III. INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POPULATION, SUSTAINED ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
A. Integrating population and development strategies:
In 3.1 (influence of demographic parameters), delegates accepted the Swiss, Norwegian and Secretariat references to the demographic parameters such as density, structure, growth and the nature and rate of migration. In 3.2 (population size increases), delegates agreed to Honduras' reference to improvement in health as one of the factors contributing to population increases. In 3.3 (sustainable production and consumption), delegates agreed to the US reference to "optimizing ecologically sound resource use" and to Uganda's reference to the achievement of an improved quality of life for the population in the last sentence.
In 3.6 (strategy assessment), Colombia requested brackets around "environment" in the reference to development and environment programmes, arguing that these programmes are subsumed under "sustainable development." The US objected, and bracketed other aspects of sustainable development that were specifically mentioned. Colombia agreed to an unbracketed "environment," subject to further revision. Delegates agreed to India's reference to "and patterns of consumption and production consistent with sustainable development." 3.7 (governments mechanisms to address population) was accepted with the additional reference to governmental responsibility to create an "enabling environment" at all levels of society. In 3.8 (education and information programmes), Indonesia suggested adding "increased resource allocation" to the methods through which political commitment is to be strengthened. The G-77 suggested changing "building local capacity" to "national and local" capacity. Colombia said that 3.8 bis (balance between population and natural resources) should be more action- oriented. In response, the US and Pakistan added a reference to efforts to reduce population growth rates and current patterns of production and consumption. Delegates agreed to the EU proposal to use language from Agenda 21 and Principle 8 of the Rio Declaration.
B. Population, Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty: In 3.9 (basis for action), the US questioned the accuracy of the reference to 1 billion people living in poverty. The Secretariat responded that the figure was accepted by the UN system as a best approximation. The delegates discussed the merger of 3.9 bis (development obstacles) with 3.12 (governance and institutions). The Russian Federation called for reference to countries with economies in transition. India requested that 3.12 refer to the macro- economic policies of developed countries. Some developing countries objected to the reference to "governance" as one of the issues that influence the achievement of sustainable development. The EU insisted on its retention. Australia proposed language that incorporated both 3.9 bis and 3.12, including India's proposal. The consolidated text was agreed, subject to inclusion of the bracketed reference to governance.
The only change in 3.10 (poverty as the challenge to development) was the addition of the reference to 1/5 of the world's population living in poverty. 3.10 bis (population, poverty reduction and economic progress) was accepted with the US reference to improvements in environmental protection and Norway's addition of unsustainable consumption. In 3.11 (factors straining economies and development options), the G-77 proposed replacing the first two sentences with: "Sustained economic growth is essential to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development. The eradication of poverty will contribute to slowing population growth and achieving early population stabilization." India requested deletion of the last sentence regarding the need for flexible social and economic policies and replacement with a reference to the need for sustained economic growth to accommodate population pressures. The US and the EU opposed the G-77 and Indian proposals.
In 3.17 (gender inequities), Finland requested that the bracketed "economic" be replaced by "women's participation in all policy-making." Switzerland added reference to land ownership by women and their right to inherit property. The Secretariat added women's access to productive resources. In 3.18 (priority to the disadvantaged), delegates agreed to refer to disadvantaged members of society, to be followed by an asterix, which would refer to the list of the same 12 groups identified in Chapter XII (Technology, Research and Development). In 3.18 bis (food security), the G-77 suggested reference to both national and regional programmes, and the need to mention food security at the household level. In 3.19 (job creation), the Philippines added the need to expand fair trade. In 3.20 (socio-economic progress and poverty eradication), the EU suggested using agreed language from other international instruments. Estonia, Croatia and the Russian Federation requested reference to countries with economies in transition. The G-77 accepted the language proposed by the EU, but with reference to preferential and concessional terms.
XIII. NATIONAL ACTION
A. National Policies and Plans of Action: In 13.1 (basis for action), Australia added the role of parliamentarians. The EU and the US added reference to the important role of NGOs and the private sector as partners in national policies and programmes. In 13.2(a) (Objectives--population concerns), Canada, opposed by Brazil, added reference to migration in the development of international and national policies. Australia amended 13.2(b) (Objectives--programme implementation) to include reference to the role of parliamentarians. Switzerland wanted to restore an original reference in 13.2(a) to the empowerment of women. Canada and the Holy See stated that the objectives would not have to include a reference to migration as long as it is included an action paragraph, such as 13.3 (policy implementation). Benin said that this reference was not necessary because Chapter X focuses on migration issues. Peru and India preferred a reference to national migration. The compromise was to simply refer to "migration." Delegates accepted language in 13.3, which added reference to the involvement of parliamentarians, locally elected authorities, the private sector, and NGOs, including womens' groups, to raise awareness, formulate policies and to work to ensure adequate human resources for implementation.
In 13.6(d) (Objectives--training), the US proposed a specific reference to women after "trained personnel." In 13.7(a) (human resource development programmes), Senegal called for deletion of gender perspectives. The US and Switzerland insisted on its retention. The Holy See added reference to the employment of women in decision-making. In (b), delegates added the qualifier of "nation-wide" in the reference to deployment of trained personnel. In (d), Switzerland called for a reference to pay equity. Senegal withdrew her previous proposal to include reference to women's unpaid work but called on the men of the world to grasp this important concept. In (e), The Gambia called for emphasis on experience-sharing. In (f), delegates agreed to change the last sentence to refer to the inclusion of women and children. In 13.8 (client-centred management information systems), Sweden and Norway added reference to "sexual and reproductive health." Algeria objected.
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