Dr. Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, urged delegates to remember the lessons of Berlin, noting that never again must "walls of enmity" be erected between peoples, nations and States. He stated that the Rio Conference provided a clear signal of hope, but the recent recession shows that sustainable development does not sufficiently determine the actions of States. He stressed three central issues: industrialized country responsibility to limit CO2 emissions permanently beyond the year 2000; a negotiation mandate from this Conference for a noticeable reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions after 2000; and agreement on joint implementation to facilitate the transfer of know-how and technology.
PHILIPPINES: Angel C. Alcala, Secretary of the Environment and Natural Resources, on behalf of the G-77 and China, said that only Annex I Parties have obligations to limit emissions. JI should only apply to Annex I Parties and there should be no credits during the pilot phase. On behalf of the Philippines, he urged delegates to adopt the "Green Paper."
FRANCE: Michel Barnier, Minister of the Environment, on behalf of the EU, said it is essential to complete negotiations by 1997 of a protocol to reduce GHG emissions beyond 2000. He stressed the importance of the financial mechanism. He said that France"s national programme will be able to reduce GHG emissions to the 1990 level by 2000.
NORWAY: Minister of the Environment Torbjoern Berntsen said the COP"s primary task is to launch a negotiation process to strengthen the Convention. OECD countries could establish a system where reductions could be divided with equitable burden sharing to allow agreement on more substantial commitments.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY: Mrs. R. Bjerregaard, Commissioner for the Environment, cited a European Commission working paper showing cost-effective reduction potential. She said political will, rather than technical or economic constraints, is preventing us from reaching our goal. She called for a commitment to specific and binding targets in the short term.
ALGERIA: Noureddine Kasdalli, Minister in Charge of Local Administration, Administrative Reform and the Environment, said implementation cannot obscure the right to development, common but differentiated responsibilities or sovereignty of developing countries over their resources.
THE NETHERLANDS: Margaretha de Boer, Minister of the Environment, on behalf of some of the OECD States, described the new OECD/IEA climate technology initiative. On behalf of the Netherlands, she called on governments to "act decisively and act now." The Netherlands will reduce CO2 emissions by 3-5% below 1990 levels by 2000. She announced the contribution of 200,000 Guilders for the organization of the January 1996 workshop on non-governmental inputs.
POLAND: Stanislaw Zelichowski, Minister of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry, said Poland will meet its current commitments under the Convention. The global balance of the climate system worldwide cannot be maintained without the active involvement of the world community. Commitments beyond 2000 are necessary.
RUSSIAN FEDERATION: Danilow Daniljan, Minister of the Environment and Natural Resources, said that a change in the system of values, social structures and interaction between countries is necessary to repair the environment. There is an urgent need to acknowledge the countries with economies in transition whose reduction of GHG emissions is considerable.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Amb. Peter Tsiamlili said developed countries must take the lead, and that it is urgent to adopt the AOSIS protocol. Failure of any programme amounts to existence versus extinction for the small island States.
DENMARK: Svend Auken, Minister for Environment and Energy, said that it is possible to stabilize and then reduce emissions without lowering the standard of living. Denmark sees a 20% reduction by 2005 as a necessary and feasible target and endorsed the AOSIS protocol.
VENEZUELA: Minister of Energy and Mines Erwin Arrieta said progress should be carried out with minimal social and economic consequences, especially for developing countries. Venezuela has supported a step-by-step approach to evaluate each step, not to delay adoption of appropriate measures.
GERMANY: Erhard Jauck, State Secretary, called upon the other Annex I Parties to commit themselves to stabilizing CO2 emissions, and cited Germany"s goal of halving emission of GHGs, expressed in CO2 equivalents, by 2005. He listed the elements necessary for a protocol and stressed the need for creating incentives for co- operation.
ARGENTINA: Maria Julia Alsogaray, Minister for the Environment, stated that all countries should design their policies with efficiency in mind. She reiterated support for a joint implementation pilot phase.
AUSTRALIA: John Faulkner, Minister for the Environment, Sport and Territories, called for a protocol mandate before leaving Berlin. He acknowledged that Australia had not met the Convention"s target. But he noted that growth in its emission levels has slowed by 50% and promised to do more.
JAPAN: Sohei Miyashita, Director General of the Environment Agency and Minister in Charge of Global Environment, said developed countries must reduce emissions, create sinks and develop a global framework of cooperation that includes developing countries. Delegates should agree to the next step toward new aims or targets in a protocol with the SBI initiating negotiations to be completed by COP-3.
SWITZERLAND: Minister of the Interior Ruth Dreifuss said Annex I countries should redouble their efforts to reduce GHG emissions after 2000 to well below 1990 levels through a protocol whose negotiations should begin this summer and conclude by 1997. She urged OECD countries and those about to join OECD to adopt the same goal as Annex I countries.
INDONESIA: Sarwano Kusumaatmadja, Minister for the Environment, said commitments should be further strengthened for developed country Parties with preparation of elements for a protocol that reflects a global perspective, not perspectives of certain Parties. Joint activities between developed and developing country Parties should be on a bilateral basis with no credits.
SENEGAL: Mbaye Ndoye, Deputy Minister of the Environment and Nature Protection, appealed to Annex I Parties to put into effect the commitments they have undertaken, and added that the success of the Convention is subject to the will of those who have the means. He stated that developing countries should have no new commitments, and supported JI.
UNITED KINGDOM: John Gummer, Secretary of State for the Environment, said it is now time to examine the impact of high levels of subsidies and public ownership of utilities on climate change. He added that the UK is a "small island State" and vulnerable to sea level rise.
UNITED STATES: Timothy Wirth, Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, said the US is commited to reducing emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The objective at this Conference should be a mandate to negotiate an agreement by 1997.
NEW ZEALAND: Simon Upton, Minister for the Environment, called for a protocol containing commitments beyond the year 2000. He noted that New Zealand"s emissions will be 50% below 1990 levels in 2000. A global economy demands global solutions, perhaps through economic initiatives such as tradeable emissions permits.
MAURITANIA: Matre S"Ghair Ould M"bareck, Minister of Rural Development and the Environment, noted that Mauritania suffers from desertification, which is one of the effects of climate variations. Efforts are now underway to develop a more comprehensive national environmental strategy, but financial assistance is needed.
MYANMAR: Amb. Win Aung said that the financial mechanism should assist developing countries to implement commitments under Article 4.1. Myanmar will communicate to the Secretariat its inventory of emissions and sinks for all GHGs not covered by the Montreal Protocol.
CANADA: Sheila Copps, Minister for the Environment, noted Canada"s recent promise to cut emissions by 20% of 1990 levels by 2005. She proposed "technological twinning" between developed and developing countries.
MALAYSIA: Amb. Renji Sathiah voiced disappointment with some developed countries" unwillingness to set specific reduction targets. He noted that AOSIS countries have twice taken the lead in setting targets, and that developed countries have not provided access to funding or technology transfer. He deplored developed country attempts to shift responsibilities to developing countries.
MEXICO: Carlos Gay-Garcia, Coordinator, National Institute of Ecology, noted that the cause of climate change has been identified, and nations must take precautions. While actions cannot run counter to development, Mexico will take the necessary measures.
BRAZIL: Dr. Jos Israel Vargas, Minister of Science and Technology, called for an appropriate negotiating body to ensure credible and realistic commitments in a flexible manner. All GHGs should be considered, as should the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
LUXEMBOURG: Johny Lahure, Minister for the Environment, said that commitments must be "concretized" by a protocol that contains limitations, reductions and a binding calendar. Luxembourg will achieve a 33% reduction of CO2 emissions by 2000.
SPAIN: Jos Borrell Fontelles, Minister for Public Works, Transport and the Environment, said Spain is curtailing CO2 emissions as part of its national climate programme. He stressed the need for technology transfer to developing countries to avoid repetition of unsustainable growth models.
MAURITIUS: Bashir Khodabux, Minister of the Environment and Quality of Life, stated that the Convention"s success depends on technology transfer, financial mechanisms and international cooperation. It should not suppress the right to development. He noted that the responsibility of the industrialized nations is inescapable, and spoke against shifting the burden to developing countries.
BURKINA FASO: Anatole Tiendrebeogo, Minister of the Environment and Tourism, expressed faith in international solidarity and described his country"s efforts on climate change.
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