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ARTICLE 11 -- SUB-REGIONAL AND REGIONAL ACTION PROGRAMMES:

This article is the result of the consolidation of the former Articles 12 and 13. The original articles separated sub-regional from regional action programmes. The new Article 11 reads, "Affected country Parties shall consult and cooperate to prepare, as appropriate, in accordance with relevant Regional Implementation Annexes, sub-regional and/or regional action programmes to harmonize, complement and increase the efficiency of national programmes. The provisions of Article 10 shall apply mutatis mutandis to sub-regional and regional programmes. Such cooperation [may] include agreed joint programmes for the sustainable management of transboundary [natural] resources, scientific and technical cooperation, and strengthening of relevant institutions." The word "may" was bracketed at the insistence of Syria and "natural" was bracketed at the insistence of the US.