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WORKING GROUP II

VIII. HEALTH AND MORTALITY

A. Primary health care and the health-care sector: Kenya, Benin and Chile suggested adding morbidity to the title. In 8.3(a) (objective), the Solomon Islands, on behalf of the Pacific Island States, asked to recognize the cultural and religious diversity of countries. In 8.5 (target life expectancy), New Zealand and Australia asked to include indigenous peoples. In 8.6 (role of women in family care), Bolivia and the EU emphasized the shared responsibility of men. Canada, the Holy See, the EU and the Solomon Islands objected to requiring fees for services, since it discriminates against the most needy. In 8.7 (public participation), the Philippines and Bangladesh emphasized the significance of breast feeding education. The Holy See emphasized the importance of care for AIDS victims. In 8.8 (environmentally-related health hazards), Nepal asked for quality indicators to measure maternal and child health. The Central African Republic asked to add a paragraph on traditional methods of disease prevention used by women.

B. Infant and child mortality: In 8.12(a) (objective), Bolivia, Egypt and Morocco asked for reference to ethnically- and regionally-based differential rates of child mortality. In 8.12(b) (objective), Nicaragua asked to recognize the right of the unborn child. Bangladesh added an additional objective on the promotion of breast feeding. In 8.14 (list of health hazards to women and children), India and Egypt asked to add multiple pregnancies, early birthing and HIV.

C. Maternal morbidity and mortality: In 8.17 (on policy targets), Norway asked to address the causes of maternal mortality, and India found the deadlines and targets unrealistic. In 8.20 (nutritional needs of pregnant women), Australia added nutritional education on indigenous food. In 8.21 (safe abortion), Canada and Australia expressed concern about the wording, which may imply exclusivity of safe abortion to victims of rape and incest. The US, Turkey, Botswana, Jamaica and Nepal asked for clarity on the role of governments and NGOs in reducing abortion. Bolivia and Argentina mentioned that access to safe abortion should be governed by national legislation. Benin suggested deletion of the paragraph addressing governments' roles in delivering safe abortion. Niger said that abortion is only a public health issue, so far as the health of the mother is concerned. Venezuela and Malta said that the right to life is inviolable. Central American countries called for education for responsible sex and called for adoption instead of abortion.

D. HIV infection and AIDS: In 8.25 (objective), Pakistan and the US asked for support for the families of AIDS victims. The EU called for measures against discrimination. In 8.27 (family planning and HIV prevention), the US focused on changing male sexual behavior, since men use condoms. Senegal said that condoms should complement other contraceptives. In 8.28 (role of government and other organizations), Pakistan asked to involve religious leaders. Indonesia added the need to involve the family and the community. In 8.29 (availability of condoms), Switzerland and Zimbabwe stressed condoms for women. Cameroon de-emphasized condoms and supported behavioral change. The EU and Canada emphasized the need to make condoms available and affordable. Norway emphasized the need for innovative ways of marketing condoms. The Holy See, Sierra Leone and Nicaragua supported abstinence for single individuals and monogamous relationships for couples.

IX. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, URBANIZATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION

A. Population distribution and sustainable development: In 9.3 (objectives), Finland called for regional strategies. Mexico agreed and objected to the concept of rural/urban dichotomy. In 9.4 (strategies against rural exodus), the Holy See emphasized labor intensive technologies for rural employment. Australia mentioned trade policies that harm the export of rural agricultural products. In 9.5 (alternatives to rural migration), Cameroon stressed agrarian reform. Fiji, on behalf of the Pacific Island States, emphasized the role of governments in making rural areas more attractive to private sector investment. Niger and Ethiopia asked for a paragraph on the status of nomadic groups. In 9.6 (indigenous rights), the US asked for clarification on traditional rights.

B. Population growth in large urban agglomerations: In 9.9 (reducing urban bias), Morocco and Pakistan asked for more development efforts in small- and medium-size cities. In 9.10 (government role in urban development), many stressed the importance of safety. Fiji emphasized education and sanitation for urban squatters, and Lesotho and Norway referred to the needs of street children.

C. Internally displaced persons: In 9.14 (objective), Afghanistan, the US and Canada stressed women, children, elderly, and victims of rape. In 9.15 (causes of displacement), Iran included natural disasters. The Russian Federation called for reparations for war victims. Pakistan, Canada and Afghanistan asked for international assistance for displaced peoples.

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