Although the revised draft Programme of Action does not reflect the 30% reduction in length that the Secretariat intended, the 195-paragraph text is stronger and more concise than L.13. The Working Paper is drawn from the original text, with modifications proposed during last week's debate as well as specific written submissions by the G-77 and China, the European Union, the Women's Caucus and others.
I. AN ENABLING ENVIRONMENT: This chapter now states that the necessary multi-sectoral response requires coordinated, international cooperation. It calls for a favorable national, in addition to international, economic environment. The text adds actions required at the national level and calls on international agencies to assist developing countries to adjust their policies. Some of the additions include: the need for integrating the social dimension into the design of structural adjustment programmes; recognition of the special situation in Africa; and a call for universal access to education. The original text's focus on democracy and human rights in relation to human security is broadened to include issues of human welfare. The reference to cooperatives and trade unions also notes the need to assure the right to freedom of association.
The following calls for action were deleted: gender-based analyses of all institutions, policies and practices; the UN's role in promoting international peace and identifying potential conflicts; the establishment of international mechanisms to support the interests of the weakest nations; and the use of social impact assessments.
II. REDUCTION AND ELIMINATION OF WIDESPREAD POVERTY: This chapter contains a clearer description of the problem and states that all governments must commit themselves to eradicating extreme forms of poverty and to reducing absolute poverty by one half or more by a specific target date, which is to be determined by each country. There is also new language on: recognition of the right of poor people to development; the effects of population and demographic factors on poverty; the promotion of economic growth in low income developing countries; recognition of the different forms and factors underlying poverty; and enhancement of the economic and cultural opportunities for poor youth. Most of the language deleted from L.13 was descriptive. Some of the more substantive deletions include: reference to the need for particular focus on education for the girl-child; reference to implementing commitments in the Programme of Action adopted by the International Conference on Population and Development; organized programmes and community facilities for poor youth; and certain references to social assistance programmes.
III. PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND THE REDUCTION OF UNEMPLOYMENT: New language in this chapter includes: the need to include population and demographic factors in the formulation of unemployment policies; the removal of structural impediments affecting international employment growth and employment creation; the call for international cooperation to supplement national policies in fostering and supporting enterprise creation; the alleviation of youth unemployment; the need for quality education for young people; the provision of employment, training and education for the disabled; and a reference to occupational health.
The text in L.13 that was deleted was primarily descriptive in nature and did not prescribe any concrete action on the part of governments, the international community or NGOs.
IV. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: There is stronger wording on the rights of both individuals and groups, as well as the responsibilities of national governments and international institutions in promoting social diversity. One paragraph proposes measures in the public, civic and market spheres to promote social diversity, stability and welfare.
There are a number of notable additions, including: reference to violence against women and youth; the importance of the mass media in promoting harmonious co-existence among social groups; the link between employment and social policies; and the need for social policy to contribute to community life and to integrate those who are not "economically active."
The section dealing with special social needs has been entirely revised and revitalized based largely on the contributions made during last week's debate. However, the section addressing foreigners, refugees and migrants remains in its original form.
V. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND FOLLOW-UP: One of the most significant additions to this chapter is based on the G-77 text, which refers to: the importance of the social dimensions of structural adjustment programmes; the need for innovative financing mechanisms; a strengthened role for the World Bank; and the importance of financial assistance commitments for Agenda 21, poverty alleviation and job creation programmes. Other notable additions include reference to: the important role of the private sector; the need for endogenous capacity building and broader, more integrated strategies for human resources development; cooperation at all levels in addressing transboundary socio-economic problems; the need for indicators to evaluate progress; a strengthened role for the UN in social development; the importance of coordination between the UN System and the Bretton Woods institutions; and the participation of all actors in the field of social development.
Significant deletions include reference to: the use of alternative dispute resolution procedures; the overall monitoring of national-level strategies; consultative mechanisms in developing countries; the Youth Voluntary Service to the Community; and the relationship between financial resources for the achievement of the Summit's objectives and for overall development.
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