SUMMARY OF THE TWELFTH WORLD FORESTRY CONGRESS:
The XII World Forestry Congress (WFC) took place from 21-28 September 2003 in Quebec City, Canada. The general theme of the Congress was "Forests, Source of Life." More than 4,000 participants from over 140 countries attended the Congress, representing the scientific community, governments, international organizations, indigenous peoples, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector.
A variety of sessions and fora convened during the eight-day Congress. During the Plenary Sessions, speakers shared their perspectives on challenges for the years to come, laying the groundwork for XII WFC deliberations. Thirty-eight Theme Sessions convened to address aspects of the following areas: Forests for People; Forests for the Planet; and Forests and People in Harmony. In the Ecoregional Sessions, participants engaged in roundtable discussions organized according to the five broad ecological regions of the Earth. In the Special Sessions, the conclusions of side events were presented, including the Youth Forum and the Indigenous Peoples' Forest Forum. In the Open Fora, participants engaged in discussions on emerging issues. In the final General Session, participants adopted a Statement that reflects their collective vision of "Forests, Source of Life."
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WFC AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL FOREST-RELATED PROCESSES
The International Forestry Institute organized the first WFC, which was held in Rome, Italy in 1926. The second WFC took place in Budapest, Hungary in 1936, and recommended establishing a permanent international committee that would be in charge of organizing subsequent Congresses and monitoring their results. III WFC, held in Helsinki, Finland in 1949, recommended the organization of a future Congress with a special focus on tropical forests. IV WFC, which met in Dehra-Dun, India in 1954, addressed the role and importance of forest zones in economic development.
Subsequent Congresses convened roughly every six years and were organized around specific themes: V WFC in Seattle, US (1960) addressed the multiple uses of forests; VI WFC in Madrid, Spain (1966) considered the role of forestry in world economic development; and VII WFC in Buenos Aires, Argentina (1972) discussed forests and socioeconomic development.
VIII WFC, which was held in Jakarta, Indonesia (1978), revolved around the theme of forests and population. This Congress dealt with the diverse demands society places on forests, and the forests' contribution to the social economy, particularly in rural areas. IX WFC convened in Mexico City, Mexico (1985) and addressed forest resources in society's general development. This Congress recognized the gravity of issues facing world forestry and the need for changing attitudes to ensure the conservation and development of forest resources. X WFC was held in Paris, France (1991) and focused on the theme of forests as the heritage of the future. Its recommendations included basic principles for: forest heritage management; integrated forest management by local communities and long-term land-use planning.
XI WFC: XI WFC took place from 13-22 October 1997, in Antalya, Turkey. The general theme of XI WFC, "Forestry for Sustainable Development: Toward the 21st Century," was established in view of the opportunity to undertake initiatives in follow-up to the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) and the nineteenth Special Session of the UN General Assembly (UNGASS). The Congress aimed to provide a forum in which the forestry sector could discuss technical responses, identify actions to be taken and take stock of the state of forestry at inter-regional, regional and national levels to respond to challenges and consider new directions in orienting forestry toward sustainable development in the 21st century.
Technical sessions addressed: forest and tree resources; forests, biodiversity and maintenance of natural heritage; protective environmental and productive functions of forests; the contribution of forestry to sustainable development and its social dimensions; policies, institutions and means for sustainable forestry development; and eco-regional review. The Congress produced recommendations and conclusions and adopted the Antalya Declaration of XI WFC. The Antalya Declaration calls for, inter alia: increased political will; forestry professionals to take the lead in adjusting education curricula and promoting participatory forest planning; methodologies for valuing forest goods and services; national-level criteria and indicators and forestry industries to adopt and implement voluntary codes of conduct to contribute to Sustainable Forest Management (SFM).
OTHER INTERGOVERNMENTAL FOREST-RELATED PROCESSES: Global forest policy has been developed in a variety of fora. The following paragraphs cover the forest related processes of the IPF, the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF) and the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF).
IPF: At its third session in 1995, the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-3) established the IPF. During its two-year mandate, the IPF developed over 100 negotiated proposals for action on SFM. The IPF's outcomes were endorsed by CSD-5 in April 1997 and at the 19th UNGASS in June 1997. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) then established the IFF to continue this work under the auspices of the CSD.
IFF: The IFF met four times between October 1997 and January 2000 to "identify the possible elements of, and work toward consensus on, international arrangements and mechanisms, for example, a legally-binding instrument." The IFF also proposed the creation of the UNFF and invited relevant international organizations, institutions and instruments and UN organizations to participate in a Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF). CSD-8 endorsed these conclusions and invited the President of ECOSOC to initiate informal consultations on options for placing the UNFF within the intergovernmental machinery of the UN system.
UNFF: On 18 October 2000, ECOSOC adopted Resolution E/2000/35, establishing the UNFF as a subsidiary body of ECOSOC. The objective of the international arrangement on forests is to promote the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests and to strengthen long-term political commitment to this end. The resolution also establishes the CPF to support the work of the UNFF and enhance cooperation and coordination. UNFF convened three times between 2000 and 2003.
XII WFC REPORT
OPENING CEREMONY AND PROGRAMME OPENING
On Sunday, 21 September, XII WFC Secretary General Jean-Louis Kérouac welcomed participants to the Congress and underscored XII WFC's objective to develop a vision for the future of forests. Participants appointed Herb Dhaliwal, Minister of Natural Resources Canada, and Sam Hamad, Quebec's Minister of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Parks, as WFC President and Co-President, respectively.
Wellie Picard, Chief of the Huron-Wendat Nation, on behalf of Phil Fontaine, National Chief of Canada's Assembly of First Nations, stressed that the future of the majority of indigenous peoples depends on forests. Recalling the XI WFC in Turkey and the approval of the Antalya Declaration, Osman Pepe, Minister of the Environment and Forestry in Turkey, reaffirmed his country's commitment to achieve SFM. Jacques Diouf, UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Director General, noted in particular the role of forests in alleviating hunger and generating income. XII WFC Co-President Hamad, on behalf of Jean Charest, Premier of Quebec, said the province of Quebec is ready to share its positive experiences in SFM with the world. XII WFC President Dhaliwal on behalf of Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien expressed his country's commitment to worldwide partnerships to ensure the sustainable future of forests.
During the Programme Opening participants heard statements and perspectives of presenters from different interest groups. XII WFC Secretary General Kérouac and XII WFC Co-President Hamad welcomed participants to the Congress. XII WFC President Herb Dhaliwal invited participants to challenge one another in developing a final Congress statement. Jagmohan Maini, former head of the UNFF Secretariat, stated that forests are not wood factories and that solutions to deforestation and forest degradation have to be cross-sectoral.
Narayan Kaji Shrestha, The Regional Community Forestry Training Centre for Asia and the Pacific, stressed that in many countries community forestry is the most successful form of resource management, but requires further autonomy and capacity building. William Street, International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, noted the importance of addressing social justice issues, especially respecting forest workers. Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, Tebtebba Foundation, explained that 250 out of 500 million indigenous peoples live in and maintain forests. She called for recognition of the right of indigenous peoples to self- determination, permanent sovereignty over land and natural resources, and for the inclusion of human rights and indigenous participation in the implementation of international commitments. Jean-Jacques Landrot, Interafrican Forest Industry Association, described inequality and population growth as obstacles to poverty reduction and SFM implementation. Natalie Hufnagl, Confederation of European Forest Owners, stressed that forests are multifunctional and contribute to the livelihoods of family forest-owners. Yolande Kakabadse, World Conservation Union (IUCN), stressed that the views of indigenous peoples' and youth must be better incorporated into decision making and emphasized that the WFC must be better incorporated into other forest-related international processes. Risto Seppälä, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), said resources for forest research must be allocated to socioeconomic and policy research. Noting youths' concerns regarding poverty and social inequity, lack of transparency in policy-making processes and unsustainable consumption, Catalina Santamaria, UNFF, said the voice of youth is increasingly important in consultation processes, policy making and the community.
Marc Ledoux, Ministry of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Parks in Quebec, explained that Quebec holds 2% of the world's forests, which contribute 10% of Quebec's gross domestic product. Yvan Hardy, Natural Resources Canada, questioned the present paradigm of compartmentalized forest management and its connection to pests and recent wildfires in British Columbia, Canada and drew attention to fire suppression regimes.
Hosny El-Lakany, FAO, emphasized the need for increased cooperation and coordination among international processes and agencies, and said that giving forests a higher profile on the international agenda will require sustained commitment at the highest political level. Jean Prosper Koyo, FAO, outlined the process that will lead to the development of a collaborative Final Statement for XII WFC.
During the eight-day conference, delegates attended Plenary, Theme, Ecoregional, Special and General Sessions, as well as Open Fora. The following report summarizes the presentations, discussions and outcomes of the various Sessions and Fora. Due to the mismatch between the number of Theme Sessions and report writers, this summary does not cover all Sessions.
Throughout the week, Plenary Sessions convened to enable participants to share their broad experiences on the challenges to be faced in the years to come, laying the groundwork for XII WFC deliberations.
IMPROVING PEOPLE'S LIVING CONDITIONS: On Tuesday, 23 September, participants convened in Plenary to hear presentations on improving people's living conditions. David Kaimowitz, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), observed that forests are not a high priority on the global political agenda due to, inter alia, declining media attention and a lack of understanding of the role of forests in poverty eradication, health and war. He called for incorporating forest issues in national poverty reduction strategies and recommended the adoption of cross-sectoral and landscape approaches to conservation.
REHABILITATION OF THE WORLD'S FORESTS: On Wednesday, 24 September, Plenary addressed Rehabilitation of the World's Forests. Dale Bosworth, US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, described changing perspectives in forest management, from resource extraction to long-term ecosystem health. He acknowledged problems with declining forest health, loss of undeveloped landscapes, unsustainable consumption and forest policy making.
IMPLEMENTING POLICIES: On Friday, 26 September, participants heard presentations on implementing forest-related policies. Neil Byron, Productivity Commission Australia, said the world's forests suffer from deforestation, degradation and declining political support. He said the remedies include SFM, plantations, biodiversity conservation, socioeconomic changes, public participation, and an integrated landscape approach. Noting past failures, Byron called for broad policies, new institutional arrangements, protection of biodiversity and aesthetic values, environmentally conscious consumption and good governance. Peter de Marsh, International Family Forest Alliance, presented activities of small forest communities in Canada as an example of sustainable development, and called for better dialogue between forest owners, governments and urban dwellers.
DEVELOPING CAPACITIES FOR EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: In Plenary on Saturday, 27 September, speakers addressed developing capacities for education and research. Anatoly Petrov, Ministry of Natural Resources in the Russian Federation, emphasized that integrating research and education and establishing intergovernmental cooperation is key to recreating the harmony between people and forests. He stressed the link between education and SFM, contrasting successful educational and policy reform in Sweden and Estonia with lagging progress in the Russian Federation. Petrov called for multidisciplinary and multifaceted approaches that establish SFM as a research priority, create international partnerships for training and evaluation and attract youth.
Maud Dlomo, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in South Africa, underlined that the economic, social and ecological elements necessary for a progressive research agenda are not well understood. She suggested forest research as a platform for sustainable development in forest-dependent communities, stressing the role of community participation, empowerment and learning through international exchange for development. She recommended: enhancing the understanding of impacts of forest policies and land-tenure issues on systemic poverty and acquiring adequate, long-term funding for research and capacity building.
CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES: On Saturday, 27 September, the Plenary Session addressed challenges and perspectives. Angela Cropper, Cropper Foundation, said equity is at the heart of forest-related discussions and concerns. She noted that continued financial assistance and capacity building in local communities are necessary to build up and support division of labor. Jeffrey Sayer, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International, indicated that forest destruction and degradation continue, noting the problem of variance in forest-related definitions and the importance of integrated assessments, such as the Millennium Assessment. He also said that population growth, globalization, fire, armed conflict and bad governance are threats to forests. Linda Mossop, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in South Africa, indicated that creating harmony between forests and people would ensure that current and future generations benefit from forests.
In Plenary on Monday, 22 September, and Tuesday, 23 September, Theme Sessions Area A "Forests for People" and Area B "Forests for the Planet" were introduced. On the same days, 12 sessions were held for Area A and 15 sessions were held for Area B. In Plenary on Friday, 26 September and Saturday, 27 September, Theme Session Area C "Forests and People in Harmony" was introduced. On the same days, 11 Theme sessions were convened for Area C. On Friday, 26 September, the conclusions and recommendations of Theme Sessions Area A and B were presented to Plenary. On Sunday, 28 September, the conclusions and recommendations of Theme Session Area C were presented.
INTRODUCTIONS TO THEME SESSIONS AREA A "FORESTS FOR PEOPLE" AND AREA B "FORESTS FOR THE PLANET": In Plenary on Monday, Marc Dourojeanni, Foundation Pro Naturaleza, gave an introductory address, in which he noted the instability of the agro-forestry frontier in developing countries. He then highlighted the importance of adopting innovative forest protection measures, such as payments for environmental services, certification and the demarcation of indigenous territories. Addressing the important role of research in improving human and forest adaptation to natural disturbances, Christian Barthod, Ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development in France, noted that catastrophic events often trigger new ways of conducting research. He said reconsideration of time and space was warranted in order to better comprehend the relationship between forests and human activity.
In her introductory remarks on Tuesday, Liz Alden Wily, independent land tenure and natural resources management specialist, discussed community forestry as an instrument of good governance. She identified the importance of achieving harmony between forest conservation and people's needs, and recommended moving from a paternalistic to an empowering approach to forest management. Wily explained that, as a result of legal reforms, more local communities manage a wider class of forests on longer- term contracts. She underlined the importance of granting legal recognition to community forest ownership. Wily noted that in many states, indigenous land rights are now recognized and legally enforceable. She called for a focus on immense unreserved estates, a rigorous evaluation of approaches and the consideration of communities as shareholders and not stakeholders.
Henson Moore, International Council of Forest and Paper Associations, emphasized industry's commitment to SFM. Acknowledging the important and increasing role of public-private partnerships in forest management, he highlighted the role that governments should play in creating the policy frameworks required to operationalize SFM. Underscoring that economic concerns should not overshadow concerns about forests, Moore recommended that commercially sustainable forest-related activities should play a part in solving forest problems, and urged the global community to create a transparent system of communication that would track progress toward SFM. He also called for ensuring the mutual recognition of certification schemes and removing trade restrictions and barriers.
AREA A THEME SESSIONS - FORESTS FOR PEOPLE: On Monday, Theme Sessions were convened on the following topics: forests and human needs; valuation of forest resources and products; and forest work. On Tuesday, Theme Sessions addressed: valuation of environmental benefits; local communities and institutions; acquisition and sharing of knowledge; best management practices; certification; forest and development; efficient use and processing of resources; traditional knowledge, social and spiritual values; empowerment and governance; and criteria and indicators for SFM. The following summaries review four of the Sessions.
Forests and Human Needs: On Monday, Olivier Dubois, FAO, discussed the potential of forestry-based poverty reduction strategies, but warned against overstating their potential and recommended linking the sustainable livelihoods approach to SFM. Participants then heard presentations by: Amadou Kassambara, FAO, on Mali's strategy to prevent forest degradation; Maxhun Dida, Directorate General of Forests and Pastures in Albania, on forests as safety nets for the poor; Jean-Marc Roda, French Agricultural Research Center for International Development, on new perspectives on tropical forests; and Hin Fui Lim, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, on the eradication of poverty within the Malaysian aboriginal community. David Bengston, USDA, presented views of Native Americans on natural resource management and stressed the need to interpret forest issues using a range of epistemological perspectives. Participants then discussed, inter alia: cross- sectoral approaches to forest issues; the need to compensate poor countries for their forest conservation efforts; the potential role of eco-tourism in reconciling forests and human needs; the importance of using eco-friendly traditional practices; and the need for recognition of the fundamental rights of aboriginal peoples.
Valuation of Forest Resources and Products: On Monday, Kingue Sobgoum Joseph, Doume Affiliated Forestry Company SFID, described community forest projects in Cameroon. Hamed Daly-Hassen, National Research Institute in Rural, Water and Forestry Engineering, spoke about forest products in Tunisia, in particular essential oils. Mustafa Fehmi Türker, Karadeniz Technical University, called for an integrated approach to forest management in Turkey. John Parkins, CFS, outlined numerous variables that affect the well- being of forest communities in Canada. Sharma Anuja Raj and Kenel Keshar Raj , Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation in Nepal, presented a joint paper that discussed the challenges of achieving an equitable distribution of forest products within the forestry community. Dinesh Misra, University of Toronto, discussed joint forest management initiatives in India.
Acquisition and Sharing of Knowledge: On Tuesday, Jagdish Kumar Rawat, Indian Forest Service, said that multiple stakeholders - not just foresters - could benefit from a greater understanding of forest issues. Emile Mokoko Wongolo, African Timber Organization (ATO), indicated that research, the dissemination of information and financing are key to improving future forestry work. Alice Kaudia, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, outlined critical trends in, and needs for, forest research in development, including the need for skilled human resource capital. Kaudia also noted the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS and acute poverty on human and financial resources. To improve the sharing of knowledge in Africa, Kaudia suggested, inter alia: generating statistics on the number of scientists, their fields of expertise, and the relevance of their expertise to current and future needs; attracting research funding from diverse sources; improving skills for transnational knowledge sharing and collaborative learning; determining the impact and sustainability of training programmes; and encouraging market-driven production. Henri Boukoulou, Manien Ngonabi University, noted that previously excluded groups are now recognized as stakeholders and said participatory management in rural areas can promote accountability and improve SFM in the future. Jorge Antonio Téllez, Community Forest Development, described how electronic training was used to improve knowledge of community forest management in rural areas of Bolivia. Marilyn Hoskins, Indiana University, indicated that institutional analysis can help identify incentives for planning, managing and implementing community forestry programmes. She noted that withholding information and using incompatible goals in developing community forest programmes could impede their success.
Efficient Use and Processing of Resources: On Tuesday, Emile Mokoko Wongolo, ATO, noted that sustainable forest products have become more competitive in the world market. Ian de la Roche, Forintek Canada Corporation, emphasized the need for sustainable consumption of wood products, and said wood is the only mainstream building material that is renewable. He indicated that the public wrongly understands forest politics as a choice between building with wood or saving the forest, but noted that the two goals could be compatible. De la Roche noted that wood-based construction systems are changing to meet consumer demands. Paul Vantomme, FAO, emphasized the need for improved reporting on non-wood forest products (NWFP) at the global and national levels to better incorporate NWFP into policy planning. He noted that the primary users of NFWP - developing countries, such as India, China and Indonesia - have definitions, product classifications and statistics for NWFP, but the majority of countries do not. Vantomme also recommended that countries work with customs officials to incorporate NWFP into national product classification schemes and cooperate with the World Customs Organization on NWFP. Luc Duchesne, Natural Resources Canada, explained that non-timber forest products (NTFP) can be used to reduce poverty and for ecosystem, species conservation because they require low start-up costs and create employment, and thus reduce gender inequities. He recommended that the timber industry in developed countries take into account social concerns. He also emphasized that energy consumption is the most critical issue facing the forest industry. Asghedom Ghebremichael, Natural Resources Canada, said that enhanced productivity in the timber-harvesting industry can ensure SFM and stable supply of forest products. Reynolds Okai, Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, noted that the demand for timber is increasing and discussed the challenge of promoting the use of logging residues to increase forest production.
AREA B THEME SESSIONS - FORESTS FOR THE PLANET: On Monday, Theme Sessions were convened on the following topics: the state of the forest and assessment techniques; maintenance of biodiversity; forest protection; tree improvement; management of NTFPs; and agroforestry systems. On Tuesday, Theme Sessions covered: the underlying causes of forest degradation and deforestation; climate change; functions of particular ecological zones; forest plantations; low forest cover; conservation; rehabilitation of forest sites; management of forest resources and ecosystems; and urban forestry and trees outside of forests (TOF). The following summaries review six of the Sessions.
Maintenance of Biodiversity: Participants discussed biodiversity conservation projects, including a successful reforestation project in Belize, biodiversity conservation in Luki Biosphere Reserve in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and a riparian forest conservation project in Benin. Jol Hodgson, Global Forest Nursery Development Incorporated, explained that reforestation projects could attract funding for their carbon sequestration potential. Alaric Sample, Yale University, stressed that conserving forest biodiversity requires a comprehensive strategy involving forest plantations and protected areas. Don MacIver, Meteorological Service of Canada, said that climate change requires the development of adaptive, scientific decision-making and management strategies for forest biodiversity conservation.
State of the Forest and Assessment Techniques: Anatoly Shvidenko, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, stressed that the valuation of forest resources should include ecological, social and cultural variables. Peter Holmgren and Wulf Killmann, FAO, explained that the FAO's Forest Resources Assessment would focus on forest trends, criteria and indicators, and thematic country-specific reporting, and called for harmonizing forest- related definitions to strengthen collaboration among countries and partners while easing the reporting burden on countries. Participants also heard presentations on monitoring management intensity levels in US forest areas, the surveillance of forest ecosystems in Quebec, and on declassification of forest areas in Côte d'Ivoire, which highlighted the importance of monitoring for the prevention of illegal clearcuts.
Climate Change: Participants discussed the role of forest management in dealing with climate change. Michael Apps, Natural Resources Canada, recommended reducing underlying deforestation pressures, ensuring the sustainable use of wood products and wood as biofuel and promoting agroforestry. Anne Prieur, University of Bordeaux, discussed a life-cycle approach to account for the carbon stock function of wood products and fuelwood. Haripriya Gundimeda, London School of Economics and Political Science, addressed the implications of land-use change and forestry projects under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on sustainable livelihood strategies in India. Werner Kurz, Natural Resources Canada, outlined Canada's national forest sector carbon accounting system that supports analysis, monitoring and policymaking in the context of climate change. Discussing the controversies over forest plantations in tropical countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Bruno Locatelli, French Agricultural Research Center for International Development, called for incorporating social impacts into the evaluation of CDM projects.
Participants also discussed the need to develop better tools to account for carbon storage in wood products and whether or not the issue of using wood instead of fossil fuels should be discussed at future negotiations under the Kyoto Protocol of the UNFCCC. Barthod reiterated that forestry can be one of the solutions to the climate change problem, but much remains to be done in the fields of accounting and assessment. He encouraged all participants to include storage and energy aspects of wood production in their preparations for the next round of negotiations under the Kyoto Protocol.
Urban Forestry and Trees Outside Forests: Participants discussed the role of urban forests and TOF programmes. Robert Lindeckert, Pro Silva Méditerranée, said a worldwide network of urban forest reserves is important for sharing experiences and knowledge about forests and nature. Cecil Konijnendijk, Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, stressed that rapid urbanization necessitates the development and implementation of strategies for good urban forestry practices, such as the FAO strategy on urban and peri-urban forestry. Omar Mhirit, National School of Forestry Morocco, underlined problems in developing a strategy for the management of TOF in North Africa. Noting the multiple benefits that local communities derive from non-forest wood, Bruno Locatelli, French Agricultural Research Center for International Development, suggested a new concept of "ligneous urban agrosilvopastrurals," which encompasses all types of non-forest woodlands, and called for broadening the FAO concept of TOF. Syaka Sadio, FAO, recommended addressing the problems of incentives, policy making and regulation in order to realize the potential of TOF to contribute to sustainable development. Participants also recommended that TOF management be: integrated into urban planning; based on local community involvement; adapted to local conditions; and aligned with local livelihood strategies.
Underlying Causes of Deforestation: Jean-Paul Lanly, French Academy of Agriculture, differentiated between deforestation and forest degradation, defining deforestation as the disappearance of forests, and degradation as a negative change in forest conditions. Simone Lovera, Friends of the Earth, said that tree plantations and heavily subsidized export agriculture are important causes of deforestation. Bastos da Veiga Jonas, Brazilian International Research Centre, explained how road construction and public financing in the Amazon trigger cattle ranching and consequent deforestation. Leyla Montenegro, District University of Francisco José de Caladas, summarized the results of her research on forest fragmentation in Chile. Jean-Marc Roda, French Agriculture Research Centre for International Development, discussed the underlying causes of illegal harvesting in tropical forests, including the existence of large consumer markets that do not discriminate between legally and illegally-sourced forest products. On ways to address deforestation, participants recommended, inter alia: more reliable monitoring systems and statistics are in order to increase awareness of deforestation at the political level; the protection of forest fragments and creation of biological corridors; and independent verification of management practices as a method for addressing illegal logging.
Management of Forest Resources and Ecosystems: Participants discussed whether ecosystem management can help to meet social needs. Hamish Kimmins, University of British Columbia, said that single-value forest management overlooks the complexity of ecosystems. Catherina Morosi, Italian Academy of Forest Science, overviewed the incorporation of systemic forest management into Italian forestry and conservation practices. Citing an example of a forestry development agreement involving the Innu Nation and the Government of Quebec, Larry Innes, consultant to the Innu Nation of Labrador, Canada, explained how forest management can incorporate not only ecological and economic considerations, but also traditional land ethics. Mette Wilkie, FAO, said that an FAO study revealed an increase in forest area under formal and informal management plans over the last 20 years. Rodney Keenan, Department of Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry in Australia, and Johnny Méndez Gamboa, San Carlos Forestry Development Association, described efforts to advance SFM and ecosystem and conservation approaches in Australia and Costa Rica. Dennis Garrity, World Agroforestry Centre, concluded that while ecosystem management techniques are improving, the question of whether ecosystem management can effectively reduce poverty remains unanswered.
INTRODUCTION TO THEME SESSION AREA C "FORESTS AND PEOPLE IN HARMONY": In Plenary on Friday 26 September, Kathryn Monk, Centre for Rainforest Conservation, stressed the need for good governance and a comprehensive approach to SFM, and recommended the creation of community enterprises. John Weaver, Abitibi Consolidated, presented the successes of collaborative forest management in Canada, noting the crucial role of partnerships between government and stakeholders.
AREA C THEME SESSIONS - FORESTS AND PEOPLE IN HARMONY: On Friday, Theme Sessions convened on the following topics: participatory decision making and management; forest management partnerships; forest policy and administration; cross-sectoral policies and interactions; professional development and education; and implementation of international commitments. On Saturday, Theme Sessions addressed: devolution and decentralization; incentives and financing; science, technology and institutional development; enterprise partnerships; and outlook. The following summaries review all eleven Sessions.
Participatory Decision Making and Management: Gopa Pandey, Madhya Pradesh Forest Department, spoke about community forestry in India, stressing that local empowerment, economic security, and institutional building are critical to the success of community forestry. Marilyn Headley, Ministry of Agriculture in Jamaica, shared her experience establishing local forest management committees in Jamaica. Peggy Smith, Lakehead University, emphasized that the Canadian Government should negotiate agreements with indigenous peoples on forestry to achieve sustainable integrated forest management in Canada.
Forest Management Partnerships: John Naysmith, Forestry Futures Trust, highlighted the objectives of Canada's Model Forest Programs, which include combining human ingenuity with forest ecosystems and establishing performance indicators. Gerardo Warnholtz, National Forestry Commission in Mexico, described how profitable community forest enterprises in Mexico contribute to social and economic development. Rainee Oliphant, Ministry of Agriculture in Jamaica, noted the challenges of SFM and reforestation on private land, highlighting tax exemptions as incentives for change. Robert Udell, Foothills Model Forest, stated that industry and scientists should establish partnerships. Ajit Krishnaswamy, National Network of Forest Practitioners, highlighted that participatory research plays a key role in community forestry.
Forest Policy and Administration: Juan Carlos Collarte, Regional Model Forest Centre for Latin America, showed that model forests are practical and economically viable systems that help establish trust among stakeholders. Christian Barthod, Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development in France, explained how social contracts can play a role in forestry and policy in the European context and should be complemented by traditional mechanisms, including direct subsidies and legislation. Cleto Ndikumagenge, IUCN, explained that a lack of coherence, leadership disputes and armed conflicts are real challenges to forest ecosystems in Central Africa.
Cross-Sectoral Policies and Interactions: Jeffrey Sayer, WWF International, called for holistic management of forests. Shashi Kant, University of Toronto, presented an economic theory on emerging forest property rights, which examines co-management, communal rights and public rights, and emphasizes social optimization rather than short-term economic gain. Liga Mengele, State Forest Service in Latvia, presented on ownership rights and environmental concerns, arguing that forests should be seen as legal entities with the state as their guardian.
Professional Development and Education: Jeannette Gurung, International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, called for institutionalizing gender equity in the forest sector. Omar Mhirit, National School of Forest Engineers in Morocco, recommended, inter alia: creating research and information networks and promoting information exchange with the help of international organizations. Johanne Gauthier, Order of Forestry Engineers of Quebec, discussed ways to ensure professionalism in the forest industry, including professional inspections and stringent job qualification requirements.
Implementation of International Commitments: Tiina Vähänen, FAO, described the CPF, noting its initiatives, such as a database of funding resources and the streamlining of country reporting and harmonization of definitions. Mike Apsey, National Forest Strategy Coalition, described Canada's National Forest Strategy for the custodial management of Canada's forest heritage, emphasizing its flexibility, reflexivity and stakeholder involvement. Leland Humble, CFS, proposed the implementation of FAO guidelines on wood packaging as an instrument for the reduction of pests.
Devolution and Decentralization: Ababacar Boye, Ministry of Environment in Senegal, explained how Senegal improved forest management through: new practices of resource management by local indigenous peoples; the establishment of local woodcutter groups; and the use of a local behavior code. Sushil Kumar, University of Toronto, suggested that, if decentralization policies are not accompanied by administrative reform, implementing agencies will be bound by conventional perspectives and decentralization will occur without local empowerment. Bernard Cassagne, Forest Resources Management, recommended that technical management for major forest concessions be examined and adjusted for small woodlot owners, and stressed the need of finance for small and medium-sized enterprises in Central Africa.
Incentives and Financing: Jean-Pierre Dansereau, Quebec Wood Producers Federations, described several possible tools for attaining SFM, including the regulation of private activities, market tools and public subsidies. Sándor Tóth, Pennsylvania State University, advocated the development of an informative and consistent monitoring management system, the construction of a forest cooperative, and the reform of subsidy law and policy. Rogério Carneiro de Miranda, Proleńa Trees, Water and People, described forest replacement associations in Brazil and Nicaragua, where private investment helps: plantations meet fuel wood demand; crop diversification; and the creation of employment and business opportunities. Peter Lowe, FAO, advocated the use of plantations in Africa and called for the creation of incentives, short-term financing and the development of plantation databases.
Science, Technology and Institutional Development: Osvaldo Encinas, University of the Andes, said institutional development is needed to increase the benefits that are derived from forest science and technology. Daniel Guimier, Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada, identified priorities that guide forest engineering research, including the optimization of product value, environmental protection, communication and the development of human capital. Jim Ball, independent forestry consultant, proposed that technical writing courses be incorporated into forestry education, and advocated continuing professional education and distance learning.
Enterprise Partnerships: Solange Nadeau, Natural Resources Canada, discussed community paper plant ownership in Canada, noting it helps increase capabilities of communities and flexibility of policy-makers. James Mayers, International Institute for Environment and Development, and Christine Holding Anyonge, FAO, reviewed the impacts of corporate small-holder forestry partnerships. They said the benefits for businesses include improved profitability, public image, management performance and overall market position. Jocelyn Lessard, Conference of Forestry Cooperatives in Quebec, discussed the potential of forest cooperatives to ensure the equitable distribution of forest benefits, combat poverty and respond to local communities' needs.
Outlook: C.T.S. Nair, FAO, said that changes in population, technology, and political and institutional frameworks will lead to societal change, noting that an improved understanding of human dynamics and foresight will facilitate decision making. Sen Wang, CFS, noted that forests do not serve as a reliable index for environmental quality. Rodney Keenan, Australian National University, acknowledged the importance of forest plantations in Australia, and noted that to achieve increased hardwood and plywood production and environmental protection, plantations should be developed on agricultural land. Gordon Hickey, University of British Columbia, noted that monitoring was a core necessity for SFM and said that hard laws are universally applicable, whereas soft laws are more adaptive and can be used to guide progress in forest management.
On Wednesday, 24 September, participants met in Ecoregional Sessions to share experiences, issues, solutions and aspirations in roundtable discussions based on the forests of various ecoregions: temperate, subtropical and tropical humid, dry tropical, boreal and dry-subtropical, including Mediterranean, forests. In each session, participants heard introductory speeches describing the situation and specific challenges in their ecoregion. In a General Session on Friday, the conclusions and recommendations of the Ecoregional Sessions were presented.
TEMPERATE FORESTS: Peter Csóka, State Forest Service of Hungary, said temperate forests are the only forests expanding in area, but noted that barriers to SFM in countries with economies in transition include: forest degradation; fragmentation; and changes in land use and ownership.
SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL HUMID FORESTS: Boen Purnama, Ministry of Forestry in Indonesia, identified the direct causes of deforestation, including agricultural expansion, overgrazing and fuelwood gathering, and its underlying causes, including market and policy failure and population growth. He stressed the need for species maintenance, improved communication skills and enhanced awareness among other sectors.
DRY TROPICAL FORESTS:
Ridha Fekih, Ministry of Agriculture and the Environment in Tunisia,
stressed the importance of biodiversity in dry tropical forests and the
threat of deforestation due to agriculture and fires. He emphasized the need
for an integrated approach to the conservation and sustainable management of
natural resources in dry tropical forests, underlining their importance for
DRY-SUBTROPICAL FORESTS (INCLUDING MEDITERRANEAN FORESTS): Jorge Malleux, WWF Peru, discussed the present condition of dry- subtropical forests and recommended, inter alia: developing more accurate definitions and cartographic representations of subtropical and tropical ecoregions; incorporating climate change and extreme weather factors in sustainable development plans; and using holistic participative approaches to managing vulnerable dry-subtropical ecosystems.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THEME SESSIONS AND ECOREGIONAL SESSIONS
On Friday, 26 September, a General Session heard the conclusions and recommendations of Theme Session Areas A and B and the Ecoregional Sessions. On Sunday, 28 September, a General Session heard the conclusions and recommendations of Theme Session Area C.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THEME SESSION AREAS A AND B AND ECOREGIONAL SESSIONS: On Friday, XII WFC Secretary General Jean- Louis Kérouac presented the draft synthesis report for Theme Session Area A "Forests for People," which highlights that forests are important for human needs and that the benefits derived from forests are often undervalued. He said the report's recommendations include: addressing poverty and sustaining livelihoods; placing people at the centre of forest management; enabling people to manage forests sustainably; and assessing the success of forest management. He noted that the report also includes references to gender equity, and specifies that importing countries need to recognize that they often contribute to unsustainable logging in producing countries.
Jean Prosper Koyo, FAO, presented the draft synthesis report for Theme Session Area B "Forests for the Planet," which describes the status of global forests, environmental factors and forest management trends. He explained that the report calls for actions related to poverty, climate change, watershed management, wildfire prevention and conservation. Koyo said the report also calls for participatory management, inter-sectoral policy development, and recognition of the need to manage all ecosystem values and functions. Koyo stated that the report further notes the need to: reduce reporting burdens; harmonize definitions and terms; work on criteria and indicators; and manage NWFPs of forest plantations.
Regent Gravel, Canadian Centre for Teaching and International Cooperation, presented the draft synthesis report of the Ecoregional Sessions. He summarized the strategies proposed by the roundtables, which include: implementing comprehensive education and training programmes; encouraging active local participation in decision making; creating partnership opportunities; improving certification and monitoring; implementing integrated forest management planning processes through active multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder participation; developing synergy among local traditional and technical knowledge; and harmonizing institutional, political, legal, regulatory, financial and inter- sectoral frameworks.
Following the presentations of the synthesis reports of Theme Areas A and B and the Ecoregional Sessions, Susanne Hilton, Geewehdin Consulting Services, provided some visions and strategies of various stakeholders on SFM, ecological integrity, and economic aspects. She said participants had decided that forest management should focus more closely on people and communities, equitable benefit sharing and public participation.
In the ensuing discussion, participants said the synthesis reports should make references to, inter alia: clear targets to reduce deforestation by half in the coming decades; political commitment; youth involvement; clear mechanisms for follow up to WFC recommendations; compensation for environmental services; and the need to strengthen information exchange and lobbying. Other participants recommended: taking into account the existing concentration of power and resulting pressures on communities; reflecting ecoregional differences in the Final Statement; and forwarding the outcomes of XIII WFC to decision makers, including the Canadian Prime Minister for presentation at the next G-8 meeting.
XII WFC Secretary General Jean-Louis Kérouac said the proposed changes would be incorporated into the synthesis reports for the Ecoregional Sessions and Theme Session Areas A and B. Participants adopted the synthesis reports by acclamation.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF AREA C THEME SESSIONS: On Sunday, Gerard Szaraz, XII WFC Secretariat, presented the draft synthesis report for Area C, "People and forests in Harmony." He said the report's conclusions, solutions and actions include that: no single forest management model is applicable for all situations; participatory approaches to forest management should be encouraged; authorities should be prepared to transfer forest management power and decision making to local entities, but also need to establish safeguards; forestry staff should reflect society's diversity; forestry education needs to include new approaches to forestry practice; and greater international political commitment is needed at the international level. The report mentions that globalization is altering the forest sector and that there will be increasing pressure on forests due to overconsumption by the rich and the quest of the poor to meet their basic needs. Participants then suggested amendments to the report, including the need for: finance to support the grassroots community; increased attention to gender equity; and a reference to the linkages between climate change and forests. The synthesis report for Theme Session Area C was adopted by acclamation, with the addition of proposed amendments.
OPEN FORA ON EMERGING ISSUES
On Wednesday, 24 September and Saturday, 27 September, participants engaged in open fora on emerging issues, to share viewpoints and experiences on topics of concern to the forestry sector. On Wednesday, participants deliberated on participatory management, SFM, climate change and plantations. On Saturday, participants addressed forest conservation and livelihoods, and the future of forests. The following summarizes the discussions at all six Fora.
PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT: HOW FAR SHOULD DECENTRALIZATION GO?: Panelists Gopa Pandey, Madhya Pradesh Forest Department, and Mariteuw Chimere Diaw, CIFOR, listed the necessary elements of participatory management, including appropriate leadership, balanced participation of local communities and centralized institutions, secure resources, decentralization, negotiated objectives and definitions, and monitoring. Robert Hendricks, USDA Forest Service, stressed the need to combat corruption in order to reduce deforestation and poverty.
SFM: COST OR BENEFIT AND FOR WHOM?: Luc Bouthillier, Laval University, stated that forest businesses consider economic, and not ecosystem, benefits. He advocated delegating decision making to local levels and building partnerships with people living in forests. Participants discussed how to incorporate the cultural value of the forests, environmental services and social benefits into SFM.
CLIMATE CHANGE: OPPORTUNITIES OR THREATS TO FOREST MANAGEMENT?: Martin von Mirbach, Sierra Club of Canada, stressed that the Kyoto Protocol may encourage forest projects that lead to short-term carbon sequestration, while undermining the long-term objectives of climate protection and SFM. Ivar Korsbakken, Norwegian Forest Owners' Federation, called for policies that favor carbon recycling and punish activities leading to fossil carbon releases. Participants exchanged views on the suitability of the Kyoto Protocol to support SFM. Mostafa Jafari, Low Forest Cover Countries Secretariat, concluded that more information is needed to assess the impacts of wood products management on climate change.
PLANTATIONS: THREAT TO BIODIVERSITY OR OPPORTUNITIES FOR CONSERVATION?: John Parrotta, USDA Forest Service, described plantations worldwide and listed their benefits, including: fuel production; carbon sequestration; desertification control; degraded land rehabilitation; employment creation and economic diversification. To reduce the negative effects of plantations, he called for an assessment of their social, economic and geographic characteristics. Miguel Lovera, Global Forest Coalition, listed the negative impacts of plantations and large-scale monocultures, including frequent disregard of customary ownership, loss of medicinal plants, conflicts in land ownership, and soil degradation. He recommended eliminating plantation subsidies, and advocated public investment in forest rehabilitation.
FOREST CONSERVATION AND LIVELIHOODS: TWO CONTRADICTING ISSUES OR TWO SIDES OF THE SAME CHALLENGE?: Carlos Carvalho, Secretary of State for Environment and Sustainable Development in Brazil, argued that poverty in developing countries can be attributed to globalization, which encourages the predatory use of forest resources and the use of trade restrictions and subsidies that disproportionately favor developed countries. Several participants strongly endorsed Carvalho's presentation and requested that it be referenced in the conference proceedings. Emmanuel Ze Meka, International Tropical Timber Organization, said financial resources are needed to overcome poverty, which leads to the over- exploitation of timber and the conversion of forests into agricultural lands. He advocated agroforestry, certification, the commercialization of NWFPs, community forestry, eco-tourism, and the prosecution of non-compliant forestry companies. In conclusion, Ze Meka and others called for the equitable distribution of property rights, full public participation in decision making, and partnerships between communities, responsible companies and investors.
WHO DECIDES THE FUTURE OF FORESTS?: Chair Manuel Hernández Paz, Canadian International Development Agency, noted that most forests are state-owned, and said this could change if states are unable to achieve SFM. Roger Foteu, Conference of Dense and Humid Forest Ecosystems in Central Africa, differentiated between forest ownership and control, noting that ownership must be controlled and take into account competing land uses. He said groups such as moneylenders and conservation NGOs are able to gain control over forests, and predicted that state ownership will remain the cornerstone of future forest control. Jill Bowling, WWF International, recommended that forest control be evaluated according to three criteria: decision-making processes; stakeholders involved; and suitability of the participation process. She emphasized the importance of proactive participation. Participants stressed the need to strengthen women's decision making, adding that participation requires the transfer of management rights.
Special Sessions, held on Wednesday, 24 September and Friday, 26 September, served to present the outcomes of various side events. On Wednesday, the Co-Chairs of the Indigenous Peoples' Forest Forum, Harry Bombay, National Aboriginal Forestry Association, Antonio Jacanamijoy, Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, and Lucien Wabanonik, Assembly of First Nations of Labrador and Quebec, presented the Wendake Action Plan, which requests that nation-states, international organizations and multilateral agencies recognize and guarantee indigenous peoples' right to self-determination. They called for action in the following fields: recognition of indigenous rights in forest policy; rights to resources and their equitable distribution; free prior informed consent; capacity and meaningful participation; traditional forest-related knowledge and cultural rights; economic instruments and trade agreements; and capital investment and technology.
David Beauchamp presented on behalf of the Youth Forum, stressing that youth have energy, but need support from others to: tackle social and economic inequities between decision makers and forest users; overcome ignorance about the state of forests; and address unsustainable consumption of forest products. Representatives of the Youth Forum then presented the Forum's proposed actions, such as the need to provide education and educational materials on SFM, and include a youth component throughout XIII WFC and a youth representative on future WFC drafting committees.
On Friday, Jacques Carette, CFS, informed participants that the 15th meeting of the Montreal Process Working Group had convened on Monday, 22 September, and had adopted the Quebec City Declaration on criteria and indicators for SFM.
In the General Session on Sunday, 28 September, Jason Jabbour, University of Toronto, presented the Final Statement of XII WFC, which was adopted by acclamation without amendment. The Statement includes a vision for the future that takes into account the need for social justice, economic benefits, healthy forests, responsible use, good governance, research, education and capacity building. It recognizes that the prerequisites to achieving these visions include sustained financial commitments and international cooperation, policies based on the best science and the incorporation of local and indigenous knowledge. The strategies to achieve these prerequisites are specified under the larger themes of policy, institutional and governance frameworks, partnerships, research, education and capacity building, management and monitoring.
XII WFC Secretary General Kérouac remarked that the Congress took a step forward because it addressed, for the first time in its 77 year history, the harmony that must exist between people and forests for both to survive. He reminded participants of the many actions proposed at the Congress, and urged participants to implement them upon their return to their respective countries. At the end of his speech, participants thanked WFC organizers with a standing ovation.
XII WFC Co-President Hamad acknowledged the important contributions that youth made at the Congress and the high quality of the open discussions that occurred throughout the WFC. He endorsed the long-term vision of forestry as expressed in the Final Statement, focusing in particular on public involvement, social needs and protection of forests. He concluded with a call for "long life to the forests of the world."
Hosny El-Lakany, FAO, recalling his opening speech in which he questioned whether or not the state of global forest policy was satisfactory, thanked the participants for the new direction it has forged for forest policy. He called on the forest sector to commit itself to physical and psychological rejuvenation and recommended that it take into account cultural values.
XII WFC President Dhaliwal described the Congress as a journey of discovery, exchange and sharing that will improve the future of forests. He found that the WFC was a resounding success, due to the participation of diverse stakeholders with knowledge of the forest, especially youth and indigenous peoples who called on nation-states to recognize their rights to natural resources and their meaningful participation.
XII WFC President Dhaliwal and XII WFC Co-President Hamad gaveled the meeting to a close at 11:37 am.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR
INTERNATIONAL WILDLAND FIRE CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION: The Third International Wildland Fire Conference will be held from 3-6 October 2003, in Sydney, Australia. For more information, contact: Conference and Exhibition Managers; tel: +61-2-9248-0800; fax: +61-2-9248-0894; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.wildlandfire03.com/home.asp
CONGRESS ON GLOBALIZATION, LOCALIZATION AND TROPICAL FOREST MANAGEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY: The Congress on Globalization, Localization and Tropical Forest Management will meet from 22-23 October 2003, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. For more information, contact: Mirjam Ros-Tonen, University of Amsterdam; tel: +844-825- 9267; fax: +844-825-7495; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.undp.org.vn/mlist/envirovlc/012003/post73.htm
ITTC-35 AND ITTA PREPCOM-2: The Thirty-Fifth session of the International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC-35) will be held from 3-8 November 2003, in Yokohama, Japan, followed by the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the Renegotiation of International Tropical Timber Agreement from 10-12 November 2003. For more information, contact: Alastair Sarre, ITTO Secretariat; tel: +81-45-223-1110; fax: +81-45-223-1111; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.itto.or.jp
INTERNATIONAL EXPERT MEETING ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL CODES OF PRACTICE FOR FOREST HARVESTING - ISSUES AND OPTIONS: The International Expert Meeting will convene from 17-20 November 2003, in Kisarazu City, Japan. For more information, contact: Yuji Imaizumi, International Forestry Cooperation Office; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://iufro.boku.ac.at/iufro/secre/nb-practicecodes-harvesting.htm
INTERNATIONAL TEAK CONFERENCE 2003: The International Conference on Quality Timber Product of Teak from Sustainably Managed Forests will be held from 2-5 December, 2003 in Peechi, Kerala, India. For more information, contact: K. M. Bhat, Convener, International Teak Conference 2003; tel: +91-487-269-9037; fax: +91-487-269- 9249; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.kfri.org/html/k0500frm.htm
SIMFOR 2004: Third International Symposium on Sustainable Management Of Forest Resources (SIMFOR 2004), organized by IUFRO, will be held from 21-23 April 2004, in Pinar del Rio, Cuba. For more information, contact: Fernando Hernandez Martinez; tel: +53- 82-779363; fax: +53-82-779353; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://iufro.boku.ac.at/
UNFF-4: The Fourth Meeting of the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF-4) will convene from 3-14 May 2004 in Geneva, Switzerland. For more information, contact: Mia Söderlund, UNFF Secretariat; tel: +1-212-963-3262; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/forests/session-intro.html
SIXTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON LEGAL ASPECTS OF EUROPEAN FOREST SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This Symposium, organized by IUFRO, will be held on 1 June 2004, in Brasov, Romania. For more information, contact: Peter Herbst; tel: +43-4242-52471; fax: +43-4242-264048; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://iufro.boku.ac.at/
ITTC-36: The thirty-sixth session of the ITTC will be held 20-23 July 2004 in Switzerland. For more information, contact: Alistair Sarre, ITTO Secretariat; tel: +81-45-223-1110; fax: +81-45-223- 1111; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.itto.or.jp
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