CHAPTER I. AN ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
PARAGRAPH 6 (globalization): Indonesia suggested incorporating actions into this paragraph. The G-77 called for reference to African countries and LDCs in meeting the challenge of globalization.
PARAGRAPH 7 (technology): Brazil and the EU proposed language on the natural environment. Morocco and the EU emphasized access to training.
PARAGRAPH 8 (migration): Canada called for increased recognition of human rights as a way to reduce migration. The G-77, Croatia, Kuwait and others noted that socio-economic conditions in developing countries are not the only cause of migration. The EU, Morocco, Croatia and Switzerland called for recognition of the right to leave and to return to one's country.
PARAGRAPH 9 (problems requiring a global response): The G-77, the EU and the Holy See supported adding terrorism to the list. Regarding the reference to trafficking in females and children, the G-77 recommended the term "women," and the EU preferred "persons." The Holy See called for reference to trafficking in human body parts. Guatemala emphasized trafficking in armaments as well as drugs.
PARAGRAPH 10 (international cooperation): Canada and others emphasized more goal-oriented language to provide a clear rationale for sustainable human development.
PARAGRAPH 11 (introduction): Ecuador and Uruguay called for the elimination of trade barriers. Norway noted that not all economic policies are conducive to social development.
PARAGRAPH 12 (national policies): Canada called for the implemention of the four human rights treaties.The G-77 called for popular participation in policy implementation and for removal of global trade inequities.
PARAGRAPH 13 (trade liberalization): Japan called for a reference to GATT and regional trade agreements and for removal of reference to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The EU proposed wording to reflect the role of the WTO and UNCTAD. The G-77 didn't share the EU's emphasis on UNCTAD and WTO.
PARAGRAPH 14 (international assistance): The G-77 deleted reference to assisting developing countries in reshaping policies. The EU emphasized continued development assistance.
PARAGRAPH 15 (external debt): The EU said debt relief is important for the poorest countries. The G-77 called for retaining a variety of solutions to debt problems. Japan called for debt reduction rather than cancellation.
PARAGRAPH 16 (structural adjustment): Poland called for macro-economic stability, in combination with mechanisms to aid the poor. Sudan and Norway commented on the need to mitigate the adverse social implications of structural adjustment programmes. Norway also noted the importance of investment in human resources.
PARAGRAPH 17 (social dimensions of structural adjustment): The G-77 underscored the poor's inability to enter the market and the temporary nature of social safety nets.
PARAGRAPH 18 (situation in Africa): The G-77 objected to the EU's call for improved flows of official and private resources rather than increased flow of development assistance. Japan's proposal to delete the reference to debt reduction was opposed.
PARAGRAPH 19 (development assistance): The EU and the US proposed a reference to the private sector as the primary source of financial resources.
PARAGRAPH 20 (private investment): The EU, the G-77 and Canada agreed that social stability affects private investment levels. Tanzania recommended that governments provide adequate and efficient infrastructures.
PARAGRAPH 21 (introduction): The EU and Finland proposed revised text to better convey the relationship between the State and social development.
PARAGRAPH 22 (social role of Government and diversity): The EU and the G-77 called for governments to promote human rights. Sweden suggested reviving the original L.13 language on human security. The G-77 proposed a reference to the adverse socio-economic effects of denying self-determination.
PARAGRAPH 23 (gender equality): The EU called for empowering women to exercise their human rights. Cte d'Ivoire urged governments to ratify the "Convention on all Forms of Discrimination Against Women." The US noted the burden of poverty, unemployment and violence on women.
PARAGRAPH 24 (education and communication): The EU emphasized the importance of a free press. India called for recognition of state-controlled media in education.
PARAGRAPH 25 (limitations of market mechanisms): Mexico underscored the need to balance unequal market forces.
PARAGRAPH 26 (right to freedom of association): The EU called for a broader reference to include "institutions, NGOs and all other forms of association."
PARAGRAPH 27 (military expenditures): The Holy See called for a reduction and redirection of military expenditures. India called for reference to national security requirements.
PARAGRAPH 28 (conditions for human security): Sweden called for democratic, accountable, transparent and participatory institutions as pre-conditions to human security. The US noted the availability of conflict resolution mechanisms.
CHAPTER II -- REDUCTION AND ELIMINATION OF WIDESPREAD POVERTY
PARAGRAPH 29 (global approach): Sweden referred to poverty in all countries and all forms. The G-77 called for the eradication of poverty. The EU suggested that poverty reduction mechanisms take into account the different causes of poverty.
PARAGRAPH 30 (responsibility for poverty elimination): Finland noted that efforts to reduce poverty are an investment in human capital.
PARAGRAPH 31 (national programmes): Brazil cautioned against unrealistic targets and imprecise concepts. India recommended national-level monitoring. Pakistan called for financial and institutional commitments. The Holy See noted the ambiguity of targets in family planning. Finland suggested a call for universal access to basic social services.
PARAGRAPH 32 (necessity for economic growth and development): The EU stated that slow growth should not prevent addressing the causes and manifestations of poverty.
PARAGRAPH 33 (population growth): The EU noted the need for precise figures. He also referred to the role of men.
PARAGRAPH 34 (poverty in low-income countries): The G-77 stated that Africa should be addressed in a new paragraph.
PARAGRAPH 35 (various types of poverty): The US called for the reversal of macro-economic and investment policies that discriminate against rural areas.
PARAGRAPH 36 (women): The EU proposed language on violence against women and the full participation of women and girls in decision-making. He also emphasized the role of women as producers, as carers of families and as managers of community resources. The G-77 called for reference to the "feminization of poverty." Canada proposed equal access to economic opportunities and work at a "living wage." The Holy See called for the elimination of female infanticide and selective abortion.
PARAGRAPH 37 (children): The EU proposed a new opening sentence: "the single major cause of poverty is the misfortune of being born into poverty."
PARAGRAPH 38 (youth): Mexico and Ecuador called for a new paragraph on indigenous groups. Uruguay proposed a more integrated approach to youth programmes.
PARAGRAPH 39 (people in poverty): The EU encouraged the participation of poor people in solving their problems.
PARAGRAPH 40 (monitoring): Brazil expressed concern regarding the EU's reference to monitoring. India cautioned against relying on human development indicators to monitor the situation.
PARAGRAPH 42 (productive opportunities): Finland emphasized the rural poor's need for sustainable livelihoods.
PARAGRAPH 43 (actions to assist the rural poor): The G-77 called on international financial agencies to provide resources to meet credit needs. Tanzania urged against too much focus on agricultural livelihoods for the rural poor.
PARAGRAPH 44 (NGOs and land reform): The G-77 clarified that only those NGOs interested in the field of land reform should participate.
PARAGRAPH 45 (rural cooperatives): The EU and Pakistan proposed language to broaden the paragraph beyond rural cooperatives. The G-77 emphasized that rural cooperatives typically operate at the local level.
PARAGRAPH 46 (agriculture): The EU added language on the development of effective marketing systems for small farmers.
PARAGRAPH 47 (availability of credit): Proposals included adding reference to: creation of self-sustaining financial networks (EU); private enterprises (Indonesia); fishery workers (Canada and Ecuador); informal banking services (Guatemala); and the development of non-agricultural products in rural areas (Iran).
PARAGRAPH 48 (urban areas): Delegates disagreed on the use of the term "informal sector." The EU added reference to cooperatives and other organizations in the informal sector. Pakistan and Canada said education and training programmes are important for rural areas.
PARAGRAPH 49 (affordable housing): Many thought this paragraph should be relocated. The EU added reference to homeless people. Canada noted rural housing is also a problem.
NGO STATEMENTS: The African Caucus noted the problem of social disintegration in Africa and called for the Programme of Action to recognize this situation. The Rights of the Child Caucus called for: more explicit interventions aimed at communities with large numbers of working children; greater participation of children and youth; and specific resources and timetables to meet the goal of universal education. The South Asian Caucus identified specific gaps: lack of protection for the vulnerable under structural adjustment programmes; the concept of people-centered development; and gender equity. The Youth Caucus stated that the draft Programme of Action lacks vision and called for delegates to recognize the potential of people.
[Return to start of article]