POLAND: Wojciech Ponikiewski said that the CSD should have the highest political profile and other ministers, including ministers of finance, should participate in its work. The CSD needs active dialogue and an integrative approach. Poland hopes that the new set of guidelines elaborated by the Secretariat will make the preparation of national reports easier and improve their comparability. Poland supports the need for indicators, but any situation leading to simplistic conclusions drawn from such measures will have to be avoided. The GEF budget does not meet expectations, but if recipient countries prepare good projects they will, in a way, oblige contributors to increase their pledges. There is also a need for a more focused approach in the sharing of environmentally sound technologies and Poland is ready to contribute to this endeavor.
TURKEY: Levent Murat Burhan commended the work done by the CSD so far and hoped that a broader perspective has been brought into its work on sustainable development. He announced that Turkey will continue to support the GEF in the amount of about 4 million SDR. The contracting parties to the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution have decided to prepare an Agenda 21 for the Mediterranean region. Turkey is also engaged in the preparation of another Agenda 21 with the Central Asian republics and Balkan countries. He invited all related international, financial and other organizations, especially the GEF, UNDP, UNEP and the World Bank, to support these efforts.
BULGARIA: The representative said that he adhered to the goals and commitments of Agenda 21 but that he shared the view that a lot still remains to be done to achieve the necessary momentum. He said that other aspects of sustainable development should be incorporated, as is the case with the International Conference on Population and Development, the Social Summit, the Women's Conference and Habitat II. He supported debt relief initiatives and indicated that his Government had tabled a proposal for a debt for nature swap, which he hoped will be implemented. He called for greater transfer of resources and capacity building, as well as the transfer of environmentally sound technology on concessional terms.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Amb. Utula Samana highlighted the importance of biodiversity in the search for long term sustainability. Biodiversity is and should be treated as a resource and must be developed. Member States of the South Pacific Forum have played an active part in the negotiations of the Conference on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and are also concerned with the issue of transboundary movement of toxic wastes in their region. He said that the South Pacific is the largest nuclear-free zone in the world and he emphasized the importance of regional efforts and initiatives.
SRI LANKA: Amb. Stanley Kalpage said that Agenda 21 has not been fully implemented by the developing countries because they have not been supported with means of implementation. Little progress has been made with regard to trade and private sector flows, which are important sources of funding. The CSD could play a leading role in developing a consensus to elaborate rules to ensure that international trade is free and fair and an appropriate linkage between the CSD and the WTO should be established. Efforts to address sustainable development will only be achieved if poverty and unemployment are addressed globally. With regard to the Conference on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, Sri Lanka believes that regional organizations, such as the Indian Ocean Marine Affairs Cooperation, should be utilized in the implementation of the new regime in the high seas.
ISRAEL: Amb. Israel Eliashev said that the gap in standards and capacities between rich and poor, mass poverty and starvation are still greater threats to universal peace and a stronger affront to human dignity than any threat arising from the admitted neglect of ecological prudence and restraint. He stressed the need to ensure that the CSD is an efficient and effective body and supported the view that within the next CSD session, interested parties could discuss national experiences in developing and applying sustainable development strategies. The importance of adequate funding mechanisms cannot be overemphasized. Technology must be carefully selected and adapted to the specific needs of countries. He invited all countries to join Israel in the venture of desert research to find practical solutions to desertification. In 1995, Israel and Japan will convene a seminar on land and water management. He hoped peace will embrace neighboring countries so that resources can be devoted to environment and sustainable development.
INDONESIA: Marwah Daud Ibrahim noted the important activities that have taken place since the Rio Conference. With regard to the Conference on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, she supported the draft agreement and said that it should serve as a good basis for future negotiations. Indonesia supports the convening of two additional sessions in 1995. She regretfully noted that the issues of financial resources and technology transfer are still problematic and that much more needs to be done if the commitments made in Rio are to be met.
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Evans King, on behalf of the member States of the Caribbean Community, said that they had always urged for immediate action with regard to marine living resources on the high seas and he highlighted the progress achieved in the Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks Conference. UNCLOS provides a broad legal framework for the conservation of those species and the dual regime established for the Exclusive Economic Zones and the high seas should not be compromised by the process. He highlighted the precautionary principle that is prevalent in the draft agreement and the acceptable standards for conservation and management measures that are to take into account the best scientific evidence available. He urged all States to participate in the process so that it reflects a global consensus.
AUSTRALIA: Anastasia Carayanides, on behalf of the South Pacific Forum (SPF), highlighted the importance of forests, fisheries and climate change. With regard to fisheries, States have a duty to conserve the resources responsibly and Australia welcomes the emergence of a legally-binding document on the issue of straddling and highly migratory fish stocks. Some members of the SPF do not have the resources to engage in protracted negotiations and yet remain committed to the process. She also said that a cohesive regional approach had been facilitated by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). She also expressed concern at reports that drift-net fishing may be continuing in some parts of the world, although no longer in the South Pacific.
MYANMAR: Amb. U Hla Maung said that UNCED stands as a landmark, but the environmental degradation caused by negligent human activities is threatening our very existence on earth and, unless timely action is taken, the future of mankind could be in jeopardy. He then highlighted the ways in which policies can be adopted to ensure that both the imperative of environmental protection and the opportunity for economic development reinforce each other. He added that in Myanmar, as in many other countries of the region, the source of the problem lies not in industrial development and unsustainable lifestyles but in under-development and poverty. He called on all States to meet their commitments in good faith.
JAPAN: Amb. Shunji Maruyama noted that it is essential that the CSD receive the political support necessary to enable it to tackle the major issues in the area of sustainable development. It must address the root causes of these problems and express its views on controversial issues such as production and consumption patterns and trade and development. Environment and trade policies must be mutually supportive and the interaction between the CSD, the World Trade Organization, UNCTAD and UNEP is important. It is also important to have the opportunity to share different national experiences in the implementation of Agenda 21 and it might be useful to conduct case studies. The CSD's working methods must also be improved, including shifting time allocated from general debate to discussion and dialogue. Japan is organizing a number of intersessional activities to support the work of the CSD, including a meeting of the working group on Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests in November, a meeting of experts on finance in January (co-hosted by Malaysia) and a symposium on integrated management of land and water resources (co-hosted by Israel).
MICRONESIA: Amb. Yosiwo P. George said that as the international community moves from negotiating to implementation of the Rio and post-Rio agreements, those nations having possession of the resources required to achieve our common goals must not apply those resources grudgingly or with hesitation. With regard to the Climate Change Convention, he noted that the small island States had tabled a proposed protocol to the Convention that would require specific reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases by developed countries on a specific timetable. The term "incremental costs" still awaits detailed discussion. Micronesia supports the elaboration of a binding legal document as the outcome of the Conference on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
BOLIVIA: The representative highlighted the necessity for developing countries to achieve fair and sustainable development. He called on developed States to reach their ODA target of 0.7% of GNP and called for institutions that are manageable. He also emphasized the political dimension of sustainable development and a move to participatory democracy means changing the patterns of development, production and consumption alike. He also highlighted the need to ensure that the most vulnerable States are protected.
BELARUS: The delegate called on the establishment of closer ties between the CSD and other regional organizations, such as the UN Economic Commissions. As one of the most environmentally vulnerable States, Belarus has not been able to carry out all the measures that it has agreed to, and also must face humanitarian crises and conversion requirements. He then described in great detail a proposal that his Government has made to hold a conference on the sustainable development of countries with economies in transition.
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