The EU called for references to gender in the context of participatory processes and major groups and to industry and employment opportunities created by environmental policies. NORWAY linked poverty eradication to implementation of sustainable development, including wealth redistribution and good governance and, with AUSTRALIA, called for a focus on womens rights. LEBANON called for a section on countries with post-conflict and peace-building processes.
POLICY APPROACHES: On Integration of Economic, Social and Environmental Objectives, SWITZERLAND and JAPAN supported the adoption of national strategies for sustainable development by 2005. The G-77/CHINA objected to the 2005 deadline. PAKISTAN and the NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION (NWF) advocated their adoption by 2002. COLOMBIA and BANGLADESH noted that national strategies require support from the international community. NWF called for enhanced consultation and participatory processes at the national level, particularly for indigenous peoples.
On Changing Consumption and Production Patterns, the EU called for references to: the roles of financial institutions and the insurance industry in internalizing environmental costs and benefits in pricing; producer responsibility; greening government procurement policies; and the advertising industrys responsibility in shaping sustainable consumption. The G-77/CHINA and PAKISTAN called for references to the polluter pays principle and common but differentiated responsibilities. NEW ZEALAND proposed that the CSD, with the OECD and WTO, analyze the environmental effects of subsidies. NORWAY called for references to: eco-efficiency; government procurement policy; taxation of resource use and pollution; and removal of subsidies. MEXICO proposed promoting eco- efficiency measures rather than adopting targets to achieve energy and material efficiency and, with the US, emphasized the importance of education programmes in encouraging changes in consumption. JAPAN stressed that national economic and energy situations must be considered in the reference to international energy efficiency targets. The US did not support the development of international targets.
NEW ZEALAND and AUSTRALIA recommended extending internalization of environmental costs and benefits to natural resource pricing. COLOMBIA said measures to internalize environmental costs should not constitute tariff barriers. SWITZERLAND emphasized the responsibility of governments in promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns. A CANADIAN YOUTH NGO called for: national awareness campaigns directed at youth; youth participation in ecological footprint analysis projects; and the elimination of subsidies for damaging and manipulative advertising.
On Making Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development Mutually Supporting, the EU called for increased responsiveness in the WTO to sustainable development objectives and a reference to a multilateral agreement on investment. MEXICO said the ineffectiveness of unilateral measures as a means of environmental protection should be reaffirmed. SWITZERLAND said appropriate environmental policy measures are needed to ensure that trade liberalization does not harm the environment. BANGLADESH emphasized that environmental measures should not impair market access for developing countries. NWF called for: emphasis on the impact of trade agreements on social goals; a meeting of trade, environment and development ministers to precede the next WTO Ministerial Conference; an understanding that environmental conventions cannot be bound by WTO requirements; an environmental review of the Uruguay Round; and an Intergovernmental Panel on Trade and Sustainable Development.
MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: On Financial Resources and Mechanisms, UNED-UK called on developed countries to meet the ODA target by 2002. PAPUA NEW GUINEA, supported by BANGLADESH, advocated a stronger reference to the importance of ODA for the least developed countries. The EU, the G-77/CHINA and NORWAY called for recommitment to the 0.7% ODA target. The G-77/CHINA linked the integrity of the Special Session to resolving financial problems and recommended de- linking ODA and FDI and acknowledging those countries who have met the ODA target. EGYPT suggested a specific ODA target given the downward trend since UNCED. The US did not support targets and reiterated that the US has never committed to 0.7% of GNP for ODA. He said governments should focus on how to align private sector spending with sustainable development objectives.
NEW ZEALAND recommended a reference to international and regional revolving investment funds. EGYPT called for a reference to international taxation. NORWAY suggested a reference to a tax on all aviation fuel. UNED-UK reiterated its proposal for the establishment of an intergovernmental process to reach consensus and formulate concrete recommendations on financial issues. The US did not support the creation of any new intergovernmental processes.
Regarding the GEF, the G-77/CHINA asked that it address the new challenges of desertification and forestry and revise its conditionalities. UNED-UK urged caution on widening its scope without guaranteeing additional resources. CANADA, supported by NORWAY, stated that expanding its scope would reduce its focus and effectiveness. COLOMBIA called for greater transparency and participation in the project approval process. EGYPT suggested at least a doubling of GEF resources. PAPUA NEW GUINEA called for support for environmental management trust funds. The FAO called for a forceful statement directed at the GEF, and an evaluation of how efficiently the policy concept of global increments has responded to new priorities. PERU called for a restructured GEF.
UNED-UK called for further studies on FDI to focus on appropriate policies for attracting FDI and on strengthening and enforcing social and environmental regulations in host countries. EGYPT and NEW ZEALAND called for a reference to the World Banks programme to relieve heavily indebted developing countries. The EU proposed calling on States to reinforce domestic mobilization of resources.
On subsidy reform, the EU proposed including a reference to trade distorting and environmentally damaging subsidies. JAPAN and the REPUBLIC OF KOREA said environmentally damaging subsidies should be specified and country-specific conditions taken into account. UNED-UK said all environmentally damaging subsidies should be included. CANADA suggested focusing on subsidies that are damaging to sustainable development.
On transfer of ESTs, SWITZERLAND underlined the importance of favorable policy frameworks for investment. CANADA proposed adding a reference to mutually agreed terms or deleting the reference to concessional and preferential terms. COLOMBIA said the international community must establish a policy framework for transfer of ESTs on concessional and preferential terms.
JAPAN, supported by AUSTRALIA, highlighted the useful role of South-South cooperation in capacity-building. CANADA emphasized that strengthening of scientific capacity is a priority for all countries. The EU and CANADA called for emphasis on the link between sustainable development indicators and national reporting.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: On the CSDs future role, JAPAN said this should be discussed at CSD-5 in the context of UN reform and emphasized regional implementation. NEW ZEALAND said UNGASS must decide.
On greater coherence in various bodies, AUSTRALIA stressed the need to ensure that the High-Level Advisory Board can be tasked by the CSD. COLOMBIA said UNGASS should highlight the General Assemblys role as the multilateral mechanism for conference follow-up, and ECOSOC should be entrusted with the role of coordination. He highlighted the relevance of the ACC. NEW ZEALAND said the issue of overlapping and outdated UN bodies needs to be addressed. He also called on the CSD to make more use of the work of other ECOSOC functional commissions. The EU emphasized the need for improved coordination between convention Secretariats, and advocated referring to ECOSOCs responsibility as the overall coordinating body. SWITZERLAND called for overall system consolidation over time.
On the role of relevant organizations, the EU called for strengthening the role of international financial institutions. JAPAN recommended deleting or rephrasing the call on governments to agree to IDA-12 replenishment at least at the same level as IDA-10. On UNEPs mandate, JAPAN said the organization should avoid duplication and, with the G-77/CHINA, called for effective coordination with UNEP. NEW ZEALAND highlighted the technical capacity of UNEP. COLOMBIA called for strengthening its role in environmental law. PAKISTAN proposed that UNEP serve as a forum to provide support to environmental ministries and called for strengthening UNESCO and UNCHS.
JAPAN proposed a special high-level meeting to review implementation of Agenda 21 in 2002. UNED-UK called for a clear recommendation for NGO access to national courts and international legal mechanisms. The EU and AUSTRALIA underlined the need to change the structure of elections to the CSD Bureau.
AREAS REQUIRING URGENT ACTION: The EU made proposals on Areas Requiring Urgent Action. On poverty, he proposed adding a reference to gender and the outcome of the UN Womens Conference in Beijing. He urged caution on establishing a new intergovernmental process on freshwater. On oceans, he recommended references to UNEPs regional seas programme and the Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission. On energy and transport, he recommended: calling for a coherent strategy for a sustainable energy future; promoting guidelines for environmentally friendly transport, fuel optimization and lead phase-out in gasoline; and emphasizing regional approaches to transport. On atmosphere, he said UNGASS should stress the need to adopt a legally- binding protocol at FCCC COP-3. On population, he called for a specific reference to access to family planning. On health, he highlighted the need to expand basic health services. On land and sustainable agriculture, he called for references to: access to land; the upcoming CCD COP-1; the role of indigenous people; and combating soil degradation. On sustainable tourism, he said continued discussion should be undertaken through the CBD and emphasized the need for local community involvement.
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