, the Secretariat clarified that this item was received and presented as is, saying the Panel could act on the Update as it wishes. Canada supported taking a decision on this item at a future meeting, noting the delicate balance between the potential privileged information of governments and scientists, and encouraging external research on the IPCC. The Panel decided that the issue would be taken to the Bureau for further consideration.

PROCEDURAL MATTERS

COI: On Monday morning, Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli reported that the IPCC COI Committee (IPCC-XLII/INF. 3) had met and reviewed the disclosure forms submitted in relation to Bureau nominations. He reported that some minor issues were identified but expected these to be resolved after further discussion with nominees.

Saudi Arabia requested that the Panel provide further guidance to the Committee. The Panel took note of the initial report. The COI Committee continued to meet throughout the session to consider possible COI related to further nominations.

NOMINATIONS COMMITTEE: The Nominations Committee was appointed on Monday and consisted of the following members: Alab Sile Sikhosans (Swaziland), Lamin Mai Touray (the Gambia), Abdullah Tawlah (Saudi Arabia), Syed Atif Raza (Pakistan), José Luis Remedi (Uruguay), Jacqueline Spence (Jamaica), Antonio Cañas Calderón (El Salvador), Dan Zwartz (New Zealand), Gary Theseira (Malaysia), Ivan Čačić (Croatia) and Katrine Krogh Andersen (Denmark). Theseira was appointed Chair of the Committee. The Nominations Committee continued to meet throughout the session to consider further nominations.

CREDENTIALS COMMITTEE: The Credentials Committee was appointed on Monday and comprised the following six members: Djé Kouakou Bernard (Côte d’Ivoire); Ali Shareef (Maldives); Liliam Ballon (Peru); Alessandro Nardi (US); Arona Ngari (Cook Islands); and Dovilė Vaitkutė (Lithuania). Nardi was appointed Committee Chair. The Credentials Committee convened until mid-day Tuesday to consider credentials submitted by members.

ELECTION OF MEMBERS OF THE IPCC BUREAU AND THE TASK FORCE BUREAU

On Monday afternoon, Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart introduced this item (IPCC-XLII/INF.16 and IPCC-XLII/INF.19). Elections were held for the IPCC Chair, Bureau Members and TFB in accordance with the Rules of Procedure for the Election of the IPCC Bureau and any TFB, as contained in Appendix C to the Principles Governing IPCC Work.

The Rules of Procedure were adopted by IPCC-25 in Port Louis, Mauritius, in April 2006, and revised at IPCC-35 in Geneva, Switzerland, in June 2012, to reflect that of the three IPCC Vice-Chairs, at least one must be from a developed country and one must be from a developing country, and three different regions must be represented. The rules also state that one Co-Chair of each WG and the TFB must be from a developing country and one must be from a developed country. IPCC-41 in Nairobi, Kenya, in February 2015, further revised the Rules of Procedure, increasing the size of the Bureau from 31 to 34, to raise the representation of the Africa Region from five to seven and of the Asia Region from five to six, and “to distribute these additional positions evenly across the three WGs.”

The Rules of Procedure require regional balance in the Bureau across the six WMO regions: Region I (Africa); Region II (Asia); Region III (South America); Region IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean); Region V (South-West Pacific); and Region VI (Europe). The number of members for each region now include: seven positions for Africa; six positions for Asia; four positions for South America; four positions for North America, Central America and the Caribbean; four positions for the South-West Pacific; and eight positions for Europe (IPCC-XLII/INF.5). While most nominations for Bureau positions were made by members in advance of IPCC-42, members also nominated candidates from the floor during the meeting. In selecting between candidates for Bureau positions, the Rules of Procedure encourage consensus decision-making within regional groups. In the absence of consensus, the Rules provide for a secret ballot in plenary to decide contested positions.

A Credentials Committee and a Nominations Committee are appointed at sessions where Bureau elections are held, in accordance with Appendix C. The Credentials Committee examines the credentials of delegates nominated by IPCC members to determine if such delegates are the only valid representation of an IPCC member for the purpose of elections of the IPCC Bureau and TFB. The Nominations Committee prepares and submits to the Panel a list of Nominees for each office for which an election is to be held. The COI Committee, a standing committee composed of the ExComm and two legal experts from WMO and UNEP, reviews the COI forms to determine whether candidates are eligible for election to the Bureau or TFB.

Leo Meyer (the Netherlands) and Elisabeth Holland (Federated States of Micronesia) were selected to act as election tellers. On Wednesday, Holland was replaced by Suzana Khan (Brazil).

On Monday afternoon, the Panel initially agreed to use an electronic voting system (IPCC-XLII/INF.1), which was intended to reproduce, step by step, the box-based ballot, would allow for expedited secret, independent balloting, and had been successfully used by the WMO Congress. However, after initial testing with the electronic system on Tuesday afternoon and discussion of the technical uncertainties encountered, IPCC Acting Chair El Gizouli proposed, and the Panel agreed, to proceed with paper ballots for the IPCC Chair and IPCC Vice-Chair positions. For the rest of the Bureau and TFB, the Panel agreed to use the electronic voting system.

On Thursday afternoon, the Panel approved the results of the elections. The results of individual elections are summarized below.

ELECTIONS OF THE CHAIR OF THE IPCC: On Tuesday evening, the Panel voted for the IPCC Chair for the sixth assessment cycle. Candidates for IPCC Chair were: Ogunlade Davidson (Sierra Leone); Hoesung Lee, (Republic of Korea); Chris Field (US); Nebojsa Nakicenovic (Austria and Montenegro); Jean-Pascal van Ypersele (Belgium); and Thomas Stocker (Switzerland).

A first round of voting, with all 135 votes counted, resulted in the following: Davidson, 1 vote; Field, 19 votes; Lee, 45 votes; Nakicenovic, 8 votes; Stocker, 30 votes; and Van Ypersele, 32 votes.

Given the lack of a simple majority, a second round was conducted between Lee and van Ypersele, resulting in 56 votes for Van Ypersele and 78 votes for Lee. Thus, Hoesung Lee was elected as IPCC Chair.

ELECTIONS OF THE VICE-CHAIRS OF THE IPCC: On Wednesday morning, Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli opened voting for the IPCC Vice-Chairs.

Switzerland, supported by Hungary, requested more time for regional consultations, with Switzerland noting the need for time to consider a package of candidates to be shared between Region VI and others. He nominated Andreas Fischlin for IPCC Vice-Chair from the floor.

The US nominated Ko Barrett from the floor, highlighting Barrett’s experience with scientific organizations and her service in the developing world. He stressed that a leadership role for the US would help ensure its ability to provide critical services to the Panel.

Taka Hiraishi, TFI Co-Chair, noted that an internal COI code of conduct calls for IPCC ExComm members to refrain from major roles in negotiations outside the IPCC and requested that this internal policy be officially recorded.

After further consultations among the regional groups, Switzerland then withdrew the candidacy of Fischlin for Vice-Chair. Hungary also withdrew its nomination of Diana Ürge-Vorsatz. The Chair declared that Ko Barrett was, therefore, elected developed country Vice-Chair by acclamation and opened the election for developing country Vice-Chair.

Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart announced that Pichs-Madruga of Cuba, who had originally been nominated, could not run for Vice-Chair, as Barrett was now representing Region IV. With no new nominations from the floor, elections were held between candidates Youba Sokona (Mali), Thelma Krug (Brazil) and Fredolin Tangang (Malaysia) for the remaining two Vice-Chair positions.

In the first round of voting, Krug won 53 votes, Sokona won 49 and Tangang won 29. As no candidate achieved a simple majority, a second round was conducted between the top two candidates. After the second round of votes, Krug won 73 votes and Sokona won 61. Thelma Krug was declared Vice-Chair.

In a third round of voting, for the third Vice-Chair, Sokona received 89 votes and Tangang received 45. Youba Sokona was, therefore, declared the third IPCC Vice-Chair.

ELECTIONS FOR THE CO-CHAIRS OF THE WORKING GROUPS AND THE TASK FORCE BUREAU: Elections for WG Co-Chairs were held on Wednesday afternoon.

Before the elections took place, several changes were made in the nominations. In the spirit of compromise, India withdrew two of its nominations (Anand Patwardhan for WGII Co-Chair and Amit Garg for TFB Co-Chair), while Tanzania withdrew one (Jamidu Katima as TFB Co-Chair). Argentina also withdrew a candidate (Carolina Vera for WGI Co-Chair), but nominated Darío Gómez as WGIII Co-Chair.

For WGI, Valérie Masson-Delmotte (France) was elected by acclamation as developed country Co-Chair. Elections for the developing country WGI Co-Chair were held between candidates Panmao Zhai (China) and Fredolin Tangang (Malaysia), following which Zhai was elected as WGI Co-Chair.

For WGII, Hans-Otto Pörtner (Germany) was elected by acclamation as developed country Co-Chair. Voting then took place among four candidates from developing countries: Debra Roberts (South Africa); Joy Jacqueline Pereira (Malaysia); Eduardo Calvo Buendía (Peru); and Ramón Pichs-Madruga (Cuba). After a second round of voting between Roberts and Pereira, Roberts was elected as developing country Co-Chair for WGII.

For WGIII, Jim Skea (UK) was elected by acclamation as developed country Co-Chair. Voting took place between four candidates from developing countries: P.R. Shukla (India), Cheikh Mbow (Senegal), Eduardo Calvo Buendía (Peru) and Darío Gómez (Argentina). After a second round of votes between Shukla and Mbow, delegates elected Shukla.

For the TFB, Kiyoto Tanabe (Japan) was elected by acclamation as the developed country candidate. Voting took place between two candidates from developing countries: Eduardo Calvo Buendía (Peru) and Francis Yamba (Zambia). The Panel elected Calvo Buendía.

New Zealand, on behalf of Region V (South-West Pacific), expressed concern with the fact that the region was not represented in the ExComm. Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli recommended that the region nominate one representative and include him or her in the ExComm as a regional representative. The Panel agreed to this recommendation and, on Thursday afternoon following the election of WG Vice-Chairs (see section below), Malaysia nominated, and the Panel agreed that, newly elected WGIII Vice-Chair Joy Jacqueline Pereira (Malaysia) will fill this position.

 Argentina expressed concern that Region III could not be represented in all working groups as, with the election of IPCC Vice-Chair Krug and TFB Chair Buendía, two of the four seats allocated to Region III had already been filled, notwithstanding the rule that calls for every region to be included in each one of the WGs or TFB.

Venezuela, supported by Argentina, China, Peru, Chile and others, stressed the need to increase the number of seats allocated to Region III. The US suggested various possibilities to address the problem on this occasion, including having a Region III representative already serving on the Bureau serve in another capacity, or having an additional member represent the region but not be part of the Bureau. An open-ended contact group, facilitated by New Zealand, was convened to address this question.

On Thursday morning, New Zealand reported that the contact group had discussed concerns related to overall representation of regions and that the Secretariat had reported that both suggestions from the US were consistent with the IPCC Rules of Procedure.

Following further regional consultations, Argentina, for Region III, reported that the region supported the option of a representative who would not be a Bureau member, and nominated Walter Oyantacabal (Uruguay).

On Thursday afternoon, Argentina proposed terms of reference under which Oyantacabal could represent the region in WGIII in order to: provide Region III contributions on the list of authors; review editors, and expert reviewers, taking into account the balance of expertise, geographical coverage and gender; engage with the wider scientific community; and comment on the scientific quality of WGIII products. Canada asked to specify that Oyantacabal will not participate in the IPCC Bureau. The US stated that this solution should not set a precedent. The Panel agreed to Argentina’s proposal with these clarifications.

ELECTIONS FOR THE VICE-CHAIRS OF THE WGS AND TFB: On Thursday morning, the Panel elected the WG Vice-Chairs. A number of countries withdrew or modified nominations for the seven WGI Vice-Chairs, the eight WGII Vice-Chairs and the seven WGIII Vice-Chairs.

The remaining candidates for WGI Vice-Chair were: Noureddine Yassaa (Algeria); Fatima Driouech (Morocco); Muhammad Tariq (Pakistan); Carolina Vera (Argentina); Gregory Flato (Canada); Edvin Aldrian (Indonesia); Jan Fuglestvedt (Norway); and Serhat Sensoy (Turkey).

The remaining candidates for WGII Vice-Chair were: Pius Yanda (Tanzania); Taha Zatari (Saudi Arabia); Carlos Méndez (Venezuela); Roberto Sanchez-Rodriguez (Mexico); Mark Howden (Australia); Joy Jacqueline Pereira (Malaysia); Morgan Wairiu (Solomon Islands); Lučka Kajfež Bogataj (Slovenia); José Moreno (Spain); and Andreas Fischlin (Switzerland).

The remaining candidates for WGIII Vice-Chair were: Nagmeldin Mahoud (Sudan); Diriba Korecha Dadi (Ethiopia); Amjad Abdulla (Maldives); Ramón Pichs-Madruga (Cuba); Andy Reisinger (New Zealand); Carlo Carraro (Italy); Jan Fuglestvedt (Norway); Natasa Markovska (FYR Macedonia); and Diana Ürge-Vorstaz (Hungary).

Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli informed the Panel that Regions I-IV had achieved the precise number of candidates each region had left on the Bureau. He explained that Region VI (Europe) had 10 nominees for five remaining spots on the Bureau, and that Region V (South-West Pacific) had three nominees for two positions in WGII. Further regional consultations were undertaken. No additional withdrawals were announced.

Voting for candidates for WGI Vice-Chair from Region VI (Europe) then commenced. In a single round of voting, Jan Fuglestvedt (Norway) was elected WGI Vice-Chair. Other WGI Vice-Chairs were elected by acclamation, including Noureddine Yassaa (Algeria), Fatima Driouech (Morocco), Muhammad Tariq (Pakistan), Carolina Vera (Argentina), Gregory Flato (Canada) and Edvin Aldrian (Indonesia).

Following brief consultations by Region VI (Europe), elections for WGII Vice-Chairs commenced. Voting took place to elect two Vice-Chairs from Region V (South-West Pacific) from three candidates, with Joy Jacqueline Pereira (Malaysia) and Mark Howden (Australia) elected following three rounds of voting. Voting also took place to elect two Vice-Chairs from Region VI (Europe) from the four candidates, with Sergey Semenov (Russian Federation) and Andreas Fischlin (Switzerland) elected following three rounds of voting. The other WGII Vice-Chairs were elected by acclamation, including Pius Yanda (Tanzania), Taha Zatari (Saudi Arabia), Carlos Méndez (Venezuela) and Roberto Sanchez-Rodriguez (Mexico).

Elections for the WGIII Vice-Chair then proceeded. Norway withdrew the candidacy of Jan Fuglestvedt (Norway) as he had been elected WGI Vice-Chair. Voting took place to elect two Vice-Chairs from the three remaining Region VI (Europe) candidates. After three rounds of voting, Diana Ürge-Vorsatz (Hungary) and Carlo Carraro (Italy) were elected WGIII Vice-Chairs. Other WGIII Vice-Chairs were elected by acclamation, including Nagmeldin Mahoud (Sudan), Diriba Korecha Dadi (Ethiopia), Amjad Abdulla (Maldives), Ramón Pichs-Madruga (Cuba) and Andy Reisinger (New Zealand).

On Thursday afternoon, the election of two members of the TFB from each region commenced. A number of countries withdrew candidates who had been nominated earlier. New candidates were nominated by Chad and Finland.

Three regions had only two nominations each. Darió Gómez (Argentina) and Yasna Rojas (Chile), for Region III, Dominique Blain (Canada) and Thomas Wirth (US), for Region IV, and Rob Sturgiss (Australia) and Fahmuddin Agus (Indonesia), for Region V, were therefore elected to the TFB by acclamation.

For Region I, Batouli Said Abdallah (Comoros) and Sabin Guendehou (Benin) were elected to the TFB in three rounds of voting. For Region II, Irina Yesserkepova (Kazakhstan) and Bundit Limmeechokchai (Thailand) were also elected in three rounds. For Region VI, Riitta Pipatti (Finland) and Fatma Betül Baygüven (Turkey) were elected in two rounds of voting.

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IPCC ERROR PROTOCOL

On Tuesday evening, Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart summarized the document on this item (IPCC-XLII/Doc.4), saying that 16 error claims related to AR5 had been reported through the IPCC Error Protocol since IPCC-41. He noted that the document provides links to lists of errata for each WG report and the SYR that can be accessed online. He also said it provides additional processes and procedures for addressing errata corrected before publication, for reflecting post-publication errata in electronic publications, and for addressing errata related to translations.

Germany called for amending the proposal for addressing translation errors to give final decisions on such errors to experts rather than to translators. The Panel agreed to this suggestion.

MATTERS RELATED TO THE UNFCCC AND OTHER BODIES

On Tuesday evening, Florin Vladu, UNFCCC Secretariat, reported on IPCC participation in recent UNFCCC events. He said the IPCC provided information to the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) on climate science, scenarios and new metrics in AR5 and updated information on the status of scientific knowledge, and contributed to the SBSTA research dialogue. He then reported on plans for future cooperation between the IPCC and SBSTA, including side events on communication, and a joint meeting of the IPCC WGs and the SBSTA.

Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart reported on IPCC involvement in UNFCCC COP 21 and related meetings. He noted preparations for the new IPCC Chair to attend the next Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) meeting, and for new and past Bureau members to attend COP 21 to discuss AR5 and the IPCC’s future work programme. He also noted IPCC work on outreach and publications more generally.

OTHER MATTERS

On Thursday, the Panel returned to the question of SRs, which had been placed on the agenda under “Other Matters,” with Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli noting that little time remained to address this issue. The US pointed to five emerging themes among the many SR proposals: desertification; cryosphere; oceans; food and agriculture; and mitigation and adaptation linkages. He suggested that the Bureau consider how to streamline the proposals and better represent them.

Norway requested that the Bureau continue consideration of this issue and called for a mandate for the Bureau to streamline the proposals. Switzerland called for this issue to be considered in the scoping of the sixth assessment cycle.

Mexico supported an SR on links between adaptation and mitigation, and called for considering SRs on long-lasting climate contaminants and those with the potential for anthropogenic manipulation.

The Panel placed this item on the Bureau’s agenda.  

PLACE AND DATE FOR IPCC-43

The Panel noted that IPCC-43 will be held at UNEP Headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, from 11-15 April 2016.

CLOSING OF THE SESSION

In closing, Nicaragua called for compensation to countries facing the consequences of climate change and stressed the role of the IPCC in providing an objective basis for climate financing by determining the historical responsibility for climate change.

IPCC Vice-Chair Van Ypersele thanked the AR5 team and quoted former IPCC Chair Professor Bert Bolin on the IPCC’s responsibilities regarding: independent and open scientific endeavor; viewing impacts in terms of the prevailing lack of equity and social justice in the world; urgency of action; and the need for cooperation.

WGI Co-Chair Stocker thanked Switzerland and the WGI TSU for their support. He welcomed the new leadership and extended his best wishes to Hoesung Lee and the new Bureau in undertaking the sixth assessment cycle. 

An AR5 author from Hungary thanked the entire outgoing Bureau for their leadership.

China congratulated newly elected Bureau members, saying that they are expected to undertake their work in an effective and transparent way.

Incoming IPCC Chair Hoesung Lee said the new Bureau would work as a team, adding that he would do his best to uphold the principles and practices of the IPCC, building on the tremendous accomplishments of AR5. He thanked members of the IPCC for their support.

Acting IPCC Secretary Stewart thanked delegates for the collegial atmosphere and congratulated the new Bureau, expressing hope that those who were not elected to the Bureau would continue their work for the IPCC in other roles.

Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli was universally lauded for his dedication to the IPCC, with many participants, including Mali, Saudi Arabia and the US, in addition to others, noting his personal sacrifice in taking over the role of IPCC Chair in February 2015.

In his closing remarks, Acting IPCC Chair El Gizouli noted the Panel had elected a strong and diverse new Bureau, and said it was a privilege to steer the fifth assessment period to a close. He then received a standing ovation from the Panel for his leadership and dedication to the IPCC and for his able chairing of IPCC-42.

IPCC-42 was gaveled to a close at 6:42 pm. 

A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF IPCC-42

With the completion of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) and the decision made at IPCC-41 to continue its work with a Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), the 42nd session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change convened under the able hand of IPCC Acting Chair Ismail El Gizouli. The session was dominated by the election of the Bureau, which will take the Panel forward through the next assessment cycle. This analysis provides a brief look into the election process and some of the issues ahead for the IPCC.

Among its many particularities, the IPCC undertakes an overhaul of its Bureau with each assessment cycle. A new IPCC Chair, as well as Co-Chairs and Vice-Chairs of the Working Groups (WGs) and Task Force Bureau (TFB), are elected to undertake each comprehensive assessment report and associated products. On this particular occasion, the overhaul happens to coincide with the retirement of IPCC Secretary Renate Christ in July 2015. Thus, even the IPCC Secretary will be new for the sixth assessment cycle.

In what amounts to a very complicated puzzle, positions within the Bureau must be balanced among developed and developing countries and distributed among the WMO regional groups in accordance with an agreed allocation system. As the elections for different positions proceed, some candidates are no longer eligible, even though they have been nominated by their governme­nts, if their region has already received its full allocation of positions. Conversely, if the region’s allocated positions have not already been filled, it must find someone to nominate with the right qualifications and relevant expertise for a specific position there and then. Candidates are elected by a simple majority of the valid votes cast, in secret voting of one member, one vote. In the case a majority is not achieved during initial voting, a run-off takes place between the top two candidates.

It is perhaps indicative of the influence that the Panel has come to yield that the seat for the IPCC Chair was hotly contested. Six candidates with top credentials and experience in the IPCC were nominated and, with the exception of Ogunlade Davidson, whose candidacy was announced very late, all candidates waged extensive campaigns. However, with secret balloting and the large roster of excellent candidates, hazarding a guess as to who might win was not easy, and the fact that there were three European candidates and one US candidate perhaps heralded a potentially split vote among developed countries. The election of Hoesung Lee from the Republic of Korea came as a surprise to many. The enormous amount of support that Lee received from his home country provides evidence of the increasing strength and desire for leadership on the part of some Asian countries in the climate change arena. Less obvious is what factors most explain his success in these elections, where developing countries provided the majority of the votes.

In fact, one of the key issues that the new Chair will have to attend to is the persistent calls for greater inclusion of developing countries in all areas related to the IPCC’s work—from broader and more meaningful participation of scientists from developing countries to improved coverage of information from the developing world, particularly some areas in Africa, in the assessment reports. These calls have only gotten louder as the assessment reports get larger and broader in their scope, and were repeatedly echoed both in the campaign materials distributed in the lead up to and during the meeting and in the candidates’ forum that took place on Tuesday morning on the margins of IPCC-42. But this will require not only mindful leadership from the IPCC, but also greater engagement by the governments of developing countries in bringing their scientists into the process.

The other call that the Panel and its Chair will have to heed is that of improved communications and outreach. The extraordinary complexity of the IPCC is hard for the world at large to understand, and the Panel’s inner workings remain a mystery to most. For example, its elections were held behind closed doors, with a social media and media blackout, and were therefore likened by some to the Vatican electing the Pope, with the world waiting to see white smoke coming out of the chimney, unable to know what is going on inside. Yet, in fact the elections were conducted with the utmost transparency and openness to everyone participating. A better public understanding of the unique structure and procedures of the Panel could enhance its credibility.

Inclusivity and openness is something the new Bureau will also have to contend with. The important questions that the new Bureau will be asked about climate change science will be different from those posed in the AR5, and will require moving beyond questions of attribution to, for example, clarification of the “known unknowns” (what we know that we don’t know and should probably fear) and potential feedback effects. In addition, and as part of its mandate to be policy-relevant, the Panel will also have to address possible solutions in a world where, as noted in the AR5, decarbonization must be undertaken in the near future, but for which a shortage of sufficiently tested technologies exists to ensure such a transition.

This will all require a more interdisciplinary approach than before, and a leadership team that can really work together and reach well beyond the disciplines and networks with which they are most familiar. Many expressed hope that the new Bureau, and the WGs and their Technical Support Units, will rise to the occasion. As some have argued, greater inclusivity, particularly inclusion of a wider variety of approaches in the framing of questions, while possibly making the approval process of the Summary for Policy Makers at the end of the cycle more difficult, could make the report more relevant to a broader audience and range of decision makers. The Panel should also work towards gender balance. Of the 34 members elected to the new IPCC Bureau, eight were women in comparison to five in the previous Bureau of 31 members. In addition, six women were elected to the TFB bringing representation in that body up to 50%, in comparison to four in the previous TFB. Although the Bureau elected at this meeting is an improvement from the previous one in this regard, the Panel, like the scientific world at large, still has a long way to go.

Most importantly, the Bureau, and particularly the IPCC Chair, will have to demonstrate a solid grasp of the science in leading an organization that the world expects to be the most authoritative source on climate change. The new Chair will be able to count on a strong team of Vice-Chairs and WG Co-Chairs, part of a Bureau of 34 members from all regions.

With the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris taking place in less than two months, and the prospect of a new climate change agreement with targets for all countries—targets expected to be inadequate in light of the effort required—tasks for the IPCC will not be hard to find. On the table are various calls for targeted Special Reports, including on oceans, desertification, and linkages between adaptation and mitigation, that the Panel did not have time to address at this meeting but on which it will have to make prompt decisions, possibly as soon as its next session. All hoped that these will provide useful input to the UNFCCC process and result in meaningful action on the ground.

All this will be no small undertaking. In the words of the first IPCC Chair, Bert Bolin, on what is needed, which was recalled during the meeting: a “penetrating examination of the facts,” which is “accepted as trustworthy by the international scientific community” and “viewed in terms of the prevailing lack of equity and social justice in the world.”

UPCOMING MEETINGS

UNFCCC ADP 4: ADP-4 under the UNFCCC will convene to further progress on the negotiating text for a Paris agreement at COP 21.  dates: 19-23 October 2015  location: Bonn, Germany  contact: UNFCCC Secretariat  phone: +49-228-815-1000  fax: +49-228-815-1999  email: secretariat@unfccc.int www: http://www.unfccc.int

Fifth Conference on Climate Change and Development in Africa (CCDA–V): The Climate Change and Development in Africa (CCDA) conference series was conceived as an annual forum to enable linkages between climate science and development policy by promoting transparent discussions between key stakeholders in the climate and development communities.  location: Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe  contact: African Climate Policy Centre  phone: +251-11-551-7200  fax: +251-11-551-0350  email: info@climdev-africa.org www: http://www.climdev-africa.org/ccda5

G20 2015 Leaders’ Summit: The Turkish Presidency of the Group of 20 (G20) will host G20 leaders for the G20 Leaders’ Summit. The G20 aims to conclude the Summit with practical outcomes on such priority areas as development, climate change, financing for climate change, trade, growth and employment.  dates: 15-16 November 2015  location: Antalya, Turkey  contact: Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs  email: G20info@mfa.gov.tr www: https://g20.org/

TGICA 23: The next TGICA meeting will take place in Cape Town.  dates: 26-28 October 2015  location: Cape Town, South Africa  contact: IPCC Secretariat  phone: +41-22-730-8208/54/84  fax: +41-22-730-8025/13  email: IPCC-Sec@wmo.int www: http://www.ipcc.ch

NGGIP SESSIONS: The 27th session of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme (NGGIP), the 13th NGGIP Editorial Board Meeting for the IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB), and the 11th and 12th NGGIP Expert Meetings on Data for the IPCC EFDB will take place in late November.  dates: 16-20 November 2015  location: Hayama, Japan  contact: IPCC Secretariat  phone: +41-22-730-8208/54/84  fax: +41-22-730-8025/13  email: IPCC-Sec@wmo.int www: http://www.ipcc.ch

UNFCCC COP 21: COP 21 and associated meetings will take place in Paris.  dates: 30 November – 11 December 2015  location: Paris, France  contact: UNFCCC Secretariat  phone: +49-228-815-1000  fax: +49-228-815-1999  email: secretariat@unfccc.int www: http://www.unfccc.int

CCAC High Level Assembly: The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) High-Level Assembly will gather CCAC ministers and Heads of partner organizations to evaluate the CCAC’s progress, provide input on the direction of the CCAC’s future work and learn about the latest policy and scientific developments related to short-lived climate pollutants.  date: 8 December 2015  location: Paris, France  contact: CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-50  fax: +33-1-44- 37-14-74  email: ccac_secretariat@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/  

IPCC-43: The 43rd session of the IPCC will be held in Nairobi, Kenya.  dates: 11-15 April 2015  location: Nairobi, Kenya  contact: IPCC Secretariat  phone: +41-22-730-8208/54/84  fax: +41-22-730-8025/13  email: IPCC-Sec@wmo.int www: http://www.ipcc.ch

For additional meetings, see http://climate-l.iisd.org/