Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development
Vol. 05 No. 132
Monday, 03 May 1999
SUMMARY OF THE SEVENTH SESSION OF THE UN COMMISSION ON
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: 19-30 APRIL 1999
The seventh session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-7) met at UN
Headquarters in New York from 19- 30 April 1999. Participants considered the economic
theme of tourism, the sectoral theme of oceans and seas and the cross- sectoral theme of
consumption and production patterns. They also prepared for the UN General Assembly's
Special Session to review the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development
of Small Island Developing States (SIDS).
Deliberations began with a four-session "Tourism Segment," during which
representatives from local authorities, trade unions, industry and NGOs engaged in
dialogue with government representatives on industry initiatives, consumer behavior,
sustainable development and coastal impacts related to tourism. Participants then moved
into a two-and-a-half day High-Level Segment, during which 89 ministers and high-level
government officials offered statements and engaged in a dialogue led by CSD-7 Chair Simon
Upton (New Zealand). Delegates deliberated on 13 draft decisions during the second week of
the session, adopting 12 of them on 30 April. A motion of no action was carried on a draft
resolution introduced by the Russian Federation on the crisis in the Balkans.
Delegates highlighted several aspects of their decision on oceans and seas as positive
outcomes of their deliberations, particularly their decision recommending that the General
Assembly establish an open-ended informal consultative process as a means to broaden and
deepen its consideration of oceans and seas issues. Other decisions addressed reversing
the downward trend in ODA, preparation for CSD-9s work on energy, and integrating
consumption and production policies into the CSDs programme of work more
effectively. On tourism, delegates identified the decisions on economic measures, sex
tourism and the role of the tourism and travel industry as very useful for developed and
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CSD
The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was envisioned in Agenda 21, the
programme of action adopted by the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED). Agenda 21 called for the creation of the CSD to: ensure effective follow-up of
UNCED; enhance international cooperation and rationalize intergovernmental decision-making
capacity; and examine progress in Agenda 21 implementation at the local, national,
regional and international levels. The Commission, which was formally established in 1992
by UN General Assembly Resolution 47/191, held its first substantive session in June 1993
and has met annually since then. During its first five years, the CSD reviewed progress on
each chapter in Agenda 21.
In June 1997, five years after UNCED, the General Assembly (GA) held a Special Session
(UNGASS) to review implementation of Agenda 21. Negotiations produced a Programme for the
Further Implementation of Agenda 21. Among the decisions adopted at UNGASS was the CSD
work programme, which identifies sectoral, cross-sectoral and economic sector/major group
themes for the subsequent four sessions of the Commission. Overriding issues for CSD-6
through CSD-10 are poverty together with changing consumption and production patterns.
The sixth session of the CSD met from 20 April to 1 May 1998. Participants considered
the economic theme of industry and the sectoral theme of strategic approaches to
freshwater management. They also began to review implementation of the Barbados Programme
of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS and discussed the cross-sectoral themes
of technology transfer, capacity-building, education, science and awareness raising.
REPORT OF CSD-7
CSD-7 Chair Simon Upton (New Zealand) gaveled the Plenary open at 10:00 am on Monday,
19 April. He noted that his fellow ministers indicate that the CSD risks losing their
interest if it does not produce something substantive. He said the CSD's job is not to
negotiate but to illuminate and called for delegates to develop practical, achievable and
modest outcomes. Upton also noted that he was the first CSD Chair to benefit from the
decision to elect the Bureau immediately following the previous session in 1998. He noted
that the Bureau members elected at the conclusion of CSD-6, including himself, were Tibor
Farago (Hungary) and George Talbot (Guyana). Additional Bureau members elected on 27 July
1998 were Largaton Ouattara (Côte d'Ivoire) and Navid Hanif (Pakistan). Sandor Mozes
(Hungary) had since replaced Farago. Ouattara served as Rapporteur.
Nitin Desai, Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, highlighted the
importance of the issues on the CSDs agenda. The Commission would take the first
look at tourism from a sustainability perspective and he highlighted the need for an
appropriate framework in this context. He also noted the expectation that the session
would contribute to more sustainable use of oceans and stressed the importance of CSD
preparations for the Special Session on SIDS.
With these opening remarks, reports on intersessional meetings, adoption of the agenda
(E/CN.17/1999/1) and an invitation to three additional intergovernmental organizations to
attend CSD-7 with observer status (E/CN.17/1999/L.2), the meeting got down to business.
Delegates spent much of the first week in dialogue sessions on tourism with major groups
and on all CSD-7 agenda items with ministers and high-level government officials. The
second week focused on negotiating the session's decisions. The following report
summarizes the discussions during the first week in the Tourism and High-Level Segments
and then identifies specific debates that shaped the CSD's decisions, as well as elements
contained in the decisions themselves.
The multi-stakeholder dialogue on tourism commenced on Monday afternoon, 19 April.
Representatives from industry, NGOs, trade unions, local authorities and governments
offered opening statements on each of four dialogue themes, following which Upton led
participants in a dialogue. The four half-day themes were: industry initiatives for
sustainable development; changing consumer behavior; promoting broad-based sustainable
development through tourism while safeguarding the integrity of local cultures and
protecting the environment; and the coastal impact of tourism. During the dialogue
sessions, Chair Upton called for focused interventions with emphasis on major group
initiatives and involvement. He underscored baseline information against which progress
can be measured and noted its importance in assessing carrying capacity, especially for
countries like SIDS. He underscored that information for benchmarking and indicators had
to be generated by all stakeholders.
Industry emphasized that with proper policy, management and operational frameworks, the
travel and tourism industry can be the positive change agent for sustainable development.
Trade unions highlighted the possibilities of Workers-Tourist Interface
through which workers in the tourist industry can help shape visitors perceptions
and practice more sustainable tourism themselves. Local authorities noted the role they
can play as facilitators between different interests, stressed that environmental impacts
must be assessed prior to decisions for all major activities, and emphasized the need for
tourism plans to be integrated into local and regional development planning. NGOs stressed
that sustainable tourism must support development at the local level. The US recommended
surveying the implementation and effectiveness of existing guidelines on sustainable
tourism and said the CSD should decide in 2002 whether international guidelines are
On baseline setting, benchmarking and carrying capacity, NGOs stressed that industry
must employ these measures and put them into comprehensive programmes that ensure
transparency. The US underscored that sectoral benchmarks should be created by
governments. SAMOA indicated that setting international standards modifies behavior and
said the issue would be best discussed at the regional or sub-regional levels. Local
authorities highlighted problems related to growth-based tourism economies and recommended
shifting to steady-state models where the number of hotels and tourists are limited.
Industry noted that locations differ in their requirements, and proposed processes to
determine carrying-capacity driven by local-level actors.
On regulatory reform and voluntary initiatives, trade unions called for further action.
Local authorities highlighted the need to balance voluntary and regulatory control at the
local level. NGOs emphasized that voluntary initiatives and regulations should be
country-specific and highlighted the need to draw lessons from the negative effects of the
globalization of tourism. Trade unions suggested forging connections between the
OECDs review of regulatory reform and the multi-stakeholder review of voluntary
On promoting broad-based sustainable development through tourism while safeguarding the
integrity of local cultures and protecting the environment, industry highlighted tourism
as the industry best able to increase employment and income in many regions and said
tourism must take into account environmental and socio-cultural considerations to be
sustainable. Trade unions stressed the importance of involving all stakeholders,
particularly workers, in promoting sustainable tourism and noted that control of tourism
is limited because decisions are often made by elites in distant areas. UGANDA highlighted
the over- reliance on market mechanisms to guide tourism development and consumption
decisions as a major barrier to sustainable development. NGOs recommended establishing
three multi- stakeholder working groups to assess financial leakages in tourism, to
develop a plan to ensure indigenous peoples land, water and resource rights, and to
design a plan for international trade and investment frameworks that would enable new
economic opportunities for local communities. GREECE noted that the main goal of tourism
policy should be to preserve natural resources in order to achieve sustainable tourism
development. Trade unions stressed the need to leave revenue in the community to pay for
damage caused by tourism.
On cultural tourism, NGOs underscored the uniqueness of indigenous peoples'
spirituality and noted that tourism practices often disregard religious beliefs and
values. Industry indicated that benchmarks for hotels are being developed, including
regard for cultural heritage. BOLIVIA noted an increase in trade of cultural goods in some
developing countries and stressed the need for control methods. Local authorities
highlighted their role in preserving local culture and suggested that the industry focus
on the local workforce before bringing workers from outside. Trade unions noted the
importance of cultural heritage that tourists enjoy and proposed developing a music
network to encourage awareness of Agenda 21.
On the coastal impact of tourism, industry proposed that the CSD sponsor and seek
funding by international agencies and governments to integrate Agenda 21 for Travel and
Tourism with Local Agenda 21s. Trade unions called for comprehensive impact studies to be
prepared for coastal development projects and application of the preventive and
precautionary principles in planning and management. Local authorities pointed to negative
impacts of waterfront vacationing, such as inadequate wastewater treatment, over-fishing
and depriving access by local communities to traditional fishing grounds and recreational
areas. NGOs said tourism must be carefully planned according to compatible land uses and
water and coastal zone management. AUSTRALIA stressed the need to devote attention to
strategic planning and zoning. Trade unions highlighted negative consequences from failing
to apply integrated coastal zone management and planning. NGOs called for further support
from multi-stakeholder projects that use integrated tools to support integrated coastal
On infrastructure and subsidies, local authorities said tourism developers should bear
the full cost of necessary infrastructure and pay for maintenance of tourist sites.
Industry noted that some countries and institutions offer incentives to cover these
expenses. Local authorities said they, not industry, should decide what share of expenses
industry will assume.
In summary, all major groups supported pilot projects on sustainable tourism in coastal
areas. Industry said tourism is crucial for coastal development and should be accorded a
high profile in the context of integrated coastal zone management. Trade unions said
voluntary initiatives should be supplemental to regulatory frameworks and local
authorities noted the usefulness of setting environmentally or culturally sensitive sites
aside from tourism development. Participants underscored the impacts of cruise ships on
coastal areas and discussed their use of flags of convenience, surmising that such flags
should not be used to avoid international regulations on marine pollution and that the CSD
should advise relevant international organizations to investigate enforcement of these
regulations and address loopholes.
Upon conclusion of the dialogue, Upton produced a summary highlighting main aspects
including industry initiatives, voluntary initiatives, working partnerships for the
pursuit of sustainable development, undertaking capacity building with local communities,
biophysical limits to development taking into account the importance of cultural
integrity, interagency coordination, a multi-stakeholder working group on tourism, and
developing a Global Code of Ethics for Tourism.
The Chair also produced a summary of the dialogue, which was included in the CSD-7
The CSD High-Level Segment took place from Wednesday afternoon, 21 April, to Friday
afternoon, 23 April. Eighty-nine ministers and heads of delegation made statements during
the two-and-a-half day Segment. Over half of the statements were delivered by ministers.
Delegates also engaged in interactive dialogues. Upton attempted to direct the dialogues
towards action proposals that the ministers could instruct delegates to consider during
the subsequent week's negotiations on CSD decisions. The following summary of the
High-Level Segment highlights the issues raised in various government statements and the
focus points that Chair Upton distilled from discussions for his summary of the segment.
TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: Delegates discussed tourism and sustainable
development on Wednesday afternoon, 21 April. Many speakers proposed various approaches
and actions to achieve sustainable tourism. SLOVENIA suggested that, when setting
frameworks for tourism development, carrying capacity be defined, instruments of spatial
and land-use planning be applied, and environmental impact assessments be conducted.
GREECE urged international policy coordination. INDONESIA highlighted the need for
environments conducive to small- and medium-sized enterprises. Industry said Agenda 21 for
Travel and Tourism provides a framework for action. Local authorities suggested that local
governments, working with all stakeholders, should identify the carrying capacity for
their communities. Several speakers stressed the benefits of developing indicators,
adopting core labor standards and eliminating sex tourism. CHINA advised against
attempting to develop global criteria and indicators. GUYANA, on behalf of the G-77/CHINA,
noted that some members would have problems with references to child labor and core labor
Recommendations related to the tourism industry included the EU's support for a
comprehensive survey and assessment of existing voluntary initiatives related to
sustainable tourism and call on the tourism industry to work towards a global code of
conduct for sustainable tourism. ZIMBABWE and INDONESIA stressed that local communities
should benefit from tourism development. Education and community awareness efforts were
also proposed. MOLDOVA emphasized environmental awareness and education in promoting
sustainable tourism. SPAIN highlighted the importance of citizen awareness and
international cooperation. Trade unions recommended educating workers on how to organize
Focus points in the Chair's summary of the High-Level Segment highlight the need for a
focused work programme identifying what actions are required, by whom and when. The text
also notes the need to reflect industry and local authorities' role in achieving
sustainable development in the tourism sector, and the need for capacity building,
including industry-led initiatives. It notes the importance of tourism management and
planning activities, such as promotion of best practices, development of an interagency
study on carrying capacity, and efforts to minimize packaging waste associated with
tourism. It also notes the need to address coastal issues effectively, to include relevant
direction on research activities, and to provide direction for stronger action on the
exploitation of women and children, especially through sex tourism.
OCEANS AND SEAS: The High-Level Segment discussed oceans and seas during morning
and afternoon meetings on Thursday, 22 April. Several speakers stressed the importance of
accelerating the implementation of the Global Programme of Action on the Protection of the
Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA). CHINA noted that a lack of financial
resources and management expertise constrains developing countries' capacity to implement
the GPA and NIGERIA called for multilateral agencies, including the GEF, to prioritize GPA
activity. Three key problems identified by speakers were by-catch and destructive fishing
practices, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, and subsidies. The EU
emphasized measures to enforce sustainable limits on exploitation and develop
international instruments such as plans for by-catch reduction. NIGERIA and FRANCE called
on the CSD and other UN bodies to prioritize IUU fishing, especially by vessels flying
flags of convenience. INDONESIA and MADAGASCAR noted that small- scale fishermen's
subsistence is often affected by industrialized fishing fleets and by IUU fishing. JAPAN
said that, in certain cases, subsidies help realize socio-economic policy goals and
contribute to the reduction of excessive fishing capacity. NORWAY, DENMARK and others
stressed the need to address the impacts of chemicals on oceans. The NETHERLANDS called
for a convention on international environmental crime, with compliance instruments.
Many speakers proposed means through which the General Assembly's annual discussion of
oceans and seas could be broadened and deepened. The EU underscored the need for a more
comprehensive and coordinated approach and to make use of existing arrangements and
mechanisms. CANADA proposed holding senior-level meetings under the GA to identify gaps
and establishing a panel of experts on oceans and fisheries. FRANCE, AUSTRALIA, the SOUTH
PACIFIC GROUP, MEXICO and others called for an open-ended working group to meet annually
and make recommendations to the General Assembly. BRAZIL said the gaps and overlaps should
be identified and then the GA should decide how to proceed. Speakers also highlighted
regional cooperation efforts. NORWAY, MADAGASCAR, ALGERIA and others called for
revitalizing and strengthening UNEP's Regional Seas Programme. SOUTH AFRICA stressed the
need to move from client-donor relationships to identifying partnerships and noted African
efforts in this regard.
The Chair's summary of the discussion highlights calls for early ratification and entry
into force of existing agreements and implementation of existing agreements and
instruments. It notes the potential for regional efforts, including partnership
conferences at the regional level and regional fishing organizations. The problems
associated with IUU fishing, by- catch and persistent organic pollutants are noted and
action to address them is suggested. Additional focus points identify the need for means
by which the CSD can review implementation of its recommendations and to identify present
gaps and areas where coordination and cooperation should be enhanced.
PREPARATIONS FOR THE SPECIAL SESSION ON SIDS: The High-Level Segment served as a
preparatory committee for the Special Session on SIDS during its meeting on Friday
morning, 23 April. The Special Session, which is scheduled to take place on 27-28
September 1999, will review implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action (POA) 1994.
SAMOA, on behalf of Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), highlighted SIDS' sense of
ownership and responsibility for implementing the Barbados POA and, with many other
speakers, underscored the need for renewed partnership and international support.
BARBADOS, on behalf of CARICOM, highlighted declining ODA as a serious constraint on
implementation. Several speakers highlighted the challenges presented by globalization and
trade liberalization. FIJI, MAURITIUS, NEW ZEALAND, ST. LUCIA and others said SIDS'
special circumstances should be taken into account in the international trading system.
MAURITIUS and others stressed the importance of a vulnerability index. NEW ZEALAND called
on the UN to recognize vulnerability as a least developed country criterion to enable SIDS
to benefit from concessional funding. Additional comments included the US statement that
the development and sustainable financing of renewable energy is a key issue for SIDS.
SAUDI ARABIA objected to text calling for efforts related to energy efficiency and energy
self-sufficiency. Regarding proposed text on SIDS' right to prohibit transboundary
movement of hazardous wastes within their jurisdiction, the US, EU and CHINA preferred to
continue discussing related text in the document for the Special Session.
The Chair's summary highlights the importance of the continuing validity of the
Barbados POA as a blueprint for the sustainable development of SIDS. It notes the
vulnerability of SIDS and concern over declining ODA levels. It highlights the importance
of taking the special circumstances of SIDS into account at upcoming WTO negotiations and
that donor coordination and partnerships be strengthened. It also stresses the opportunity
provided by the Special Session for all countries to reaffirm their commitments made at
the Barbados Conference.
CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION: Delegates discussed consumption and production
patterns during the final meeting of the High- Level Segment on Friday afternoon, 23
April. BRAZIL emphasized that the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities
should guide changing consumption and production patterns. FINLAND, on behalf of the EU,
noted industrialized countries' responsibility for the increase in consumption worldwide
and stressed the need to establish sustainable consumption patterns in all countries while
increasing the welfare of the poor. Among the policies and projects delegates proposed to
address this issue were cleaner production strategies, eco-efficiency, transfer of
environmentally sound technologies and consumer education. SWITZERLAND, the EU and POLAND
noted the usefulness of voluntary eco-labeling. BELARUS objected to the use of ecological
standards to protect trade. Regarding the proposed expansion of the Consumer Protection
Guidelines, NGOs expressed regret that some earlier proposals were not in the draft under
CSD-7 consideration, but they encouraged delegates to accept the proposals. An industry
representative said industry does not believe sustainable consumption and production
should be included in the Guidelines. Additional comments included PAKISTAN's suggestion
that guidelines be developed for the media and advertising industry.
The Chair's summary notes the need to focus future work through the development of
strategies to achieve: integrated resource management, cleaner production and
eco-efficiency; better understanding of globalization and its impact on consumption and
production patterns; and progress in addressing problems related to urbanization. The
Chair's focus points also note the need to promote investment in capacity building,
technology development and transfer, and to achieve greater efficiency in production,
recognizing the roles of governments, international organizations, industry and other
stakeholders. The final focus point calls for increased and improved international
cooperation in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries,
with requisite financial support.
On Monday, 26 April, CSD-7 delegates heard presentations on cooperation in the Baltic
Sea region, national fishing policy in Iceland, tourism in Kenya, control of the Panama
Canal, and ocean and coastal management in Mexico.
Poland and several other Baltic States discussed their efforts to cooperate on Baltic
Sea marine issues. Key elements of a 1992 Convention include the prevention of pollution
based on the polluter pays and precautionary principles. Speakers highlighted: the use of
spatial planning to conserve and protect natural and cultural heritage through harmonious
settlement of differences arising from conflicting land use patterns; Strings,
the mobility and infrastructure network between the cities of the region; and Baltic 21,
which is the Agenda 21 for the region.
A panel from Iceland described that country's science and knowledge-based approach to
the sustainable management of living marine resources. Iceland has developed a stringent
management regime, including the allocation of fishing rights, surveillance and
enforcement. The panel said the UN Agreement on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish
Stocks requires coordination and cooperation to help protect stocks beyond Iceland's
exclusive economic zone.
Representatives from Kenya discussed their efforts related to tourism and sustainable
development. The government is focusing on making a transition to low volume, high yield
tourism in the coming decade. Government initiatives include: improving the quality of
life of the people of Kenya; ensuring equitable distribution of benefits derived from
tourism to the local communities; inculcating respect for local customs, religion and
culture; and initiating active partnership with all stakeholders in the tourism sector.
A representative of Panama spoke about the management of the Panama Canal, which
returns to Panamanian control at the end of the year. Several developments are aimed at
guaranteeing an orderly transition including laws for the new entity governing and
managing the canal and its marine life. Panama will increase its participation in managing
the aquatic life.
A representative of Mexico addressed the national institutional and legal framework for
sustainability in the oceans. Related measures include: the creation of a Ministry of
Environment, Natural Resources and Fisheries; coastal and marine integrated management;
sustainable use and living marine resources conservation; and international and regional
cooperation strengthening. He called for improved international coordination in a regional
context and between financial organizations and intergovernmental organizations.
CSD-7 delegates spent the second week of the session in three drafting groups and
numerous informal meetings negotiating 13 decisions. Drafting Group I, chaired by Navid
Hanif (Pakistan), considered tourism and consumption and production patterns. Drafting
Group II, chaired by Sandor Mozes (Hungary), broke into two sub-groups. One considered
oceans and seas and was chaired by Alan Simcock (UK). The other considered preparations
for the Special Session on SIDS and was chaired by John Ashe (Antigua and Barbuda).
Drafting Group III, chaired by George Talbot (Guyana), considered preparations for CSD-9
on the issue of energy and other matters. Delegates' deliberations were based on the
possible elements that the Intersessional Working Groups identified for draft CSD
outcomes. Delegates were also encouraged to refer to the focal points that Chair Upton
highlighted from the High-Level segment and his summary of the Tourism Segment. The
following section summarizes the issues discussed and decisions taken by CSD-7.
The CSD developed a work programme on sustainable tourism development that will begin
to be implemented, with appropriate means and resources, especially for developing
countries. The decision specifies that the work programme should be reviewed in 2002.
Delegates' deliberations were based on the draft elements for a CSD decision on tourism,
as contained in E/CN.17/1999/17. The Secretary-General's report on tourism and sustainable
development (E/CN.17/1999/5 and Add.1) provided further background.
Negotiations were conducted in informal and informal-informal sessions. On sex tourism
the developed countries proposed text that many developing countries found unacceptable
because it sensationalized the issue and would bring negative publicity to some countries.
New Zealand facilitated the consultations to arrive at a draft that was acceptable to both
groups by de- linking sex-tourism from other tourism issues. On standards relevant to the
travel and tourism industry there were differing views within developed countries on the
nature and scope of the guidelines and the timing of their implementation. A number of
groups arrived at a consensus that it would be premature for a global code of ethics and
agreed on text to enforce, as appropriate, standards relevant to the tourism industry. On
the role of international organizations, delegates differed in their proposals on the role
of the ILO and WHO in setting labor and health standards. The issue was resolved through
identifying the latters role as positive and necessary to areas of labor and health.
Delegates did not achieve a consensus definition on the concepts of sustainable tourism
and ecotourism and called for further clarification of the concepts. Developed countries
proposed tax instruments and various economic measures, while developing countries
preferred a mix of instruments, as appropriate.
The CSD-7 decision on tourism and sustainable development (E/CN.17/1999/L.6) urges
governments: to consult and work in partnership with all major groups, local and
indigenous communities to facilitate their active participation at all levels of the
tourism development process; to promote a favorable framework for small and medium-sized
enterprises in recognition of the employment potential of sustainable tourism; and to
maximize the potential of tourism for eradicating poverty.
The Commission urges the tourism industry to: develop environmentally, socially and
culturally compatible forms of tourism; continue development and implementation of
voluntary initiatives; take effective steps to reduce the volume of waste associated with
travel and tourism activities; provide information to tourists on ecological and cultural
values in destination regions; and distance itself publicly from illegal, abusive or
exploitative forms of tourism.
The UN system and its agencies, major groups and governments are called upon: to
promote sustainable tourism development in order to increase the benefits from the tourism
resources for the population in the host communities and maintain the cultural and
environmental integrity of the host community, and to recognize the potential for
integration of Local Agenda 21s with Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry.
The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity is invited to
consider international guidelines for activities related to sustainable tourism
development in vulnerable terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems and habitats of major
importance for biological diversity, protected areas and mountain systems.
CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION
This decision calls on all countries to pursue the principle of changing consumption
and production patterns, with developed countries taking the lead. It recognizes that
approaches suited to country-specific conditions can lead to reduced costs and improved
competitiveness as well as reduced environmental impacts. Negotiations were based on the
outcome from the Intersessional Working Group (ISWG) (E/CN.17/1999/16) and the report of
the Secretary-General (E/CN.17/1999/2 and L.1).
Early in the negotiations the G-77/CHINA and a number of developed countries, including
Switzerland and Norway, clashed over the introduction of text on the pursuit of
sustainable consumption and production by all countries and the EUs
attempt to draw attention to the unsustainable patterns of consumption of richer
segments in all countries. The G- 77/CHINA signaled a strong preference for framing
the debate within the terms of Agenda 21 and the UNGASS outcome. BRAZIL told delegations
that the Commission did not have a mandate to amend Agenda 21. NORWAY insisted that
delegates were not at the Commission to apportion blame or shuffle around old text. He
pointed out that there were benefits for the poor in striving for more efficient
consumption, whatever the country. The G- 77/CHINA introduced language on lessening the
burden of external debt. The EU echoed the poverty linkage and sought to achieve greater
understanding for its intentions, introducing language that noted that poverty eradication
is a priority for developing countries. Taking up the EU Ministerial statement during the
first week, the EU negotiators also inserted a call for a reversal in downward ODA trends
and the fulfillment of commitments undertaken by developed countries to reach the UN
target of 0.7% of GNP for ODA. In an attempt to concretize the debate, CANADA linked the
programme to specific themes in the CSDs upcoming work programme.
The introduction to the decision calls on governments to strengthen cooperation and
reaffirms a role for IOs, the private sector and major groups. Special attention is to be
given to unsustainable consumption among richer segments in all countries, in particular
developed countries. It is recognized that developing country priorities focus on poverty
eradication. Developed countries are urged to meet commitments to reach the UN target of
0.7% of GNP for ODA, which would require a reversal in the downward trend in ODA. Future
work priorities include integration of poverty eradication and consumption and production
into the CSD work programme. Attention is to be given to these issues in other
intergovernmental bodies and at Rio+10. Implementation of the programme adopted at CSD-3
is to incorporate effective policy development and implementation, natural resource
management and cleaner production, globalization, and urbanization.
Effective policy development and implementation by governments, in cooperation with IOs
and major groups is to include work on: a policy mix to promote eco-efficient consumption
and production; internalizing environmental costs and benefits in pricing; increased
understanding of advertising, the media and marketing; public awareness and teaching
curricula; improved information on environmental impacts; indicators; disguised barriers
to trade; ongoing deliberations in relevant international fora; and transfer of know-how
The section on natural resource management and cleaner production addresses public and
private investment, best practices, demand- and supply-side management, cleaner production
and eco-efficiency policy approaches, support for small- and medium-sized enterprises, and
recognition of the potential for reduced costs and improved competitiveness for business
and industry. The section on globalization calls for studies on: trade and investment; the
media and advertising; the role of the financial sector; and traditional values. On
urbanization, the decision addresses fresh water and sanitation in developing countries,
calls for in-depth studies on the key determinants of quality of life and urges
cooperation on waste programmes.
EXPANSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GUIDELINES ON CONSUMER PROTECTION TO INCLUDE
SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION: Following a recommendation at CSD-3, the Economic and Social
Council (resolution 1997/53) requested the CSD to provide recommendations on the expansion
of the UN Guidelines on Consumer Protection to include sustainable consumption. Taking
note of the Secretary-Generals report (E/CN.17/1998/5) and the recommendations of
the Interregional Expert Group Meeting on Consumer Protection and Sustainable Consumption
in São Paulo, the CSD-7 Bureau organized open-ended consultations among member States. In
a resolution adopted at the closing Plenary (E/CN.17/1999/L.1), CSD-7 recommended adoption
of the expanded guidelines to ECOSOC.
OCEANS AND SEAS
The decision on oceans and seas highlights major challenges and areas of particular
concern, including marine resources, land-based activities and international coordination
and cooperation. The Secretary-General's report on oceans and seas (E/CN.17/1999/4 and
Add.1) and the Intersessional Working Groups draft elements for a CSD outcome
(E/CN.17/1999/17) served as background to the deliberations on this issue.
Discussions on the general considerations under which the decision would be implemented
included G-77/CHINA proposals to insert references to eradication of poverty, food
security, economic prosperity and the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities. The US proposed referencing the precautionary approach, the
polluter-pays principle and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as
well as an eco-systems approach and action based on the best scientific knowledge.
Regarding areas of particular concern, the US and AUSTRALIA highlighted sustainable
aquaculture in relation to marine resources. Delegates also deliberated whether to welcome
the FAO Committee on Fisheries plans of action for reducing the incidental catch of
seabirds, conservation and management of sharks, and management of fishing capacity, and
whether to highlight particular elements within these plans of action. One such element
was subsidies, on which the US, AUSTRALIA and ICELAND supported additional text, but the
G-77/CHINA objected. Several proposals for actions by regional fisheries organizations
were also discussed, including their role in improving the application of principles
contained in relevant agreements and collaboration with regional seas arrangements.
NORWAY, CANADA, AUSTRALIA and the EU said such collaboration should be in the context of
an "ecosystems approach," but CHINA objected to this methodology.
On other marine activities, some delegations proposed options to deal with IUU fishing,
including actions regarding the use of "flags of convenience." NGOs, supported
by RUSSIA, presented one such proposal inviting the IMO to develop a legal mechanism to
ensure that all Flag States ensure that vessels flying their flags meet international
standards. The G-77/CHINA added text reiterating a State's right to prohibit the
transboundary movement of hazardous waste within its jurisdiction. The US offered a
reformulation calling for the safe and secure transfer of wastes, implementation of the
Basel Convention, the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the
Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and considering making the Irradiated Fuels Code a
On international coordination and cooperation, many delegates noted the High-Level
Segment's expression of interest in "broadening and deepening" the General
Assembly's consideration of oceans and seas issues. The RIO GROUP and SOUTH PACIFIC GROUP
conducted informal consultations on how to achieve this objective, and presented delegates
with a proposal that the CSD recommend that the GA establish an open-ended informal
consultative process. Many delegates expressed concern with the budgetary implications of
such action. CANADA and the EU stressed the importance of major group participation in
such a process. EGYPT and CHINA stressed the need for consistency in NGO access to the GA.
The CSD-7 decision on oceans and seas notes that they constitute the major part of the
planet that supports life and provide vital resources to ensure economic prosperity and
food security and eradicate poverty. The text further notes as general considerations that
the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and the
Programme of Action for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 set out the framework,
programme of action and needs for action with respect to oceans and seas, and action
should be taken on the basis of the principles set out in the Rio Declaration. Through the
decision the Commission recommends giving priority to the conservation and sustainable use
of marine living resources, the prevention of pollution from land-based activities, better
scientific understanding of oceans and seas and their resources, and encouraging the
effective and coordinated implementation of the provisions of UNCLOS and Agenda 21.
Regarding marine resources, the Commission notes that, when managed sustainably,
fisheries and aquaculture can contribute to global food security and income generation.
States are encouraged to consider becoming Parties to international agreements regarding
conservation and management measures of fishing vessels, straddling fish stocks and
responsible fisheries, among others. The Commission urges early formal adoption of the
International Plans of Action that the FAO Committee on Fisheries recently approved. It
supports the declaration of the FAO fisheries ministerial conference that FAO will
prioritize development of a global plan to deal effectively with IUU fishing. The
Commission calls on regional fisheries organizations and regional seas organizations to
cooperate in integrating sustainable fisheries management and environmental conservation
measures and notes the importance of ecosystems and the need for further study of
approaches in this context.
On land-based activities, the Commission expresses grave concern at the slow rate of
implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine
Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA). It also notes that partnership meetings
contribute to building capacities and mobilizing resources and welcomes activities on
persistent organic pollutants (POPs). On marine science, the Commission welcomes the
intention of the IMO, working in partnership with other sponsoring organizations, to
improve the effectiveness and inclusiveness of the Joint Group of Experts on the
Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP), invites regional fisheries
organizations to cooperate with each other and consider strengthening catch surveillance,
and requests the Secretary-General to gather information on all aspects of the El Niño
Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The Commission also decided to consider the impacts of ENSO
at CSD-8 as part of its examination of the integrated planning and management of land
On other marine activities, the Commission invited the IMO to develop measures, in a
binding form where the members of the IMO consider it appropriate, to ensure that ships of
all flag States meet international rules and standards. States that have not yet done so
are encouraged to become Parties to the Basel Convention. Additional text recommends the
development of controls on anti-fouling paints within the framework of the IMO, welcomes
the International Seabed Authority's activities on a draft mining code, including marine
environmental protection, and calls on the IMO to look into the issue of the scrapping of
On international coordination and cooperation, the Commission notes that a more
integrated approach is required for all aspects of oceans and seas and invites the
Secretary-General to take measures to ensure collaboration between relevant parts of the
UN Secretariat, to improve the effectiveness of the work of the ACC Subcommittee on Oceans
and Coastal Areas, and to suggest initiatives that could improve coordination. The
Commission further recommends that the General Assembly establish an open- ended informal
consultative process to facilitate the effective consideration of matters within the GA's
existing mandate. The Commission suggests that participation in this exercise by member
States and observers be broad and universal, that it be carried out within the annual
budgetary resources of the Secretariat, that panels be organized to ensure appropriate
input from major groups, and that the effectiveness of the process be reviewed four years
after its establishment. The decision also notes that delegates did not reach consensus on
three issues: subsidies, schemes for improving information available to consumers of fish,
and the prohibition of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes.
PREPARATIONS FOR THE SPECIAL SESSION ON THE SIDS PROGRAMME OF ACTION
CSD-7 convened on 23 and 30 April as a preparatory body for the 27-28 September 1999 UN
General Assembly Special Session to review implementation of the Barbados Programme of
Action (POA) for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (SIDS).
CSD-7 delegates also met in numerous informal consultations to prepare the draft document
for that meeting. The CSD worked on the basis of an Intersessional Working Group draft
document on the State of Progress and Initiatives for the Future Implementation of
the POA." The Secretary-General's reports on Progress in the Implementation of the
Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS (E/CN.17/1999/17) and the
report of the meeting of representatives of donors and SIDS in February (E/CN.17/1999/18)
also served as background documents.
As summarized above, on 23 April, the High-Level Segment discussed the POAs
implementation, difficulties met, lessons learned and suggested elements for the Special
Session's outcome. CSD-7 delegates again convened Friday morning, 30 April, as a
preparatory body for the Special Session. Chair Upton introduced the draft provisional
agenda and organizational matters for the Special Session (E/CN.17/1999/PC/CRP.1). The
MARSHALL ISLANDS proposed adding text to allow Tokelau and Wallis and Futuna to
participate in the Special Session and delegates agreed. SAMOA proposed that the South
Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) also be allowed to participate. Delegates
added text noting that the President of the Special Session may invite intergovernmental
organizations who have a clear and relevant interest in SIDS to make statements. The EU
added text noting that, within available time, NGOs designated by their constituencies may
make statements and those who cannot be accommodated may make statements in the Ad Hoc
Committee of the Whole.
The US opposed text recommending that the GA call for a two- day resumed session of the
CSD as a preparatory body for the Special Session to review the POA, in September 1999.
AOSIS and the G-77/CHINA, supported by SUDAN, ST. LUCIA, PAPUA NEW GUINEA and MAURITIUS,
inquired about the standing of the draft compilation text if it were not to be considered
by the CSD as a preparatory body before the Special Session and expressed their strong
preference to hold a resumed CSD session. The US noted technical difficulties with a
resumed session in September, including overlap with the ministerial debate during the
ordinary GA session and over budgetary implications. The Chair said costs would be
absorbed by the ordinary budget and noted the CSD-7 Bureau would operate. CUBA objected to
a paragraph waiving coverage of travel expenses for developing country representatives.
The US requested that the CSD-7 report state that the resumed session would not have
A report of CSD-7s work as a preparatory body for the review and appraisal of the
POA was adopted (E/CN.17/1999/L.2)
A revised draft of the Chairs compilation document on the CSDs Contribution
to the Special Session as well as a Draft Declaration resulted from informal consultations
during CSD-7. The compilation document entitled, State of Progress and Initiatives
for the Future Implementation of the POA, is divided into four sections: an
introduction, sectoral areas requiring urgent action, means of implementation, and
international cooperation and partnership. The introduction reaffirms the commitment of
the international community to the continued implementation of the POA and identifies the
following areas for priority action, including the means for their implementation: climate
change, including climate variability and sea level rise; natural disasters; freshwater
resources; coastal and marine resources; energy; and tourism. The strong sense of
commitment and ownership of the POA by SIDS is underscored and is noted for contributing
to enriching the partnership between SIDS and the international community. Their small
size and remoteness, ecological fragility, vulnerability to climate change, narrow
resource base and small domestic markets are highlighted as specific constraints faced by
The pace of globalization and trade liberalization are noted as affecting SIDS
economies by presenting new problems and opportunities. Trade impacts are highlighted as
critical to determine the success or failure of SIDS in their national efforts to
implement the POA. Bracketed text refers to SIDS particular concern that their
disadvantaged situation will result in their marginalization in the emerging global
economic order in the areas of trade, investment, commodities and capital markets
The document recognizes that further successful implementation of the POA will require
action by all partners in fostering an enabling environment for investment and external
assistance, resource mobilization and financing, the transfer of environmentally sound
technologies, capacity-building and institutional development. Poverty is noted as being a
major problem affecting the capacity of many SIDS to achieve sustainable development. SIDS
vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters is highlighted and a committed
partnership between SIDS and the international community is called for to, inter alia,
improve the capacity of SIDS to adequately respond to and adapt to climate change and to
improve capability for climate prediction, scientific understanding of severe weather
events and early warning systems.
The health, protection and preservation of coastal and marine resources are noted as
fundamental to the livelihood and sustainable development of SIDS. Actions to address
these issues include: strengthening of programmes within the GPA; enhanced conservation,
sustainable management and utilization of coastal zone ecosystems and resources; and the
urgent need to address illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing in marine areas under
SIDS jurisdiction. Bracketed alternatives appear on the right of SIDS to regulate,
restrict and/or ban the importation of products containing hazardous substances and to
prohibit the transboundary movement of hazardous and radioactive wastes and materials
within their jurisdiction, consistent with international law.
Bracketed text appears on the inclusion of CSD-7s decision on tourism as an
integral part of the POAs review. The section on means of implementation includes:
sustainable development strategies; capacity-building; resource mobilization and finance;
globalization and trade liberalization; transfer of environmentally sound technology; a
vulnerability index; and information management. The section on means of implementation
includes: sustainable development strategies; capacity-building; resource mobilization and
finance; globalization and trade liberalization; transfer of environmentally sound
technology; a vulnerability index; and information management.
The draft compilation document states that SIDS face new challenges and opportunities
from globalization and have a limited capacity to adapt. Among others, bracketed text
refers to: SIDS benefiting from globalization; assistance to SIDS to adapt to
globalization and trade liberalization and facilitating SIDS economies integration
into the world economy through enhanced market access for their exports; enhancing
SIDS effective participation in multilateral trade negotiations and activities
including the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism; and recognition of the adverse
consequences for SIDS derived from the erosion of trade preferences.
The need for a vulnerability index for SIDS on socio-economic and environmental
parameters is noted. Bracketed text refers to the potential of the vulnerability index to
supplement other criteria for access by SIDS to concessional
treatment/financing. The draft compilation document notes that effective
implementation of the POA will require the UN system to make more effective use of
existing resources, to seek possibilities for mobilizing new resources and to improve
coordination mechanisms for the focused and harmonized delivery of support for priorities
relevant to SIDS.
The Draft Declaration reaffirms the principles of and commitments to sustainable
development embodied in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 and reaffirms that the Global
Conference on Sustainable Development of SIDS translates Agenda 21 into specific policies
and measures. Bracketed text appears regarding enabling SIDS to address constraints and on
specific physical circumstances as creating difficulties for SIDS in benefiting from
global economic development and achieving sustainable development. Accelerated progress in
the implementation of the POA through strengthened capacity- building, financing and
technology transfer is called for. A reference to creating an enabling environment to
address overarching issues, such as poverty, is bracketed.
RESOLUTION ON VOLUNTARY INITIATIVES AND AGREEMENTS
This resolution (E/CN.17/1999/L.3) is the outcome of the interactive dialogue between
governments, industry, trade unions, NGOs and IOs in the industry segment at CSD-6 and the
Commissions decision (6/2) regarding the potential value of a review of
voluntary initiatives and agreements. The resolution also notes the
Secretary-Generals report (E/CN.17/1999/12) on a subsequent stakeholder dialogue
convened in Toronto in March 1999 aimed at identifying elements of a review of voluntary
initiatives and agreements.
Representatives of CANADA said they would deeply regret a move by IRAN to
delete references to the stakeholder dialogue in Toronto on voluntary initiatives and
agreements. The G-77/CHINA proposed replacing references to multi-stakeholder
throughout the text with major groups. Again CANADA, with support from the EU,
objected and argued that the stakeholder approach was a methodology, which should not be
limited by the use of UN language. Objecting to the multi-stakeholder
references, CHINA explained that it had fears about the emergence of unwelcome
participants. A compromise agreement to refer to major groups and other
stakeholders was reached during informal consultations. The G-77/CHINA introduced an
amendment on more participation by developing country representatives in the dialogue
The resolution recognizes that voluntary initiatives and agreements should complement
regulatory frameworks and notes the potential value of processes involving governments and
all relevant major groups in such work. It encourages major groups, in cooperation with UN
bodies, to continue generating information, including the most appropriate means to
conduct reviews. The Secretariat is asked to facilitate the dissemination of information.
The resolution stresses the need for better understanding of the possible impact of
voluntary initiatives on developing countries and requests major groups to report on
progress in assisting developing countries to understand and make use of the lessons
learned. The resolution also notes the key elements of a review, as discussed by
participants in the Toronto dialogue, and encourages further exchange. The Secretariat is
to report on progress to CSD-8.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGION OF THE BALKANS
During negotiations in Drafting Group III, the RUSSIAN FEDERATION proposed a draft
resolution on sustainable development in the Balkans. This resolution noted the unfolding
environmental crisis in the Balkans as a result of the destruction of chemical, oil and
other industries in Yugoslavia. The resolution was referred to Plenary after failure to
reach agreement in Drafting Group III. The US urged RUSSIA to withdraw the resolution and
avoid forcing the CSD to conduct its first vote. The EU was joined by JAPAN, TURKEY,
CANADA, COSTA RICA, NORWAY, the CZECH REPUBLIC and SWITZERLAND in arguing that the CSD was
an inappropriate forum for the draft resolution. RUSSIA responded, saying he would
definitely not withdraw the resolution. At the closing Plenary, the EU introduced a
successful motion that no action be taken on the draft resolution.
The draft resolution noted destruction of chemical, oil and other industries in
Yugoslavia together with the humanitarian and economic consequences. It called on parties
to stop all actions, urged the UN system to address Yugoslavias sustainable
development problems and those of neighboring countries, and called on UNEP to undertake a
comprehensive assessment of the environmental consequences.
PREPARATIONS FOR CSD-9 ON THE ISSUE OF ENERGY
This decision follows up an UNGASS decision that preparations for CSD-9 on the issue of
energy should involve an open-ended intergovernmental group of experts on energy and
sustainable development, to meet in conjunction with the Intersessional Working Groups for
CSD-8 and CSD-9.
NORWAY called for clarification on the budget for the Group of Experts and arrangements
for adequate participation by developing country experts. Supported by the G-77/CHINA and
the EU, NORWAY proposed that the open-ended Group of Experts be Ad Hoc to
underline the limited duration of the Groups work. A number of countries, including
NORWAY and SWITZERLAND, pressed for membership to be open to all member States of the UN
and its specialized agencies. ECUADOR inquired whether non-members of the CSD could be
represented on the Bureau. The latter issue occupied delegations at a series of
informal-informal consultations because two non-member States, Austria and Norway, have
possible candidates for positions on the Bureau. The EU had pressed for speeding up
considerations in order to facilitate nominations for the Bureau at CSD-7. The final
decision on Bureau membership was referred to ECOSOC and the Office of Legal Affairs. At
the closing Plenary, the G-77/CHINA nominated Iran to occupy the developing country
The decision (E/CN.17/1999/L.3) provides for the establishment of an Ad Hoc Open-ended
Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Energy and Sustainable Development, to meet in
conjunction with Intersessional Working Groups before CSD-8 and CSD-9 to contribute to
preparations for CSD-9s work on energy. At its first meeting during the first
quarter of 2000, the Group will elect officers, adopt an agenda, discuss preparations for
CSD-9, and decide on a provisional agenda for its second session. The Groups Bureau
will consist of five members, one from each of the five regional groups of the UN and
include Co- Chairs from a developed and developing country. The Group will submit a
progress report to CSD-8. The first session of the UN Committee on Energy and Natural
Resources for Development is to transmit its report to CSD-8 and to the first session of
the Ad Hoc Group of Experts. The Secretary-General is invited to prepare analytical
reports for consideration by the Group of Experts. The decision also calls for government
input and encourages participation by civil society and other major groups. Participation
by NGOs will be in accordance with the rules of procedure of functional Commissions of
ECOSOC. Funding for participation in meetings of the Group of Experts, particularly by
developing countries, is regarded as essential and is to be provided for in accordance
with ECOSOC decision 1993/207. Voluntary contributions for the participation of non-
members of the CSD are urged. ECOSOC is also invited to consider, on an exceptional basis
and without creating a precedent, the possibility of States not members of the CSD holding
office in the Ad Hoc Open-ended Intergovernmental Group of Experts. The Office of Legal
Affairs is requested to submit a legal opinion on this matter to the CSD Chair for
transmission to the President of the Council.
PROPOSED PROGRAMME OF WORK IN THE AREA OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE BIENNIUM
This decision requests ECOSOCs committees responsible for programming and
budgeting to take the relevant outcomes of the Special Session of the General Assembly on
SIDS into account during their deliberations on the programme budget for the biennium
2000-2002. During deliberations in Drafting Group III, the G-77/CHINA introduced one
amendment to the draft decision. He preferred to invite the ECOSOC committees to take the
SIDS outcomes into account inter alia.
The decision (E/CN.17/1999/L.3) notes the proposed programme of work in the area of
sustainable development for the biennium 2000-2001 and requests ECOSOC to invite the
Committee for Programme and Coordination, the Advisory Committee for Administrative
Budgetary Questions and the Fifth Committee to take into account, inter alia, as
appropriate, relevant outcomes of the Special Session of UNGA on the Barbados Programme of
Action for SIDS.
MATTERS RELATED TO THE INTERSESSIONAL WORK OF THE COMMISSION
The decision on matters related to the intersessional work of the Commission
(E/CN.17/1999/L.3) sets out the issues for the Intersessional Working Groups in the year
2000. These are: integrated planning and management of land resources; agriculture; and
financial resources/trade and investment and economic growth. The decision also notes that
the CSD Bureau will continue to conduct transparent and open-ended consultations on
matters related to preparations for CSD-8 and the Intersessional Working Groups. The
decision reiterates that consideration should be given to providing financial support,
through extra-budgetary contributions, to members of the Bureau, particularly those from
INFORMATION PROVIDED BY GOVERNMENTS AND EXCHANGE OF NATIONAL EXPERIENCES
This decision, proposed by the G-77/CHINA and MEXICO, addresses the importance of
continuing to take full advantage of the information provided by governments and
recognizes that a lack of human, technical or financial resources at the national level
could hinder the submission of voluntary national reports or other relevant information.
The CSD encourages governments to continue providing reports and, inter alia, calls on the
international community to continue to support reporting activity.
During negotiations, EGYPT noted that an invitation to governments to support the work
of the Secretariat on new Country Profiles," through the provision of voluntary
contributions, could create an undesirable linkage between the implementation and the
provision of voluntary contributions and proposed its deletion. The US said he could not
support the paragraph without the phrase "voluntary contributions." Negotiators
agreed on a reformulation, further requesting the CSD Secretariat to undertake measures to
prepare a new version of the Country Profiles.
The decision notes with satisfaction the Report of the Secretary-General on
Oceans and Seas: Trends in National Implementation (E/CN.17/1999/4/Add.1)
and background documents prepared by the National Information Analysis Unit. The decision:
welcomes the continued interest of governments in making voluntary national presentations;
stresses the importance of using information provided by governments to the Commission;
recognizes the lack of resources to make submissions and improve guidelines for national
reports; and recognizes that the UN National Information Website could include reports in
languages other than those currently available. The Commission: encourages governments to
continue voluntary national reporting and invites governments to submit national reports;
calls on the international community to support reporting capacity; requests UNDP to
consider assisting developing countries; requests sector task managers to make more use of
information; requests the inclusion of new languages on the National Information Website;
requests the CSD Secretariat to invite proposals on improving national reporting
guidelines and prepare a report on this for the comprehensive review of the implementation
of Agenda 21; and further requests the CSD Secretariat to undertake measures to prepare a
new version of the County Profiles.
PREPARATIONS FOR THE REVIEW OF AGENDA 21 AND THE PROGRAMME FOR FURTHER
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21
During informal ministerial consultations during the first week, DENMARK presented a
draft proposal for preparations for the Review of Agenda 21 and the Programme for Further
Implementation of Agenda 21. The draft contained several elements from an NGO draft,
including calls for early attention to the form of the review, its scope, the nature of
the preparatory process and the terms of reference.
Through its decision, the CSD requests the Secretary-General to present a preliminary
report for discussion at CSD-8, including suggestions on the nature and scope of the
preparatory process for the next comprehensive review of the implementation of Agenda 21,
with a view to providing the Secretary-General with guidance for preparation of his report
to the 55th session of the GA.
EDUCATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRAINING
Based on a proposal introduced by the EU, the CSD adopted a decision calling on all key
actors to intensify their collaborative efforts in the implementation of the Work
Programme on Education for Sustainable Development; encouraging governments, relevant UN
bodies and NGOs to give priority to the integration of aspects of sustainable development
in their policies; and requesting the Secretary-General to report to CSD- 8 on the
progress made in the implementation of the work programme.
CSD-7 Chair Simon Upton called the closing Plenary to order on Friday morning at 11:30
am. Alan Simcock (UK), Chair of Drafting Group II's sub-group on oceans and seas,
introduced an informal paper on the decision on oceans and seas. He reported that
delegates completed their third reading of the text at 12:30 am that morning and reported
a number of amendments had been proposed since then. On the draft paragraph noting that
many delegates stressed the importance of the ecosystem approach in the context of
fisheries management and many other delegates expressed their inability to accept this
link, Simcock announced that consultations had resulted in consensus language: "the
Commission notes the importance of ecosystems and the need for further study of approaches
in this context." To text on international coordination and cooperation, Simcock
noted that one delegate had requested further consultation and, with some amendments,
could now join the consensus. These amendments included noting that the Commission should
recommend that the General Assembly establish an open-ended informal consultative process
"or other process which the GA may decide" and specifying that participation in
this process "by member States and observers" should be broad and universal.
MEXICO reported further amendments, including a note that this exercise should take into
account the Rio agreements, "particularly Chapter 17 of Agenda 21." Simcock
noted that the sub-group failed to reach agreement on the issues of subsidies, schemes for
improving information available to consumers of fish, and the right of States to prohibit
the movement of hazardous wastes within their jurisdictions.
Upton highlighted that the identification of areas of non- agreement adds reality and
an accurate record to the CSD's deliberations rather than watering it down. On the
compromise text on ecosystems, the EU expressed appreciation to China for working in a
spirit of compromise to reach agreement. EGYPT thanked Simcock and said that, with the
amendments to the international cooperation text, he was prepared to go along with the
consensus. He also stressed that the GA is the appropriate body to provide coordination on
this issue, but this does not mean that it coordinates the other specialized agencies. At
the suggestion of the US, delegates applauded Alan Simcock's work as chair of the oceans
discussions. Upton took this to indicate that the decision was adopted by acclamation.
Navid Hanif (Pakistan), Chair of Drafting Group I, introduced the informal paper on
changing consumption and production patterns. He also invited the CSD to adopt a
recommendation that ECOSOC adopt a draft resolution on the expansion of the UN Guidelines
on Consumer Protection to include sustainable consumption (E/CN.17/1999/L.1). He said the
expanded Guidelines had been agreed during informal consultations in December 1998.
Parties adopted both documents. Hanif also introduced the draft decision on tourism and
sustainable development (E/CN.17/1999/L.6), which was adopted.
The Chair of Drafting Group III, George Talbot (Guyana), introduced a number of draft
decisions and resolutions negotiated by his group. Delegates adopted decisions on
preparations for the ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development on the
issue of energy, the proposed programme of work in the area of sustainable development for
the biennium 2000-2001, matters related to the intersessional work of the Commission, and
a draft resolution on voluntary initiatives and agreements, all of which were contained in
On a draft resolution introduced by the RUSSIAN FEDERATION in Drafting Group III,
regarding sustainable development in the region of the Balkans (E/CN.17/1999/L.5), the EU
said he was highly concerned about environmental issues and that it was with regret that
he had to resort to a motion of no action on the Russian-sponsored resolution. Chair Upton
explained that the EUs motion to take no action would take precedence. The EU said
the Russian resolution dealt with issues of peace and security and the CSD should not set
a precedent by entering into such a debate. Upton invited two speeches for and two against
the EU motion to take no action on the Russian resolution. The EU called on delegations
who shared his view that the CSD was not an appropriate forum for the discussion to
support his motion. The RUSSIAN FEDERATION said his delegation had tried to avoid the
politicization of his resolution and avoid confrontation. POLAND and CANADA expressed
support for no action. CHINA opposed the motion for no action, stating that environmental
deterioration in the Balkans should not be ignored due to political considerations. Upton
invited delegations to vote on the EU motion. The result of the first ever vote in the CSD
was: 33 in favor of the EU motion for no action; 4 against; and 8 abstentions.
Upton declared that the EU motion carried. INDIA, who abstained, said he had sympathy
for the people of Yugoslavia but did not think their interests nor those of the Commission
would be best served by the Russian resolution. The RUSSIAN FEDERATION expressed profound
regret that the CSD was unable to adopt its resolution. The EU and US called on the Chair
to halt substantive discussion. INDONESIA said he had abstained in the vote because his
country had long recognized that every State has the right to raise any issue it deems
necessary at the UN. THAILAND said the CSD was not an appropriate forum for the Russian
resolution. GUYANA said she had supported the motion for no action but had great sympathy
for the concerns reflected in the Russian resolution. BRAZIL said he voted in favor of the
EU motion because the CSD was not supposed to deal with specific environmental crises.
EGYPT said he abstained to avoid politicizing the work of the CSD. SUDAN said he abstained
because the Russian resolution was not general or global. He expressed solidarity with the
humanitarian drama in the Balkans.
George Talbot then introduced informal papers outlining draft decisions on Preparations
of the Review of Agenda 21 and Programme of Further Implementation of Agenda 21,
Information provided by governments and exchange of national experiences, and Education,
Public Awareness and Training, which delegates adopted.
Delegates then approved the provisional agenda for CSD-8 and adopted the report of
CSD-7 (E/CN.17/1999/L.4; Adds. 1 and 2; L.4, L.5 and L.6). introduced by the Rapporteur,
Largaton Ouattara (Côte dIvoire). They also noted that several informal papers
would be incorporated.
In closing statements, the G-77/CHINA paid tribute to the CSD-7 Chair for the
leadership and dynamism he brought to the session. She expressed hope that a spirit of
innovation would continue in future sessions. PANAMA invited delegations to applaud the
Chair. Chair Upton thanked the Bureau and noted that the introduction of video
conferencing for Bureau meetings had saved money and time. He said the session had been a
real advance due to a willingness to take a new approach and be a little daring. He said a
decision by delegations to record disagreement on three points made the areas of agreement
all the more credible. He offered New Zealands assistance to the incoming CSD
Bureau. CSD-7 thus adjourned at 1:40 PM.
Delegates briefly convened Friday afternoon, 30 April, to elect the Bureau for CSD-8.
George Talbot (Guyana) announced that Juan Mayr (Colombia) had been nominated to chair
CSD-8 and Patrick McDonnell (Ireland), Zvetolyub Basmajev (Bulgaria) and Choi Seok Young
(Republic of Korea) had been nominated to serve as Vice-Chairs. Delegates elected them by
acclamation. The G- 77/CHINA announced that her Group had selected Mohammad Reza Salamat
(Iran) to serve as Co-Chair of the Expert Group on Energy.
A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF CSD-7: SIMON SAYS
There was an unfamiliar air of accomplishment at the close of CSD-7, with near
universal agreement that the first Bureau to be elected with an entire year to prepare the
session had seized the opportunity to demonstrate that a culture shift in negotiations is
possible, given the time, the insight and the political will. CSD-7 Chair Simon Upton (New
Zealand) was one of the many people who came away from the 19th Special Session of the
UNGA having detected that the future of the CSD may well be on the line if a
revolution in procedure and product was not achieved. Upton attributed a
dangerous loss of ministerial interest, in part, to the anaesthetizing annual routine of
inviting them to deliver a stream of ten-minute speeches. Privately, Upton would like to
see the CSD do away with the ministerial speeches altogether and have them engage only in
the kind of spirited dialogue that emerged occasionally at CSD-7 on issues
such as illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. The corresponding text in the
decision on oceans and seas was later described by a Greenpeace participant as
historic and potentially groundbreaking if the CSDs calls for effective
implementation of the relevant UNCLOS provisions are taken up.
CSD-7 attracted more high-level representation than ever before and even inspired
ministers attending an informal meeting on climate change to consider adopting the
interactive approach for the High-Level Segment at the forthcoming Conference of the
Parties to the UNFCCC in Bonn. CSD-7 may in the end be viewed as "historic" in
more than one viewer's eyes. This brief analysis of CSD-7 reviews the important
contribution of Chair Upton to the negotiating process and, as a result, to the quality of
the outcomes from the session. The analysis will also provide an issue by issue review of
some of the notable achievements reflected in the negotiated texts.
SIMONS WAYS: Upton used the year after his election as Chair of CSD-7 in
1998 to introduce a number of innovations including video conferencing for Bureau
meetings. At the heart of the Bureaus strategy to achieve a more relevant and
focused debate at CSD-7 was a determination to establish important one-on-one
relationships with ministers prior to the session. The Chair conducted a series of visits
to capitals and prepared the ground for procedural changes at the Intersessional Working
Groups and at CSD-7 itself. At the Intersessional Working Groups, the Co- Chairs played a
proactive role in selecting out the key elements for decisions from the overall
discussions and steering the outcomes away from rehearsals of agreed positions. Later, at
the CSD, there was a concerted attempt led by Upton to ensure that important points raised
during the High-Level Segment, including contributions from major groups, informed
decisions taken by negotiators during the second week. A consistent element in
Uptons strategy was the relationships he established with ministers and a backup
plan to continue circumventing any attempt by delegates from the New York missions to
return to the old ways, by working the phones behind the scenes, making use of a list of
direct telephone numbers collected during his ministerial tête-à-têtes.
In another break with the past, negotiators were encouraged to place their failure to
agree on important issues (fishing subsidies, information for consumers and the transport
of hazardous waste) on record in the CSD-7 text on Oceans and Seas. Upton preferred to
celebrate this frankness rather than support the Commissions tradition of protracted
negotiations leading to a lowest common denominator agreement. Given that the CSD enjoys
little formal decision-making authority, Upton sees little point in such an approach.
Lets admit we dont agree instead, he said, convinced that such an
approach can enhance the credibility and authority of those areas where negotiators have
genuinely found agreement.
SIMON SAYS "THE PRODUCT IS YOU" CHANGING CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION
PATTERNS: There is movement on effective policy development for changing production
and consumption patterns. In the words of one senior participant: we will not be
discussing the issue in a vacuum now. This promises a more substantive debate on
this overriding issue in the context of upcoming negotiations on agriculture and
transport. For the first time the issue was also addressed within the important context of
globalization trends a significant factor in terms of economic patterns but also in
the spread of media and advertising influences and the subsequent creation of global
consumer classes. Negotiators will increasingly have to come to an understanding that vast
numbers of the worlds people as they become locked into the manufactured
dreams of the advertising and media industry reside in virtual global mediascapes
as well as national territories.
Perhaps the most far-reaching outcome on changing consumption and production patterns
was completed before the CSD-7 session, namely the review of the UN Guidelines on Consumer
Protection. This decision will have near term consequences for domestic regulation and
national consumers' rights organizations. The International Chamber of Commerce is
reported to be continuing its efforts to influence the outcome and was unhappy with the
informal review procedures leading up to CSD-7. Industry representatives are nervous about
the creeping introduction of an "education" agenda in the Guidelines as opposed
to mere information provision.
Some observers commented that debate on this issue suffers from a "reality
gap" because the concerns and approaches voiced at the CSD tend not to reflect
priorities articulated on the ground, notably in exchanges between developed and
developing country industry representatives and governments. Industrialized country
representatives are keen to update the debate at the CSD, which seldom does justice to the
potential economic and efficiency gains available to developing countries prepared to
"leap frog" outdated, fuel intensive, technologies and production methods and
leap forward to more competitive approaches to sustainable production.
SIMON SAYS "WATCH YOUR IN-FLIGHT VIDEO" SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: The
issue of sustainable tourism development was on the CSDs agenda for the first time.
As some delegates observed, candid and discursive negotiating and not
parallel talk made a convergence from diverse points on the tourist compass
possible. To cite the most intensely negotiated issues sex-tourism, a global code
of ethics, the role of the ILO and WHO in developing and implementing labor and health
standards, the design and use of fiscal tools and economic measures are all
addressed to some degree of satisfaction. NGO observers remarked that while the outcomes
were not something to crow about there were elements that were definitely
there to stay. The need to combat the exploitation of vulnerable groups has definitely
worked its way onto the agenda. Delegates from the North felt that while more needs to be
done, delegates from the South were satisfied that the issue was being addressed in an
appropriate manner while avoiding sensationalism. A few delegates and representatives of
major groups felt that the action points could have been more focused if the issue of
voluntary initiatives had been addressed by linking them to a normative code/ethic.
Delegates from both the developed and developing countries, for very different reasons,
expressed satisfaction with the realistic and practical approach
adopted by the CSD in not trying to run before it could walk on the issue of
adopting a global code of conduct. The tourism issue benefited from the interactive
dialogues at CSD-7, with one of the most concrete proposals, a call for the production of
in-flight environmental education videos about the tourist destination, reflected in the
outcome, to Upton's satisfaction.
SIMON SAYS "COORDINATE ON OCEANS AND SEAS": The CSD-7 decision on
oceans and seas represented a microcosm of what was good and bad about the seventh
session. All agreed that the decision to move forward on "broadening and
deepening" the UN General Assembly's debate on these issues was one of the clear
benefits of the Bureaus election a full year prior to the session. The idea to
improve coordination was not new. CSD-4, for example, discussed alternatives to the
present arrangements but did not find a consensus to move forward. Ministerial will, as
evidenced in statement after statement during the CSD-7 High- Level Segment, has moved
ahead. This point was not lost on negotiators once their ministers left New York and they
turned to drafting the decision text. Observers anticipate that this new political
determination will carry over to ECOSOC and finally to the GA. Although NGOs may be
disappointed that the decision does not ensure that they will have access to the
"open-ended informal consultative process" participation by "member
States and observers" should be broad and universal but the question of NGO access
was left to the ongoing discussions regarding NGO access to the GA supporters of
the text note that the fact that governments will be taking steps to facilitate the
effective consideration of matters on oceans and seas within the GA's mandate is important
in and of itself. In addition, the decision provides for the organization of discussion
panels to ensure "appropriate input from representatives of major groups,"
which, if implemented in a systematic manner, could provide NGOs with inroads to the
Illegal, unregulated or unreported (IUU) fishing was another issue on which ministers
signaled a priority area of concern. Negotiators at CSD-7 recognized their cue and called
for action. The CSD supported the declaration by the FAO fisheries ministerial conference
that it would prioritize development of a global plan of action to deal effectively with
any forms of IUU fishing and then identified related issues that this work should
encompass, including an invitation to the IMO to develop measures to ensure that ships of
all flag States meet international rules and standards. NGOs particularly highlighted this
invitation to the IMO as an important step forward, although their desire for a binding
measure was qualified as an option "where the members of the IMO consider it
appropriate." On this issue, the CSD recognized an ongoing process and recommended
further directions it could take. Other issues did not receive this same treatment.
On some oceans and seas issues, delegates did not move beyond calls for the full
implementation of existing instruments, if even that. Subsidies and trade-related issues
eco-labeling suffered this fate. Delegates did not reach consensus language
on either a more honest outcome than the traditional watered down consensus, but
still disappointing to many. Observers argue that these issues can be in the interest of
both North and South. Attention to eco-labeling efforts as they are developed, for
example, may ensure that such schemes are acceptable to all. On these and other issues
where the CSD stopped at recognition of other processes, some expressed disappointment
that delegates failed to exercise the CSD's potential to create ways to coordinate and
catalyze implementation of Agenda 21. Perhaps the discussions at CSD-8 on trade and
finance issues will bring in negotiators with briefs to address these issues more
SIMON SAYS "REAFFIRM YOUR COMMITMENTS" SIDS: SIDS provide an
ideal test case for the global partnership for sustainable development set out in Agenda
21 given their role as custodians of a significant portion of the worlds oceans and
seas and resources, their environmental and economic vulnerability, and their dependency
on sustainable tourism and fisheries. CSD-7 recognized that while much remains to be done
to achieve the Barbados POAs objectives, a great deal has already been accomplished
by SIDS both locally and regionally despite economic and institutional constraints.
No specific pledges were made at a donors/SIDS meeting in New York in February and
doubt remains about the possibility of agreement on acceptance of a vulnerability index as
a criterion for concessional and preferential financing. A running area of contention at
the CSD-7 negotiations centered on globalization and the liberalization of trade and how
these would continue to have an impact on SIDS. There is a recognition that some
assistance for the integration of SIDS economies into the global economy may be required.
Another matter of contention is the right of SIDS to regulate, restrict and/or ban the
importation of products and substances and to prohibit the transboundary movement of
hazardous and radioactive wastes within their jurisdiction. These are perceived by SIDS to
be an emerging threat and there are calls to declare certain regions, such as the
Caribbean, environmentally safe zones and restrict transboundary movements of this kind.
CONCLUSION: In his final comments to the CSD-7 Plenary on Friday, Chair Upton
sent a strong signal to the incoming CSD-8 Bureau that he and his team of New Zealand
advisors would be happy to share their experience. His offer raises an important question
for any process that apparently depends to a significant degree on the
personalities who happen to occupy the executive positions. The bottom line is: can the
CSD sustain its "renaissance" after CSD-7 in the absence of a Chair who brims
with a penchant to see to it that what Simon says, goes.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR
UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA: The States Parties to UNCLOS will
meet from 19-28 May 1999. For more information, contact: the Division for Ocean Affairs
and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs; e-mail: email@example.com;
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBALIZATION IN THE 21st CENTURY: REALITIES AND
PROSPECTS: The Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment of the Republic
of Cuba and the Havana International Conference Center will convene the 2nd International
Convention on Environment and Development, in Havana, from 14-18 June 1999. For
information contact: Dr. Gisela Alonso Dominguez; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; tel: +(537) 57-0615/0598; fax:
COASTAL ZONE 99: Coastal Zone 99 - The People, the Coast, the Ocean:
Vision 2020 - will be held in San Diego, California, from 24-30 July 1999. For
information, contact: Urban Harbors Institute, University of Massachusetts at Boston; tel:
+1-617- 287-5570; fax +1-617-287-5575; e-mail: CZ99@umbsky.cc.umb.edu.
SECOND INTERGOVERNMENTAL MEETING OF EXPERTS ON THE EL NIï¿½O PHENOMENON:
This meeting will take place in Lima, Peru, in September 1999. For more information,
contact: Dr. Rudolf Slooff, OCHA/IDNDR Secretariat; tel: +41-22-798-6894; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.reliefweb.int/ocha_ol/onlinehp.html.
UNGA SPECIAL SESSION TO REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SIDS: A two-day Special Session of the UN General
Assembly to review and appraise implementation of the POA for the Sustainable Development
of SIDS will convene in New York from 27-28 September 1999. A resumed two-day session of
CSD-7 will be held prior to the Special Session, at a date to be announced. For more
information, contact: Deonanan Oodit; tel: +1-212-963-4671; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sids.htm.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMPTION: This meeting, "Down to
Earth Sustainable Consumption in the 21st Century," will meet in Hampshire,
UK, from 22-24 September 1999. It will be hosted by Project Integra and supported by
UNED-UK, Onyx Aurora -Integrated Waste Management, and Hampshire County Council. For more
information, contact: Index Communications Meeting Services; tel: +44-1794-511331/2;
e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.down-to-earth.co.uk/.
THE ROLE OF NGOS IN THE 21ST CENTURY: The 1999 Seoul International
Conference on NGOs will meet in Seoul, Korea, from 10-16 October 1999. For more
information, contact: Tripartite Steering Committee; tel: +82-346-570-7160; fax:
+82-346-570- 7156; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
or tel: +1-212-986-8557; fax: +1-212-986-0821.
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS FORUM ON SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS:
The International Business Forum on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns will
take place in Berlin, Germany, from 11-13 October 1999. The Forum is organized by the
German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) in conjunction with UNEP.
For more information, contact: Dr. Luiz Ramalho, Bernhard Adam, and Maria de la Paz de
Azevedo of the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft; tel: +49-30-254-82-257; fax: +49-30-254-82-103;
DESERTIFICATION AND THE EL NIï¿½O PHENOMENON: This meeting will be held in
La Serena, Chile, from 12-15 October 1999. For information, contact: Dr. Rudolf Slooff,
OCHA/IDNDR Secretariat; tel: +41-22-798-6894; e-mail: email@example.com;
PROPERTY RIGHTS AND FISHERIES: The Government of Western Australia, in
cooperation with the FAO, is sponsoring the Conference on the Use of Property Rights in
Fisheries Management in Perth, from 15-17 November 1999. For information, contact: e-
mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.fishrights99.conf.au.
3RD MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE OF THE WTO: The World Trade Organization will
hold its third Ministerial Conference in Seattle, Washington, 30 November-3 December 1999.
For more information contact: tel: +206-770-3150; fax: 206-770-0106; Internet: http://www.wto.org.
EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CSD: CSD-8 is expected to meet in Spring 2000 to
consider integrated planning and management of land resources, agriculture, and financial
resources/trade and investment/economic growth. Intersessionals are expected prior to the
session to consider the same topics. For information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, Division
for Sustainable Development; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/. For major group
information, contact Zehra Aydin-Sidos, Division for Sustainable Development; tel:
+1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963- 1267; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
SECOND WATER FORUM AND MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE: The World Water
Councils second world water forum, hosted by the Netherlands in The Hague, will meet
from 16-22 March 2000. For information contact: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, P.O Box
20061, 2500 EB The Hague, the Netherlands; tel: +31-70-348-5402; fax: +31-70-348-6792;
ADDITIONAL MEETINGS: Check IISDs Linkages WorldWide Web site for
additional upcoming meetings: http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/updates/upcoming.html.