Somav�a urged delegates to make concrete commitments. He then turned to Agenda Item IV and suggested that delegates address their comments to Chapter I (An enabling environment) in the draft Programme of Action (A/CONF.166/PC/L.13).
Germany, on behalf of the European Union, called for the second draft to be shorter and more specific. In Section A, the EU noted the challenge of stressing the positive aspects of globalization while recognizing that its process can marginalize some groups. The EU also suggested that new international mechanisms are not the suitable way to support disadvantaged countries, as suggested in paragraph 25.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau of the Cousteau Society urged delegates to articulate concrete goals despite the ambitious agenda of social development. He emphasized: the centrality of poverty alleviation; the integration of the outcomes of Rio with those anticipated in Cairo and Copenhagen; and the reduction of consumption. The International Council on Social Welfare (ICSW) proposed five priorities for international action: universal ratification, monitoring and enforcement of all human rights agreements by the year 2000; strengthening ECOSOC; reducing the volume and volatility of speculation in financial and property markets; increasing financial assistance to developing countries; and convening a second Social Summit by the year 2000.
Algeria, on behalf of the G-77, stated that proposals can be implemented at the national level only if the international community creates the necessary conditions for reform. The G-77 warned against excessive reliance on market forces to solve social problems. India suggested that the goal in paragraph 13 should be nothing less that eradication of poverty and suggested defining human security in terms of the poor, and rooting this definition in sustainable guarantees. Mexico emphasized the need for a more synthesized and significant report.
Slovenia called for quantifiable indicators in the monitoring of the WSSD. Referring to paragraph 18, he echoed the EU's call for a social component in structural adjustment programmes. He also called for the enhancement of human rights. Zimbabwe called for an enabling international economic environment to include: favorable monetary policies; debt reduction schemes; trade liberalization and compensatory measures for trade barriers against developing country exports; and national initiatives commensurate with international support. The Sudan suggested that the role of the international community as well as that of individual States should be emphasized.
Peru called for the need to evaluate social costs in connection with structural adjustment programmes. Sweden, on behalf of the Nordic countries, noted that the environment is insufficiently mentioned in the text. The Nordic countries maintained that debt relief should be a priority for the poorest nations, on a case-by-case basis. The United States said that sustainable development, democracy and open markets are key to the promotion of social development and called for safe sanitation, basic literacy, universal access to primary health care and safe family planning.
Chile called for more equitable macro-economic policies and for greater recognition of the interdependence of economic growth and social development. Pakistan suggested that the Preamble should refer to the globalization of social problems and to worldwide social disparities. Croatia suggested that the roots of the problem of displaced refugees must be addressed in the final document, with emphasis on the rights of those forcefully displaced persons to return to their homelands.
The Russian Federation noted the lack of clarity in the document and called for increased reference to countries with economies in transition. Iran referred to the need to invest in human capital. Indonesia suggested that in paragraphs 27 and 28, human security should comprise structural (i.e., economic) and non-structural (i.e., spiritual) aspects, and suggested expanding the latter. Australia suggested four additions to the Programme of Action: clear goals for poverty reduction, availability of work, and human solidarity; reliable UN financial resources and development funding; immediate implementation of ECOSOC's full powers; and full implementation of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The Holy See stressed the need to redefine the traditional concept of security in human, rather than in military, terms. Brazil noted concern with the reference to reduced patterns of consumption and production in paragraph 14. Brazil questioned the inclusion of quantifiable goals, such as 0.7% of GNP for ODA, since such targets have not been met in the past. Jamaica called for appropriate provisions for the social needs of all members of society, especially vulnerable groups. She also noted the importance of women's participation in policy making.
Nigeria said that emphasis should be placed on those conditions that prevent productive employment. Japan suggested the deletion of the numerical targets and reference to the role of the tax system in Chapter I. Kenya called for structural adjustment programmes to promote the goals of social development. The Philippines supported the recommendations of the Experts' Group on the importance of quantifiable targets for the three core issues. Switzerland called for the benefits of globalization to be made accessible to everyone.
NOVIB said that unless the Summit addresses the causes of poverty, unemployment and social disintegration, it will fail to meet expectations. The American Association of Retired Persons noted the importance of the contribution of older people in the social development process. The Business Association for the World Social Summit called for increased cooperation between the public, private and NGO sectors in the area of training. DAWN noted that the themes of the Summit must be addressed alongside a fundamental shift in the current economic growth model. The World Confederation of Labour said that poverty will continue to rise unless social justice issues are addressed. He called for stronger reference to literacy and respect for basic international labour standards.
The IMF noted that while debt reduction must be pursued, the overall economic impact of debt relief is minimal. He called for more human-focused structural adjustment programmes. Uganda noted that the socially marginalized are found mostly in Africa. Korea noted the need for a more integrated approach in addressing the core issues. Cuba expressed its opposition to trade embargoes. Zambia said that an enabling environment in Africa would include favorable terms of trade to allow Africa to expand its economic capacities. Latvia called for specific indicators based on solid research and reference to timeframes in the text.
China called for wider citizen participation. Canada called for: a systemic approach to development; peoples' empowerment; and enabling environments at the local, national, regional and international levels. Malaysia emphasized the debt problem and unfair terms of trade. Uruguay called for a definition of human security to include factors relating to basic human needs. New Zealand emphasized the need for transparency, accountability and participation at all levels of government. Poland stressed the responsibilities of national governments for policy implementation and the need to address countries with economies in transition. Bangladesh said that debt relief and enhanced market access for developing countries are crucial to the goals of social and economic development. The World Health Organization noted the importance of disease control and health-related social problems, especially those associated with special social groups.
FIAPA noted the importance of integrating the elderly into social life, and called on the WSSD to promote awareness about the value of the elderly in society. Disabled Peoples International requested an enabling environment through the removal of all barriers to their participation in society. They also called for the prevention of disabilities brought about by war and environmental degradation. The International Federation of Social Workers noted that the basic principles of social work include: universal respect of human rights; cooperation between all actors in social development; and equal gender opportunities.
The Peoples Alliance for Social Development called for: greater local-level involvement in economic decisions; greater accountability of multinational actors to civil society; and the eradication of poverty through universal employment. The Third World Network suggested increased accountability of the Bretton Woods institutions as well as the World Trade Organization. A multilateral process should be developed to monitor transnational activities. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement suggested that people and environment should be put first in all development efforts, and that governments should encourage equal opportunities for men and women.
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