Published by the International
Institute for Sustainable Development
Vol. 05 No. 128
27 April 1999
MONDAY, 26 APRIL 1999
CSD-7 participants heard national presentations during the
morning and the beginning of the afternoon session, following
which they commenced negotiations on draft decisions.
Poland and other Baltic countries discussed their cooperation
protect the Baltic Sea, including a new convention on the
protection of the Baltic marine environment. Related efforts
seek to promote sustainable development through a sectoral and
joint-action approach. A panel from Iceland described the
science and knowledge-based approach to the sustainable
management of living marine resources used in Iceland. A
stringent management regime includes the allocation of fishing
rights, surveillance and enforcement.
Kenya discussed its efforts related to tourism and sustainable
development. Initiatives include ensuring equitable distribution
of benefits derived from tourism to the local communities. A
representative of Panama spoke on the management of the Panama
Canal, which returns to Panamanian control at the end of the
year. Several developments are aimed at guaranteeing an orderly
transition including laws for the new entity governing and
managing the canal and its marine life. A representative of
Mexico outlined national measures related to ocean and coastal
management. He called for improved international coordination in
a regional context.
DRAFTING GROUP I
TOURISM: Drafting Group I, chaired by Navid Hanif (Pakistan),
considered the intersessional ad hoc working group's report on
consumption and production patterns and tourism
(E/CN.17/1999/16) and outcomes from the Tourism and High-Level
Segments. The NGO Tourism Caucus called for an ad hoc meeting to
consider establishing a multi-stakeholder working group, which
they suggested should be convened by DESA and funded through a
new Trust Fund funded by governments, industry and UN agencies.
To text on the decision to develop a tourism work programme,
G-77/CHINA proposed that policy development take place in
"consultation" not "cooperation" with all interested parties. To
text identifying actions by governments, the EU proposed that
they create appropriate frameworks by applying a mix of
instruments including integrated land-use planning, coastal zone
management and eco-audits. BRAZIL and CHINA objected to
referencing specific measures. The EU supported a High-Level
Segment focus point calling for stronger action on the
exploitation of women and children and support for the ILO's
work in this area. The G-77/CHINA expressed difficulties with
provisions on child labor. LIBYA and BRAZIL noted that other UN
committees deal with these issues. SWITZERLAND proposed
referencing a 1998 ILO Declaration. The G-77/CHINA proposed that
the work programme identify the means and resources for
implementation for developing countries. The EU and US objected.
To text on action by the tourism industry, the G-77/CHINA
suggested that action be within the framework of national
strategies and specified that voluntary initiatives do not
substitute for government regulation. The US suggested that
industry develop, implement and monitor voluntary initiatives.
CANADA called for developing codes of conduct for industry and
tourists through participatory processes.
On action by the international community, the G-77/CHINA
proposed deleting references to the Inter-Agency Committee on
Sustainable Development and calling on actors to keep the CSD
informed. The EU objected. The US said the CSD should be
informed of progress. The G-77/CHINA, supported by BRAZIL,
proposed moving a subparagraph on concepts and definitions of
sustainable tourism and eco-tourism to the top of the section.
CANADA, AUSTRALIA, the EU and the US said they did not favor a
discussion on definitions. On the benefits from tourism
resources, the EU, opposed by BRAZIL, added calls for wider
benefit sharing and employment of local workers, products and
skills. On financial and technical support, CANADA added a
reference to major groups as well as countries. The G-77/CHINA
added text encouraging responsible behavior among tourists.
AUSTRALIA added a subparagraph on using Local Agenda 21 for
integrated planning approaches. The G-77/CHINA bracketed it. The
G-77/CHINA said text on disseminating information on best
practices could pose constraints on developing countries and
proposed a reformulation. On promoting information exchange, the
G-77/CHINA, opposed by the EU, added a reference to minimizing
natural disasters and using "bilateral and multilateral
arrangements." CANADA added references to community planning and
coastal zone management to text on studies to promote
sustainable tourism. The G-77/CHINA proposed text on support for
integrated initiatives through pilot projects. The US said he
would have to review text regarding an assessment of voluntary
initiatives. The EU proposed text on sexual exploitation and the
ILO. She also introduced text on reducing the volume of package
waste associated with travel and tourism and on encouraging the
tourism industry to design with nature. AUSTRALIA added eco-
efficiency to the EU proposals.
On action under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the G-
77/CHINA added an invitation to consider fragile mountain
ecosystems. On modalities of assessment, monitoring and
reporting, the G-77/CHINA dropped specific references to
organizations. The EU questioned a G-77/CHINA reformulation that
invites governments in consultation with major groups to
establish a mechanism to develop modalities. AUSTRALIA agreed
with the EU and added language inviting major groups to explore
integrating Local Agendas 21 with Agenda 21 for Travel and
Tourism, with particular emphasis on coastal areas.
NEW ZEALAND said he would be disappointed if good ideas
identified in High-Level Segment focal points fell by the
wayside. The EU said she was astonished at the procedure adopted
by the Chair.
CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION: During an evening meeting,
SWITZERLAND proposed that principal goals be pursued "by all
countries." The EU replaced a reference to the "special
situation of developing countries" with a reference to the least
developed and added a sentence on shared responsibility, noting
the important role of the affluent. BRAZIL, supported by CHINA
and EGYPT, objected. The G-77/CHINA inserted elements from
Agenda 21 and UNGASS. NORWAY said equally rich people place the
same burden on the environment wherever they live.
On developing country priorities, the G-77/CHINA added a
reference to the burden of external debt and the EU added
support for international development targets and strengthening
efforts on the 0.7% of GNP for ODA target. SWITZERLAND proposed
calling for voluntary use of labeling schemes and support for
work on indicators. The EU supported the text on labeling
schemes and proposed alternative text on indicators. The G-
77/CHINA and BRAZIL objected to labeling schemes. CHINA also
objected to indicators.
DRAFTING GROUP II
OCEANS AND SEAS: Drafting Group II, chaired by Sandor Mozes
(Hungary), broke into two informal working groups: one on oceans
and seas, chaired by Alan Simcock (UK), and one on SIDS, chaired
by John Ashe (Antigua and Barbuda). The informal group on oceans
and seas considered the intersessional ad hoc working group's
proposed elements for a draft decision (E/CN.17/1999/17) along
with the focus points identified by the High-Level Segment.
Regarding general considerations, the G-77/CHINA proposed
emphasizing priorities on ensuring well-being for present and
future generations, eradication of poverty, food security and
economic prosperity. The EU proposed a reference to the
importance of preserving marine biological diversity. The G-
77/CHINA proposed changing references on the precautionary and
polluter pays "approaches" to "principles" and inserting
reference to the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities. The US noted that the Rio Declaration refers
to the "principle of the precautionary approach." The EU
proposed calling on governments to develop integrated
On major challenges at the national, regional and global
the EU suggested referring to respect for the "sovereignty,"
jurisdiction and "sovereign rights" of all coastal states. The
G-77/CHINA proposed reference to threats from over-exploitation
of marine living resources by industrialized fleets. CANADA,
supported by the US, said that it would be more accurate to
refer to "distant-water fishing nations." On international
cooperation to support national and regional levels in
developing countries, TURKEY proposed transferring "appropriate"
environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) and ALGERIA requested
that they be transferred on "concessional" terms.
On capacity building for action at the national level, the G-
77/CHINA suggested initiating or developing capacity-building
programmes in the context of national plans. The EU proposed
cooperation within and across different sectors at the regional
level to promote integrated outcomes. On capacity building for
action at the regional level, the G-77/CHINA proposed
emphasizing the importance of cooperation "for the protection
and sustainable use of regional seas, within the context of
relevant regional legal regimes and consistent with
international law." The Group also proposed deleting reference
to the conclusions of the UNEP Governing Council. TURKEY
proposed referencing financial organizations in addition to
On International Agreements, the EU, supported by CANADA,
suggested replacing "rational" use of the seas with
"sustainable" use of the seas. The G-77/CHINA proposed adding a
call for all states that have not done to become parties to
UNCLOS and the Agreement relating to the implementation of Part
XI of the Convention. On a section on living marine resources,
AUSTRALIA suggested changing the title to "Sustainable Fisheries
and Aquaculture" and referencing "sustainable aquaculture"
within the text. The EU proposed references to the precautionary
approach and polluter pays principle. NORWAY and ICELAND
proposed deleting a reference to "fish stocks that are being
fished above the sustainable level." The G-77/CHINA, supported
by MEXICO and TURKEY, proposed "encouraging" instead of "urging"
states to sign and ratify international agreements on fisheries.
The US, the EU, NORWAY, ICELAND and AUSTRALIA objected. On plans
of action to reduce the incidental catch of seabirds in long-
line fisheries, CANADA suggested including references to by-
catch reduction plans and time-tables. MEXICO disagreed. The EU,
supported by JAPAN, proposed deleting "highly industrialized
fishing fleets" in relation to management of fishing capacity.
JAPAN said the FAO should gather all relevant information for
further analysis of factors contributing to over-capacity and
over-fishing. On areas of particular concern dealing with living
marine resources focusing on sustainable fisheries, ICELAND
proposed that the reference to "representatives of fishers" be
replaced with "stakeholders." NORWAY, supported by the US,
proposed that the reference to "minimizing waste and discards"
be included in a new paragraph in view of the importance of the
issue. The EU proposed that the reference to the FAO also
include "regional fisheries organizations." The US suggested a
new paragraph on drift nets. PANAMA disagreed with all
IN THE CORRIDORS
Some confusion about the methodology for taking up focal points
identified by the CSD-7 Chair at the High-Level Segment emerged
during negotiations on Monday. One explanation offered for the
confusion was the morning Bureau meeting's failure to decide on
the precise modalities that would ensure that ideas raised
during the Tourism and High-Level Segments achieved sufficient
visibility and consideration alongside the intersessional
outcomes once negotiations commenced.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR TODAY
DRAFTING GROUPS: Group I is expected to consider tourism at
11:30 am. Group II is expected to consider oceans at 10:00 am.
Group III is expected to consider energy from 10:00-11:30 am.
Groups I and II are scheduled to meet during the afternoon. An
informal working group on SIDS is expected and a night meeting
SIDE EVENTS: A presentation on Access to Genetic Resources
will take place at 1:15 at the Church Center. Check CSD Today
for additional side events.