In Africa, subregional structures have been established. Algeria reported that the Maghreb Union has developed cooperative relationships with other African countries and subregional organizations and began to work on an inter-Mediterranean framework for the implementation of the Convention. IGADD is reviewing existing institutional arrangements and is making an effort to work with developed countries. The OECD reported that it has designated the Club du Sahel as the institution"s focal point on the Convention. In February, the CILSS and the Club du Sahel will meet with donors to refine their joint programme of work, and the implementation of the resolution is expected to be the subject of their next annual meeting in Canada. France stated that it had started consultative processes aimed at developing national action programmes and has participated in relevant meetings including those of the Club du Sahel and CILSS/ACCT.
The Central Asian states have set up a council and a fund on the Aral Seal, to undertake several programmes related to regional water management, including hydro- meteorological monitoring and restoration of land productivity. The Russian Federation and Kazakhstan have signed a treaty on the use of jointly-shared water resources. Kazakhstan has entered into bilateral agreements with other countries to solve desertification problems. Israel reported that it is undertaking a joint project with the Palestinian Authority and Jordan to survey the risks of desertification in the Rift Valley.
The Northern Mediterranean countries are planning the next steps in implementing their regional annex, including contacts with countries in the Maghreb and the Middle East. Spain is also supporting projects in the Canary Islands, Mauritania, Mozambique, Tunisia, Syria, Brazil, Peru, Dominican Republic, Mexico and the Philippines.
At the national level, two types of coordinating bodies have been established: purely governmental and those that include other sectors, mainly NGOs and academia. Senegal has established a national sustainable development commission. Lesotho has set up a national environment Secretariat in the Prime Minister"s office and, through this Secretariat, a broadbased committee to deal with the Convention. Kenya has established a subcommittee of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on the Environment, which includes governments, NGOs and other bodies. A similar subcommittee has also been set up to ensure coordination between environmental conventions. In Mauritania, an Inter-Ministerial Committee to oversee the coordination of activities has been established. Ghana has created a national desertification agency, as well as a committee on drought and desertification comprising the government, NGOs, scientists and local populations. In Botswana, a national conservation strategy has been developed, with the help of ministries and NGOs. A national committee has been set up in Morocco, and Portugal is in the process of doing the same. [Return to start of article]