The Chair, Amb. Richell (The Netherlands), announced that he wanted to finish the first reading of CRP.2 before adjourning for the night. By 8:00 pm, the Committee had completed the first four chapters and had commenced discussion of Chapter V. Since the G-77 and the EU had not yet developed group positions, further discussion of Chapter V was postponed until Thursday.
At the end of the day, the Chair identified the substantive issues that require further discussion: migration; debt reduction; the costs of structural adjustment programmes; the target of 0.7% GNP for ODA; and definitions of social security, informal work, human security, and sustainable social development. Delegates added definitions of: the role of the family in providing social protection; the various forms of poverty; and productive employment.
II. REDUCTION AND ELIMINATION OF WIDESPREAD POVERTY
C. ACCESS TO PUBLIC SERVICES: In the paragraphs on education (51 & 52), proposals called for reference to: the role of teachers (El Salvador); education for the disabled (Sierra Leone); reduction, rather than elimination, of school fees (Uruguay); and the role of the community in establishing public services (Venezuela). In 59 (transportation, communication and energy services), there were calls for free legal assistance (the G-77) and credit opportunities for the poor (Malawi). In 60 (public spending), the EU and Finland proposed listing services, such as electricity, which are not publicly funded. In 61 (community development), delegates called for: efficiency and prioritization in public services (US); reallocation of military spending (Canada); and improvement in housing and human settlements (Finland). Senegal called for immediate action to promote good health. Malta, the Holy See and others objected to the reference to sexual and reproductive health. New paragraphs were recommended on maternal mortality (EU) and health and sanitation problems (Guinea).
D. REDUCING VULNERABILITY: In 62 (poverty prevention), proposals included references to environmental protection and poverty reduction (EU) and strengthening local governments (Guatemala). In 63 (food security), amendments included: food as a human right (the G-77); the effect of war on food security (Switzerland); special reference to Africa (Ethiopia); and the link between population growth and food security (Antigua and Barbuda). Further proposals included references to: the disabled (Belarus); the UN role in coordinating emergency responses (Austria); non-stigmatizing food delivery methods (Canada); preventing the sale of food aid (Burkina Faso); and an international volunteer corps to respond to emergencies (Argentina).
E. ENHANCING SOCIAL PROTECTION: Finland and Sweden proposed restoring L.13's references to social insurance. In 71 (families as providers of social protection), Romania, the EU and Canada suggested a role for government. Malaysia, Sudan, and the Holy See emphasized the role of the family. El Salvador recommended competition between health providers. In 75 (protection of children), proposals included reference to international drug trafficking (EU, Cte d'Ivoire and the G-77) and the role of NGOs in social protection (Switzerland).
III. PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND THE REDUCTION OF UNEMPLOYMENT
A. RETHINKING POLICY: In the introduction (76), delegates called for reference to: underemployment in developing countries (EU); full employment (India); and sustainable livelihoods with equitable remuneration (Canada). In 78 (unemployment), proposals included reference to: labor-intensive and environmentally-sound technology (India); savings and investment (El Salvador); and labor-market information systems (Indonesia).
B. STIMULATING EMPLOYMENT-INTENSIVE GROWTH: In 84 (impediments to international economic growth), India called for trade liberalization to include safeguards for developing countries. In 86 (labour-intensive technologies), the EU deleted the reference to facilitating technical adaptation for developing countries. The G-77 called for technology transfer on preferential terms. In 87 (women's access to technology), the G-77 said that the use of technology should facilitate the transformation of women's roles. In 89 (research and development), El Salvador called for clean technology.
C. CREATING EMPLOYMENT THROUGH ENTERPRISES: In 92 (working conditions in small enterprises), Canada called for special assistance to women and the poor. In 93 (equality of opportunity), Canada stressed the role of women in paid and unpaid activities. In 94 (informal-sector enterprises), the EU emphasized elimination of discrimination in granting credit to women and minorities. Austria insisted that informal-sector enterprises can be construed as "black labour."
D. REVIEWING SECTORAL PRIORITIES: In 100 (export expansion), the G-77 called for the removal of all protectionist barriers.
E. REDEFINING THE NATURE OF WORK AND EMPLOYMENT: Sweden and others objected to the underlying paternalistic tone of paragraph 103 (the concept of work).
F. FOCUSING ON SPECIFIC NEEDS: In 105 (introduction), Germany and Japan proposed adding the disabled to the other sectors that have special needs. The EU and Belize felt that 106 (alleviation of youth unemployment) was incomplete. The G-77 added reference to the role of NGOs in providing youth employment training in 107. In 108 (long-term unemployment), India called for reference to employment security instead of social security. In 112 (roles of women), proposals included reference to: equal responsibilities between men and women (Japan); the underlying forces that create the needs of women (Sweden); and professional training for women (Mali). Colombia proposed a new paragraph on providing long-term work, labour opportunities and special facilities for workers.
G. ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT: Canada added reference in 115 (basic rights of workers) to the protection of indigenous livelihoods and emphasized in 116 (working children) the rights of street children.
IV. SOCIAL INTEGRATION
The EU and G-77 had not yet prepared their amendments to this chapter. However, the EU did call for a new Section C bis, "Promoting employment through active labour market policies, including education and training."
A. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: RESPECT FOR DIVERSITY BASED ON SHARED VALUES: Switzerland and Canada called attention to the needs of marginalized groups. Slovenia emphasized ethical principals in the formulation of social policies. Iran emphasized the role of spirituality and moral values. Norway underscored the resort to violence and physical force in conflict resolution. Peru called for the social integration of indigenous communities.
B. ENDING DISCRIMINATION IN ALL ITS FORMS AND PROMOTING EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY: Norway and Zimbabwe called for reference to the disabled. Canada stated that economic, social and cultural rights must be implemented.
C. EDUCATION AS AN INTEGRATING FORCE: India, Morocco, the Philippines, Slovenia and Canada recommended a new paragraph on human rights education. Pakistan proposed reference to children who are vulnerable to drug abuse and trafficking. In 137 (education for girls), India emphasized empowerment through education. Mali and Benin noted the absence of reference to informal education. Bangladesh called for incentives, such as tuition exemptions and scholarships for girls.
D. EQUAL ACCESS TO THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE STATE: In 141 (maintaining social cohesion), Antigua and Barbuda called for a reference to reproductive health.
E. RESPONDING WITH SPECIAL MEASURES TO SPECIAL SOCIAL NEEDS: The Holy See added a new paragraph on the re-integration of criminal offenders. Japan said that affirmative action may lead to reverse discrimination. Norway proposed a new paragraph on drug abuse. Canada and New Zealand called for increased recognition of indigenous people. In 143 (opportunities for the socially excluded), Sudan added the elderly among targeted groups with disabilities.
F. A SHARED CONCERN: FAIR TREATMENT OUTSIDE ONE'S COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Mexico emphasized protecting migrants' human rights. Guinea and Belize called on the international community to assist refugee host nations. Pakistan recommended action to prevent the creation of immigrants and refugees.
G. BRINGING GOVERNMENT CLOSER TO THE PEOPLE: Indonesia called for greater emphasis on decentralization and community empowerment.
H. CREATING SPACE FOR CIVIL SOCIETY: The Holy See highlighted the role of cultural and religious associations in facilitating interaction between the individual, communities and Governments.
V. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND FOLLOW-UP
In Section D (Role of the UN and the UN system), Austria called for reference to the ongoing process of UN reform, and policy dialogues on social development between the UN and the Bretton Woods institutions. Regarding follow-up, she noted the need for: effective regional initiatives; themes and timetables; clear policy recommendations by the Secretary-General for monitoring; country strategies; and clear priorities and procedures for the Commission on Social Development. The US stated that national expenditures and international institutions should be targeted to meet basic human needs. Mexico called for a clear indication of goals. Switzerland underscored national responsibility for implementing the Programme of Action.
NGO STATEMENTS: The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions noted the role of trade unions in defining and realizing social progress. The Asia Pacific Caucus called for a clear definition of social development. The American Association of Retired Persons thanked the Secretariat for incorporating reference to the contributions of older people in society. The International Council on Social Welfare called for a summary of the specific implementation provisions.
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