GLOBAL DIALOGUE HIGHLIGHTS:
Tuesday, 20 June 2000, Global Dialogue participants met throughout the day
in the five thematic workshops. From 16:00 to 18:00, they convened in a
plenary session for “A Talk Around the World” and to view
mini-documentaries on success stories around the world.
AROUND THE WORLD
late afternoon plenary session was convened around the theme “A talk
around the world,” reuniting Global Dialogue regional planning partners
from Asia, Africa and Latin America. The discussion revolved around
personal and success stories as well as examples of resource scarcity, and
was illustrated by mini-documentaries produced by the regional partners to
exemplify local initiatives.
panelists were: Lawrence Surendra, SEI Senior Advisor, for India;
Margarita Marino de Botero, Green College, for Columbia; Francisco Malta,
Earth Council, for Costa Rica; Jerry Gotora, CAMPFIRE, for Zimbabwe;
Lovemore Sola, Southern Africa Research and Documentation Centre, also for
Zimbabwe; and Jürgen Bertram for Asia. Panelists were invited to present
work done by their organization.
Marino de Botero stressed dialogue and communication networks and noted a
lack of involvement by the international community. She welcomed a
“revolution from the bottom-up.”
Gotora outlined success stories from Zimbabwe and presented a
mini-documentary on CAMPFIRE. He underscored the importance of indigenous
Mata introduced a mini-documentary on the Nueva Group Macadamia
Plantation, which provides free social and educational services to its
workers, and addressed watershed protection, and endemic and endangered
species. He said the cost of protecting national parks could be met by
providing incentives to private entities. He supported common but
differentiated responsibilities and called for compensating for past
Surendra deplored the use of dichotomies when invoking sustainable
conservation. He introduced a mini-documentary on an indigenous
community-based initiative that built and manages a micro-hydroelectric
plant in Orissa, India.
Bertram said Thailand’s ecological projects have been successful thanks
to the support of the King. He deplored corruption problems faced by most
Asian countries, which prevent sustainable conservation of natural
panelists queried the prospects for sustainability in the absence of
morning session of the workshop on Ecosystems 21 was convened by the GEF,
the World Bank and GTZ and was chaired by Mohamed T. El Ashry and Günther
Winckler, Coordinator of the German CCD Support Programme. It focused on
the question of drylands.
Traoré, Director, Mali Department of Agriculture, Ecology and Social
Development, presented a sub-regional action programme and highlighted the
link between desertification and poverty. He said regional and worldwide
partnerships should allow for mobility of humans and animals as an
important survival strategy against climatic variations in the context of
globalization. He stressed that limiting factors for the Sahel region are
not technological, but rather institutional, economic, socio-cultural and
financial. He also stated that the GEF must be decentralized at
sub-regional level. Turning to the issue of conflicts, he suggested
establishing a green (as opposed to red) cross to protect the environment
in conflict areas. One participant stressed that education on how to
prevent desertification is needed. Helmut Woehl, GTZ Senior Advisor to the
Namibian Desertification Control Programme, spoke about the institutions
and processes for combating desertification in Namibia. He stressed no
blueprint approaches exist and that projects must be tailored to specific
circumstances. He pointed out that success was limited in scope and
replicability and said projects often lacked horizontal and vertical
integration and adequate political, economic and legal frameworks. On the
gap between research and implementation, he warned that knowledge
management tends to marginalize political issues such as decentralization,
land tenure and water management. A participant asked if it was worth
continuing to invest in international conventions or whether it is better
to concentrate on decentralization. A panelist stated that the global
conventions provide the legal framework for decentralized implementation
and strengthen the principle of subsidiarity.
Seely, Executive Director, Namibia Desert Research Foundation, referred to
experiences at community level. She pointed out that, as a consequence of
urbanization, new social challenges need to be taken into account.
Crepin, Regional Coordinator, Global Environment Africa Region, World
Bank, highlighted reasons for moving to an integrated approach in dryland
management, including complex interactions at different levels and the
fact that dryland degradation cannot be reversed through project level
intervention. He cautioned against ad hoc fragmented activities and
sectoral approaches. He stated that implementation requires action at all
levels and that it is important to identify synergies and trade-offs.
afternoon workshop was convened by WWF and the GEF around the theme of
integrated management of international waters and achievements and
challenges in the Wadden Sea and other regions.
Dr. Peter Prokosch, Director, WWF-International Arctic Programme, called
for reflection on conservation achievements in the Wadden Sea and
discussion of future challenges, taking into account successful management
examples from other regions and sectoral activities such as sustainable
fisheries and tourism, as well as coastal engineering measures.
Enemark, Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, gave a presentation on the
trilateral sea cooperation - achievements, challenges and perspectives.
Highlighting the outstanding ecological and socioeconomic role of the
Wadden Sea, he pointed out the importance of political cooperation. He
underscored the need to build upon the agreed guiding principles and move
toward a commonly defined protection area. He outlined challenges for the
future, including developing integrated and comprehensive management
systems and stakeholder involvement.
de Jong, Mayor of the Municipality of Leek, The Netherlands, spoke about
success and future perspectives of protected areas in the Wadden Sea. She
stressed the need for the Wadden Sea countries’ governments to lay a
foundation for cohesive implementation and underlined a resolution of the
Stade Ministerial Conference in 1997 to put in place a common
understanding of the various protection regimes based on a common
classification tool. She also cautioned against the lack of information
sharing with stakeholders and civil society.
Pullen, Head of the Marine Programme for WWF UK, drew attention to new
approaches in coastal engineering measures in the UK. Outlining major
causes of and facts on the loss of coastal wetlands, she argued for
development of innovative partnerships between local and national
environmental groups, government agencies and local industries to generate
opportunities for demonstration projects. She illustrated this approach
with the Abbots Hall Farm project in Southeast England, where interest
groups, the private sector and government successfully jointly pursue the
recreation of degraded coastal ecosystems.
Kenneth Sherman, Director of the Office of Marine Ecosystem Studies,
Northeast Fisheries Science Centre, gave a presentation on marine
ecosystem management of the Baltic and other regions. He reflected on
internationally adopted principles and their application in the nine
countries bordering the Baltic Sea ecosystem, with a GEF-funded project to
be initiated in 2001.
Lankester, Director of Scomber Consultancy, The Netherlands, underscored
compatibility of fisheries and sustainable management if fisheries’
impact on the ecosystem is acceptably low. He said impact standards depend
on the ecosystem and must be defined in consultation with interest groups
and applied to all fisheries in the Wadden Sea.
Thia Eng, GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme on Building Partnerships in
Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia, pointed to a review of
the past initiatives, indicating weaknesses such as information not
meeting management requirements and approaches, being too bottom-up or
top-down. He concluded that partnerships between the various stakeholders
are essential and that ICM would be most effective if it is developed and
implemented within the local government planning and management framework.
Mathias Feige, German Institute for Economic Research in Tourism, pointed
out the need to involve the tourism industry as active partners in nature
conservation and for shared responsibilities. He noted the absence of a
joint concept of sustainable tourism which has an equilibrium of economic,
environmental and cultural needs of both tourists and locals.
Karsten Reise, Island of Sylt Research Centre for the Wadden Sea,
highlighted major strategic elements, including: addressing coastal
retreat in a well planned manner; construction of an offshore port in the
North Sea; prevention of species introduction; better assessment of
harmful substances; and better integration of coastal tourism with nature
Tuesday morning, the workshop was convened by the German Technical
Corporation Agency (GTZ) and SEI, and chaired by Hinnerk Bartles, GTZ
Bendow, Executive Secretary, International Commission for the Protection
of the Danube River (ICPDR), gave a presentation on water management and
sustainable development in the Danube river basin. He addressed, inter
alia: social and economic disparities among countries; pollution
reduction; participation; root causes of inadequate management; the Danube
water quality model; the future EU Water Framework directive; and
perspectives for international cooperation and financial support.
Yanan, Administrative Center for China’s Agenda 21, addressed
sustainable utilization of water resources. On the general situation, she
highlighted, inter alia, that while there is sufficient water in China,
there is scarcity due to per capita occupancy and that distribution of
precipitation is uneven. On water-related sustainable development, she
noted a shortage of water resources and intensifying discrepancies between
supply and demand, which threaten China’s agriculture, urban areas and
growth perspectives in general. She concluded by indicating
countermeasures for solving water resources problems, including saving,
water pricing and strengthening management. One participant highlighted
inadequacy of water pricing in developing countries and advocated the
“right to water.”
Gotora, Chairman, Mazowe Catchment Council, detailed the management work
performed by the Council in Zimbabwe rivers. He identified historical
factors that have contributed to poor water management, including
extensive dam building in the Mazowe Region and unmanaged access to water
rights and land. He outlined principles contained in the 1998 Zimbabwe
Water Act, including free primary use (domestic usage, small-scale
agriculture), adoption of the “polluter pays” system and prioritized
use of water supply.
Sharma, Joint Secretary, Indian Ministry of Agriculture, presented
watershed management experiences in India. She pointed to: unequal
geographical distribution of water; challenges ahead, including food
security, agricultural production and poverty alleviation; and the
dwindling effects of the green revolution. She identified management
schemes for both rain-fed and irrigated areas, which provide for, inter
alia, people’s involvement, empowerment of communities (financial, human
and social capitals) and monitoring.
Goldstein, Special Assistant to the Governor of São Paulo, highlighted
institutional mechanisms for water management, including the new Brazilian
Federal Water Law. She said revised water management mechanisms provide:
adjustment of management to social, cultural and physical conditions;
integration of environmental and resource management; integration of water
and sectoral planning; and empowerment of regional and local stakeholders.
She explained the system of double ownership of water resources by both
the federal State and the regions.
Bode, Executive Director, Ruhrverband, presented work performed by
Ruhrverband, a private corporation, in treating river wastewater. He
illustrated wastewater treatment with a project underway in the Ruhr
River. He said German legislation passed specifically to empower them to
carry out river conservation had facilitated the work of Ruhrverband, and
suggested other countries adopt similar legislation.
afternoon workshop was convened by the World Business Council for
Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and addressed the theme of public and
private partnerships to deliver water services.
Al Fry, WBCSD Consultant, opened the discussion and referred to
confrontations between the business community and NGOs. He said when the
notion of sustainable development started being addressed by NGOs, the
business community saw a profitable opportunity for dialogue. He noted
WBCSD was born out of this emerging corporate interest in sustainable
development and that today the priority focus of the organization is
addressing fresh water supplies.
Lamb, WBCSD, spoke on water valuation, investment and sustainable
development. He outlined: areas of consensus; infrastructure deficiencies
(unmanaged population growth, lack of efficiency in water services,
increasing requirements for sanitation services); sources of investments
(governments, ODA funds and the private sector); incentives for private
sector financing (need for return on investments, value for money, and
competent and fair regulations); and the WBCSD perspective (full cost
pricing to attract investments, provision for the poor, water as a public
good, and priced storage, treatment and delivery).
Fry noted that poor urban people pay a higher price for water. He
suggested rich people be charged above cost and poor people below cost and
that a mechanism to implement and monitor this be put in place by the
World Bank. He said dialogue was an important step in water pricing to
allow for participation and create business opportunities, and hoped water
pricing would make users more waste conscious.
participant questioned how rural areas could ever attract private sector
investments. Lamb said that the cost of technologies for water and
sanitation needed in rural areas is much lower than in cities, which
increases the value for money. He also addressed the issue of corporate
corruption, especially when funds are brought into poor areas, and
stressed the importance of corporate social responsibility in curbing
corruption flowing from corporate responsibilities. He concluded that
change requires dialogue and transparency, noting that people need to
understand the decision-making mechanism.
morning workshop, convened by Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft and the GEF,
debated strategies to promote commercial transfers of renewable energy
Molly, Executive Director, German Wind Energy Institute, gave an overview
of wind energy training courses. He highlighted creating necessary
knowledge about wind energy for decision makers, transferring political
and technical know-how and tackling political obstacles first. He stressed
transferring technical and economic know-how to enable engineers to solve
wind energy application problems.
Xinjun, Vice President, Central Southern China Electric Power Design
Institute, highlighted the power industry reform and strategy in China and
commented on a wind farm project near Lichuan. A Chinese participant
underscored China’s unstable market as a local constraint.
Dietriech Mayer, Director-General, Dewind, Lübeck, Germany, on technology
transfer, underscored the importance of equal benefits for both partners
and long-term operations. He outlined the project phases of short-term
training, transfer of hardware, long-term training in technology use and
transfer of key know-how. He emphasized that Dewind retains ownership
control over technology use and the need for secure economic and political
C.M. Kublik, Vice President, Germany Shell Solar, highlighted forecast
scenarios for increased energy demand and noted Shell projects on rural
electrification. He outlined a case example in South Africa and noted the
high cost of solar energy installation as an obstacle to rural
Böhnke, International Relations, SunTechnics, underscored that commercial
technology transfer applies to the entire marketing chain and stressed the
need support management elements of technology transfer in the local
environment. He also highlighted SunTechnic’s franchising approach and
market access strategy and noted they require a long-term, reliable
mutually binding relationship.
Anhalt, Head, IDER and Technical Director, BRASELCO, called for entry of
German companies into the Brazilian market with BRASELCO support. He
highlighted the aim of jointly offering and selling solar modules and
equipment through a distributor network in Brazil, product and service
attributes needed, the different customers and how to enter the market and
Jung, Manager, Solar Energy Project, Germany, highlighted results of the
Gelsenkirchen conference with regard to technology needs and framework
conditions, availability of appropriate/proven technologies, financing and
capacity building. He noted overall findings of lack of communication
between potential partners in the North and South and lack of mutual trust
as an important category in risk perception. He stressed harnessing
international private investment and facilitating personal interaction
between potential partners.
Rittner, Programme Manager, GEF-Washington, outlined impediments
influencing technology transfer. He noted availability of assistance tools
to address technology transfer constraints and GEF efforts to complement
these. In this regard, he highlighted provision of contingent grants and
contingent or concessional loans and noted that partial risk or credit
guarantees and investment insurance programmes are being explored.
afternoon session addressed cooperation, co-generation – co-benefit
strategic partnerships to unleash commercial potentials of renewable
Schramm, Consultant, International Finance Corporation, Washington DC,
highlighted the combined PV-Hydro approach as a means to reduce prices to
make photo-voltaic (PV) power a commercially viable option as a
supplementary power source. He noted collaboration of the organizations
involved and indicated the need for markets to get utilities interested in
making PV part of their system.
Radka, Energy Programme Coordinator, UNEP-Paris, noted the role of GEF and
UNEP implementing agencies in establishing renewable energy strategies. He
indicated the core concept of the PV-Hydro study was framed by the IFC/World
Bank based on the CEPALCO project and noted the larger interest lies in
Seifried, PV-Hydro Project Manager, Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau,
addressed prospects of PV within the scope of German Financial
Cooperation. He noted, inter alia, the general sectoral goal to
provide reliable cost effective and sustainable energy services to
increase economic productivity and improve living conditions. On costs and
financing, he noted PV applications have been confined to niche solutions
and wider use is limited by lack of purchasing power and of sustained
financing possibilities for subsidy schemes.
Wiese, Associate Team Leader, PV-Hydro Study, Lahmeyer International GmbH,
outlined PV-Hydro conjunctive use study objectives and stages, system
power scenarios, modular set-up of the planning model and indicated key PV
issues are investment costs and operational reliability. He highlighted
benefits, screening criteria, first screening results, simulation models
and project selection procedures.
Abaya, Chairman, Philippines Cagayan Electric Power & Light Company,
discussed CEPALCO’s PV-Hydro Project under a deregulated environment. He
noted the positive impacts of deregulation and the avoidable costs. He
highlighted the rational for PV-Hydro conjunctive use and non-economic
benefits including independence from imported fuel and reduction of gas
emission. Stressing reducing the cost of renewable sources, he supported a
deregulated power business environment and advocated private sector
participation in addition to financial assistance while the PV market is
Oswald, President and CEO, Siemens Solar GmbH-Germany, noted lack of
access to electricity and PV growth potential and highlighted rural
electrification barriers within governments, banks, manufacturers,
dealers/installers and customers. He said the PV-Hydro initiative was a
brilliant solution to overcome most of the barriers and complement and
enhance the performance of many small hydro power plants, but economic
conditions are extremely challenging.
discussed, inter alia, precedents, practicality, incentives, costs
implications and timing for PV use. Panelists stressed, inter alia,
making the market a reality, early collaboration, technological
improvement, accessibility of different PV uses and the difficulty of
reducing costs without demand.
morning workshop addressed solutions to the forest crisis. Chair Angela
Cropper, International Board of Trustees, Iwokrama International Centre
for Rainforest Conservation and Development, spoke of the WCFSD forest
trust, composed of four key components: Forest Watch, a mechanism for information access and pooling;
an ombudsman function covering issues of equity and transparency; a Forest
Management Council, coordinating between overlapping criteria and
indicator initiatives; a forest award, including global, national and
local rewards for good forestry practice.
Pearce, Director, UK Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global
Environment, spoke of market’s failure to capture service values of
forest resources and suggested innovative solutions to tackling
deforestation, such as watershed management and carbon sequestration. He
emphasized that all ecological functions are economic functions and
suggested alternative economic approaches can provide practical and
immediate solutions. On property rights, he said paying for environmental
services are not a solution as population and corruption are larger
Fry, WBCSD, highlighted positive developments in the forest industry,
including well developed systems of plantations on previously degraded
land and forging of new partnership with different actors.
Pollock, Eco2000, spoke of grassroots experiences of establishing
successful forest farms in New Zealand.
Poffenberger, Director, Asia Forest Network, outlined success stories of
community forestry initiatives in India, Nepal, the Philippines and
Vietnam. He stressed the importance of community adaptation to
environmental crisis and described community transition from state
ownership of forests to new governance structures. He suggested changes
stemmed from severe land degradation, poor economies and political
pressures by rural people, and stressed the re-emergence of stewardship
over natural resources.
McCrory, Valhalla Wilderness Society, spoke about British Colombia’s
forest crisis, stating that almost a million hectares of forest per year
are harvested. She stressed that true forest stewardship will bring about
sustainability and the potential for implementation of a community
touched on: the importance of grassroots initiatives; emerging
environmental services of forests, such as carbon and certification; and
the need for investment in forestry research and the importance of global
and international approaches towards forest management.
afternoon workshop concentrated on overcoming obstacles in forestry and
the themes of sustainability and governance, technical solutions and
structural reforms, the politics of forests, and the challenges for
political and economic systems for change.
Norman Myers, Professor, stressed that we are facing a forest disaster and
reminded that tropical deforestation is increasing due to shifting
Dowdeswell, former Executive Director, UNEP Canada, identified the need to
effectively understand the nature of sustainability and to pursue creative
environmental governance clarifying the role of the intergovernmental
community to achieve sustainable development. She suggested an
eco-systemic approach to environmental problems, highlighting
interdependence and diversity. She
emphasized the importance of linkages, between, inter alia, science and
policy, and people and governments. On governance, she suggested
institutional and behavioral challenges are the key to creative
technical solutions and structural reforms, Maria J. Cruz, GEF Senior
Social Scientist, called for community based natural resource management;
accountability; broaden constituency; responsive business practices; and
sharing technological advances. On implications for Rio +10, she
highlighted: deforestation as a global problem; inclusion of forestry
issues in national environmental strategies; and linking forestry
programmes to poverty alleviation.
Munting, Co-founder of GLOBE International underscored the importance of
approaching politicians with substantive information. He supported WCFSD
suggestions for a Forest Capital Index.
Möller, Secretary General of the Club of Rome, highlighted developed
countries’ responsibility toward sustainable forestry and the role of
business initiatives in the future of green markets.
ensued on global governance, the need for institutional change for
forestry and the prospect of a forest convention. Certain participants
defended that forestry would be more effectively dealt with at the
national level. Ola Ullsten, World Commission on Sustainable Development,
outlined the priorities of the WCFSD report, including: developing the
Forest Capital Index; pursuing the forest trust supported by IISD; and
encouraging governments to take a lead in forest issues.
morning workshop, convened by WBCSD and chaired by Dawn Rittenhouse,
DuPont Corporation, addressed markets, knowledge and sustainable
de Leeuw, Programme Director, Sustainable Consumption, UNEP Division of
Technology, Industry, and Economics, stressed the importance of proper
information dissemination, youth participation, training and networking,
and accessible pricing in markets in order to facilitate sustainable
Kell, Special Advisor to the UN Secretary General, stressed the importance
of shared responsibility and self-enlightened interest. He supported the
integration of developing countries in the market and noted that poverty
is frequently a result of insufficient training and government failure. In
creating sustainable markets, he called for attention to human rights and
environment as well as trade interests.
Manzini, Director of the Italian Department of Industrial Design and
Architectural Technology, outlined a society in which sustainable
businesses would enable people to both live better and consume less. He
called for a shift from market models based on material products to one
based on service and knowledge and, beyond this, a shift in consumer
ideology to value social common goods.
Frieman, Chairman of the Board on Sustainable Development, USA National
Research Council, called for collaborative efforts to create a new science
of sustainability. He noted the Internet economy and e-commerce were
creating a fundamental shift in the relationship between energy and growth
and described a trend of decreased energy consumption with increased
Weir, Community and NGO Affairs Manager, Corporate Relations Department.
Unilever PLC, discussed ways in which responsible business could provide
pathways to sustainable markets. She outlined a market programme wherein
growth would not be dependent on natural resource consumption. Noting that
products on the market need to be sustainable, she stressed mutual
responsibility between businesses, government and consumers. She
highlighted the importance of informed consumers and a
community/government mandated framework of sustainability goals for
afternoon workshop was chaired by Michael Hanssler, Executive Director of
the Bellagio Forum for Sustainable Development.
Rittenhouse, Business Sustainable and Product Stewardship Leader, DuPont
Corp., discussed DuPont’s new sustainable development-oriented corporate
image. Methods of bringing about corporate and public awareness of this
shift included the creation of environmental “to-do” lists for both
the company as a whole and for individual employees.
Henriques, Director, Job Creation and Enterprise Development, ILO,
discussed unemployment and poverty in the sustainable development context.
He discussed: ILO’s action toward self-employment in developing
countries; impediments to small business growth, specifically an
inadequate legal framework; ineffective government subsidies; property
rights; and lack of understanding of markets. ILO programmes take on board
entrepreneurial training, radio and TV publicity, management training
packages, and sponsorship programmes that link small businesses with
Rittner, Programme Manager, GEF-Washington, discussed the GEF’s efforts
to promote customized sustainable investments for business needs. He
discussed the importance of private-public sector partnerships and the
need to merge divergent interests in win-win situations that would have
environmental and economic benefits. He noted that such partnerships were
hindered by a lack of appropriate investment assessment and venture
capital and the lack of incentives for market transparency. He called for
innovative advisory and financial services that could resolve these
problems by allowing cost circulation and benefit sharing.
He also suggested strategic partnerships to aggregate supply and
demand in developing countries.
Jan Krouwel, Head of Sustainable Development Department, Rabobank, The
Netherlands, discussed the role of the financial sector in sustainable
development. He suggested the financial sector has the social
responsibility to promote ethical investment and sustainable development.
He discussed green management composed of strategic sustainable
development, handling in-company environmental issues and the allocation
of special/innovation funds for environmental projects.
Carlson, Director General, EAAA-Brussels, discussed advertisement and
sustainable development. He proposed that, by mirroring trends,
advertising could create trust and relationships. As a method of social
communication, he stressed that advertising must be specific to a recent
UNEP communication project. He discussed the need for consumers, marketers
and advertisement agencies to work together for ideal communication and
Hardi, Senior Fellow and Programme Director, IISD, discussed the
importance of indicators in monitoring the progress of sustainable
development in projects and communities. He noted that indicators act as a
link between present activities and future goals and described indicators
used by IISD. The importance of making indicators both complex enough to
tackle the complex issue of sustainable development and accessible to
shareholders and businesses was also addressed. More information can be
found at http://www.iisd1.iisd.ca/linkages/measures/compendum.asp.
ensuing discussion focused on the importance of market technology and
information dissemination in developing countries, the problems with
communicating between cultures, and the need to find appropriate
indicators for sustainability.
TO LOOK FOR TODAY
Participants will gather in a youth vision Plenary entitled ï¿½Preparing
future decision-makersï¿½ from 9:30 to 12:00 in Room 2. A synthesis
Plenary will be held at 13:00 in Room 2, followed by a closing Plenary at
16:00 for participants and panelists to discuss the platform for the
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