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December 2008

UNWTO CONFERENCE STRESSES ROLE OF TOURISM IN A GREEN ECONOMIC NEW DEAL FOR ASIA PACIFIC

The Second UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Conference on Tourism Trends and Outlook for the Asia Pacific took place from 17-19 December 2008, in Guilin, China, and gathered over 100 experts from 25 countries. Delegates concluded that tourism in the Asia Pacific region has been affected by the economic slowdown, but can play a vital role in a long-term green economic new deal. Participants also stressed the need to look at the longer term and position tourism against global challenges such as poverty and climate change. Links to further information UNWTO Press Release, 22 December 2008 Conference website
UNGA CONSIDERS 34 DEVELOPMENT-RELATED RESOLUTIONS FROM SECOND COMMITTEE

Among the 34 development-related actions put forward by the Second Committee (Economic and Financial), the UN General Assembly (UNGA) has adopted resolutions regarding the economic ramifications of climate change, and addressing the need for a more equitable international financial system and to bolster developing countries' resilience to financial risk. Resolutions related to water pollution included a resolution regarding the oil slick on Lebanese shores. By a vote, the Assembly requested that Israel compensate Lebanon and Syria for the costs of repairing the environmental damage caused by the destruction of oil storage tanks near Lebanon's Jiyah electric power plant, including restoration of the marine environment. It decided to set up a voluntary trust fund for an eastern Mediterranean oil spill restoration to support integrated, environmentally sound management of the environmental disaster resulting from the destruction. Further, the UNGA adopted a text titled “Towards the sustainable development of the Caribbean Sea for present and future generations,” calling on the UN and the international community to help Caribbean countries and regional organizations protect the sea from degradation due to pollution from ships, illegal dumping or hazardous waste, and to provide them with aid for long-term disaster relief. Link to further information UN Press Release, 19 December 2008
EUROPEAN COUNCIL APPROVES CLIMATE CHANGE DEAL

The European Council met in Brussels, Belgium, from 11-12 December 2008, and reached agreement on an energy and climate change package. The package was subsequently adopted on 17 December 2008, on the first reading by the European Parliament. The package seeks to lead to the implementation of the energy and climate commitments entered into by the EU in March 2007 and March 2008, especially the target of a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. In its conclusions, the European Council confirmed the EU's commitment to increasing this reduction to 30% within the framework of an ambitious and comprehensive global agreement in Copenhagen on climate change for the period after 2012, on condition that the other developed countries undertake to achieve comparable emission reductions and that the economically more advanced developing countries make a contribution commensurate with their respective responsibilities and capabilities. In March 2010, the Commission will present to the European Council a detailed analysis of the results of the December 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, including the move from a 20% to a 30% reduction. On this basis, the European Council will make an assessment of the situation, including its effects on the competitiveness of European industry and other economic sectors. The plan was welcomed by UNFCCC Executive Secretary Yvo de Boer as a sign of “developed countries' resolve and courage that the world has been waiting for in Poznan.” Links to further information Conclusions of the European Council European Union Press Release, 17 December 2008 UN Press release UNFCCC Press release
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT GROUP CONSIDERS CLIMATE NEUTRAL UN

The 14th Senior Officials Meeting of the Environment Management Group convened on 10 December 2008, in Poznan, Poland. Participants discussed: implementation of the 2007 commitment by the Chief Executives Board on moving towards a climate-neutral UN, including the development of a Climate Neutral Knowledge Management website that will document individual agency's greenhouse gas emissions and reductions; the cost implications and budgetary modalities of purchasing carbon offsets; and future EMG work, including a possible strategic process and the strategy for implementation of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification and the 2010 biodiversity targets. Regarding the issue of a climate-neutral UN, participants discussed the significant contributions of air travel to the UN's climate footprint. They also considered the Issue Management Group on a Climate Neutral UN's agreement for a common approach on whether to use the Radiative Forcing Index as a metric. Link to further information Meeting website
REPLENISHMENT CONFERENCE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUND GARNERS US$380 MILLION

Approximately US$380 million was pledged to the voluntarily-funded Central Emergency Relief Fund (CERF) during the High-level Conference on the Central Emergency Response Fund, organized by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, in New York, US. The CERF was set up in 2006 to speed relief for natural and man-made disasters. In a message delivered at the event, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon underlined the key role played by the Organization in terms of emergency assistance. He noted the importance of humanitarian disaster response for development, and stressed that the financial crisis, climate change and population growth are likely to increase demands for relief aid in the future. He indicated that currently nearly 20% of CERF funds are used to help people suffering from climate-related disasters and called on delegates to contribute generously appealed to the to the CERF. Link to further information UN Press Release, 4 December 2008
UNEP GATHERS LEADERS TO SHAPE UN GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE

The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) convened economists, academics and leaders of private and public institutions at an “International Workshop to take forward the Global Initiative on the Green Economy.” The workshop, which met in Geneva, Switzerland, from 1-3 December 2008, considered the US$4 million UN Green Economy Initiative, which was launched on 22 October 2008, and seeks to respond to the global economic downturn by focusing policymakers on the promise of economic growth and job creation in environmental industries. Meeting attendees considered and shared ideas on: a sustainable green economy; the role of socially and environmentally responsible investments in such an economy; the institutions needed to enable the transition to a “green” economy; and relevant analytical challenges, including in modeling. The six areas of focus considered by break-out groups were: environmental infrastructure; biodiversity-based business; clean and efficient technologies; renewable energy; chemicals and waste management; green cities; buildings; and transport. Links to further information UNEP Press Release, 25 November 2008 UNEP Green Economy Initiative Website Conference website

November 2008

REGIONAL SEAS GLOBAL MEETING ADOPTS STATEMENT ON IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COASTAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

The 10th Global Meeting of the Regional Seas Conventions and Action Plans convened from 25-27 November 2008, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, and addressed issues related to: climate change, including adaptation to climate change vulnerability and sea-level rise; preparations for the Regional Ministerial Forum on Climate Change; ecosystem management; cooperation with Multilateral Environmental Agreements; sustainable financing and legal instruments to further the implementation of the Regional Seas' work programme; and operational considerations. At the end of the meeting, delegates adopted a statement regarding climate change that recognizes that its consequences will be profound and long term. The statement underlines the need for multidisciplinary efforts to adapt to, and mitigate the impacts of, climate change on coastal and marine ecosystems, and the services they provide to human well-being. The statement further underscores the importance of collaboration and coordination among international and regional organizations, governments, civil society and the private sector. The meeting concluded that there is an urgent need to strengthen political will, secure sustained financial support, develop the necessary frameworks, and coordinate existing conventions, programmes, projects and activities to ensure effective adaptation to, and mitigation of the impacts of, climate change. The meeting also stressed the importance of incorporating climate change as a cross-cutting issue in sustainable development processes. Recognizing that the global impacts of climate change will need to be dealt with on a regional basis, participants supported the initiative of the Permanent Commission for the South Pacific to convene a high-level regional conference on climate change and its impacts on the coastal and marine environment of the Southeast Pacific. Link to further information Meeting website
CONSIDERATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE CHANGES CONTINUES

UN member States concluded their review of the latest draft resolution on international environmental governance on 25 November 2008, focusing on regional presence, capacity building, information technologies and financing. They also discussed further consultations to explore the possibility of a more coherent institutional framework for international environmental governance. Financing was reported to be a source of continuing disagreement, with debates focusing on the efficiency in the use of funds and the level of funding. Delegates also expressed different views regarding the Secretary-General's request that the UN Environment Programme create and maintain a Global Environmental Finance Tracking System. The Co-Chairs were expected to develop a new draft resolution, based on the comments made in two sessions held in late 2008. Link to further information Reform the UN update, 15 December 2008
SECOND COMMITTEE APPROVES DRAFT RESOLUTIONS

The Second Committee (Economic and Financial) of the UN General Assembly (UNGA), at its 63rd session on 24 November 2008, approved by consensus a draft resolution calling for urgent global action to address climate change. In the draft resolution, the UNGA would, inter alia, stress the seriousness of climate change, call for full implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and recognize the need to provide financial and technical resources. The Second Committee also approved a draft resolution that calls for the effective implementation of the commitments adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development and as contained in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, invites Member States to express their views on the possibility of convening a high-level event on sustainable development and calls for the Secretary-General to report back to the UNGA on these views, and reaffirms the need for financing to support the implementation of Agenda 21. The Second Committee also approved, on 26 November 2008, draft text on small island sustainable development, desertification, and oceans. On oceans, the Committee approved by consensus a draft resolution titled “towards the sustainable development of the Caribbean Sea for present and future generations.” The draft calls on the UN and member states to help Caribbean states and regional organizations to protect the Caribbean from pollution due to ships, illegal dumping and hazardous wastes, and to become parties to relevant multilateral agreements. On small island developing states (SIDS), the Committee approved a draft resolution urging the UN, member states, and the Global Environment Facility to implement the Mauritius Declaration and the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS, as well as to help SIDS in their adaptation efforts. On desertification, the Second Committee recommended that UNGA call for the integration of desertification and land degradation into sustainable development plans and strategies, encourage affected States parties and donors to take into account civil society's participation in Convention processes when setting priorities in national development strategies, and urge the Committee on Science and Technology to expedite efforts to create links with scientific communities in order to fully use relevant initiatives in sustainable land and water management. On disasters, a draft text was agreed that calls on the international community to provide predictable resources to vulnerable developing countries and stresses the importance of the Hyogo Declaration and the Hyogo Framework for Action in disaster risk reduction. Another draft resolution was agreed that calls for the implementation of the Hyogo documents, institutional strengthening, and contributions to the UN Trust Fund for Disaster Reduction. Links to further information Press Release on GA/EF/3233, 25 November 2008 Draft resolution A/C.2/63/L.62, 25 November 2008 UN Press Release on SIDS, Desertification, Disasters, 26 November 2008
FAO SPECIAL SESSION ADOPTS “IMMEDIATE PLAN OF ACTION”

The 35th Special Session of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Conference, which convened from 18-22 November 2008, in Rome, Italy, has adopted a three-year Immediate Plan of Action (IPA), which will implement an agenda for “reform with growth” as recommended by an independent external evaluation completed last year. The Plan provides for enhancing FAO governance and improving its performance through streamlined management, and by focusing more closely on core objectives and functions. The IPA introduces a results-based framework for all FAO's work, consisting of global goals, strategic objectives, organizational results and core functions. The IPA further lays out strategies and timetables for reforming FAO's governing bodies, systems and organizational structures, as well as further actions to improve the effectiveness of FAO governance. The Plan's Annex provides a summary of costs, savings, resource requirements and implementation schedule. Links to further information FAO Press Release, 22 November 2008 Resolution and Immediate Plan of Action
MEETING ON BIODIVERSITY AND INDUSTRY HELD IN PARIS

The European Platform for Biodiversity Research Strategy (EPBRS) week was held from 17-21 November 2008, in Paris, France, under the French Presidency of the EU. A meeting on biodiversity and industry was organized on 18 November 2008, to examine the current situation, biodiversity and corporate strategies, and compensation issues. During the meeting, a memorandum of cooperation was signed between CBD Executive Secretary Ahmed Djoghlaf and Bernard Delay, President of the Fondation pour la recherche sur la biodiversité. Links to further information Meeting's programme Speech by the CBD Executive Secretary (in French)
CCMLR PROTECTS TWO SOUTHERN OCEAN SEABED AREAS

The 27th meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) took place in Hobart, Australia, from 27 October to 7 November 2008, and gathered 200 representatives from the 25 signatory States. During the meeting, delegates voted in favor of an Australian proposal to protect two 400 square kilometer areas of seabed by designating them vulnerable marine ecosystems in which certain damaging fishing methods, such as bottom trawling, are prohibited. Significantly, the protection agreement is structured so that other areas with similar ecological qualities can also be made off limits to fishing when identified. Another outcome of the meeting was the adoption of a notification scheme for transshipments and a classification code for Antarctic krill products. The European Commission expressed disappointment that delegates had opposed the Community's trade measure proposals, noting that such measures can play an important role in tackling illegal fishing. CCAMLR was created in 1982 and is responsible for the conservation and management of marine living resources and their rational use in the Southern Ocean. The main commercial fisheries in the Convention area are for krill and Patagonian toothfish. Links to further information EU Press Release, 14 November 2008 The Daily, 8 November 2008
EU FOREST LAW ENFORCEMENT, GOVERNANCE AND TRADE INFORMATION AVAILABLE

A side event on the EU's Forest Law, Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan took place on 6 November 2008, at the 44th session of the International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC) held in Yokohama, Japan. Several briefing notes, information on the legislative proposal for regulating timber products in the Community market, and other information are now available online. Link to further information EU FLEGT Side Event at ITTC 44
UNEP CO-SPONSORS CONFERENCE ON MILITARY'S ROLE IN CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

The UN Environment Programme (UNEP), along with the EU Member States Defense Environment Network, the US Department of Defense, the Institute for Environmental Security, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Institute for Defense Analysis, and the Environment and Security Initiative, co-sponsored a meeting from 3-5 November 2008 in Paris, France, on “The Importance of Military Organizations in Protecting the Climate: 2008.” The conference, which is the fifth in a series that began in 1991, sought to, inter alia: highlight lessons from the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer; present military and commercial case studies of climate leadership; discuss progress and challenges in the field; and work towards engaging the military community in mitigating climate change. Participants also considered the importance of cooperation for climate and security, the role of accurate greenhouse gas accounting and specific technologies that can be utilized to reduce emissions. Links to further information International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enfor..., 3 November 2008 Your Defence News, 31 October 2008

October 2008

UN SECRETARY-GENERAL: FINANCIAL CRISIS COULD “ECLIPSE THE GLOBAL EFFORT TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE”

In a speech delivered in late October at the University of Philippines, in Manila, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon indicated that his “most immediate concern” was that the financial crisis could “eclipse the global effort to address climate change.” He noted that, while developing countries face the same pressures as the US and Europe, they lack the resources to tackle the crisis. To address the global food, energy and financial crises as well as the threat of climate change, he stressed the need to “act in global solidarity” and “take international cooperation to new levels.” The Secretary-General's comments preceded the holding of an Interactive Panel of the UNGA on the Global Financial Crisis, which was held at UN Headquarters on 30 October 2008. The event included keynote presentations from Joseph Stiglitz and a number of other economists, as well as speeches from Member States. Links to further information Secretary-General's speech, 29 October 2008 The Interactive Panel of the UNGA on the Global Financial Cr...
UNGA SECOND COMMITTEE CONSIDERS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS, CLIMATE CHANGE, DESERTIFICATION AND BIODIVERSITY

The Second Committee (Economic and Financial issues) of the 63rd UN General Assembly (UNGA) has recently considered a variety of topics related to sustainable development, including climate change, desertification, biodiversity and human settlements. On 28 October 2008, the Committee considered the report of the Secretary-General on the Implementation of the Outcome of the UN Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and strengthening of the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (document A/63/291). The report outlines how the medium-term strategic and institutional plan for 2008-2013 addresses the adaptation and mitigation challenges of climate change in the context of urban development and planning. Discussions in the Second Committee focused, among other issues, on the role of housing finance in the current economic crisis, the need to implement the Habitat Agenda given rapid urbanization. The previous day, on 27 October, the Committee began its general discussion on sustainable development, discussing issues relating to climate change, biodiversity and desertification. Speakers underscored the opportunity to make commitments given the economic and climate imperatives. The discussions were informed by the Secretary-General's note on Implementation of UN environmental conventions, transmitting the reports submitted by the secretariats of the UNFCCC, the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (Document A/63/294). The document reports on the work of the UN Climate Change Conference, which took place in Bali, Indonesia, in December 2007, and its follow-up. The Report recommends that the UNGA: take note of the report of the UNFCCC Executive Secretary and the outcomes of COP13 and the third session of the COP to the Convention serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol; pledge its support to the negotiating processes established by the Bali road map; and invite the Executive Secretary to continue to report to it on the work of the Conference. In his report on implementing the UNCCD, the Secretary-General recommends that UNGA underline the importance of the Convention when addressing climate change issues, and envisages that the post-Kyoto arrangement should account for land's potential as a carbon storage reservoir, as well as in mitigating the effects of climate change and strengthening the resilience of affected developing countries. The report outlines actions aimed at delivery of the joint strategic objectives of the three Rio Conventions, namely: raising public awareness; creating capacities; contributing to the improvement of the global environment; and fostering strong scientific backing for sustainable policies derived from their implementation. Links to further information UNGA Press Release, 28 October 2008 Report of the Secretary-General on Habitat II Conference, 14 August 2008 UN Press Release, 27 October 2008 Note by the Secretary-General on the Implementation of UN en..., 15 August 2008
EU TO REINFORCE TUNA PROTECTION

EU Fisheries Ministers meeting in Luxemburg on 27 October 2008 have called for greater protection measures for the dwindling population of bluefin tuna. Ministers requested the European Commission to push for stricter controls and lower quotas at the next meeting of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) in Morocco from 17-24 November 2008. Conservation groups have been calling for a fishing ban. European ministers also agreed that fishing for deep-sea sharks should be banned from 2010 and that quotas on cod, herring and salmon in the Baltic Sea will be reduced from this year. Links to further information EU Observer, 28 October 2008 WWF Press Release, 30 October 2008
EU, ASIAN NATIONS REAFFIRM NEED FOR COPENHAGEN DEAL

The EU and 24 Asian States have signed a declaration urging agreement on an international framework on climate change at the Copenhagen negotiations in December 2009. The Beijing Declaration on Sustainable Development was agreed and signed during the Seventh Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), held from 24-25 October in Beijing, China. ASEM was launched in 1996 to strengthen “interaction and mutual understanding between the two regions.” The Beijing Declaration states that “developed countries should continue to show strong leadership and take measurable, reportable and verifiable nationally appropriate mitigation commitments, including quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives, including through sectoral approach, where appropriate, as a tool to implement them, and provide financial support and technology transfer to developing countries.” For developing countries, the declaration states that they should take “nationally appropriate mitigation actions in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner, with a view to achieving a deviation from business as usual emissions.” The declaration also contains several paragraphs dealing with the Millennium Development Goals and with social cohesion. Links to further information Beijing Declaration on Sustainable Development – official te..., 27 October 2008 Chair's Statement from the meeting, 25 October 2008 EurActiv News Report, 27 October 2008
UN CHIEF EXECUTIVES BOARD MEETING CALLS FOR PROTECTION TO THE POOR

On 24 October 2008, the Chief Executives Board (CEB), comprised of the heads of UN agencies, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, gathered to discuss ways in which the United Nations system must respond to the financial crisis in a coordinated manner, to protect the most vulnerable and the poor and toensure that crucial issues such as climate change, the Millennium Development Goals, the food crisis and the health needs of the poor are not forgotten. Links to further information UN News Centre, 24 October 2008 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's remarks to the Chief Exec..., 24 October 2008
INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY AGENCY TO BE FOUNDED IN JANUARY 2009

From 23-24 October 2008, 51 countries met in Madrid, Spain, at the final preparatory conference for the foundation of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Participants finalized discussions on the Statute of IRENA, as well as on procedures and criteria for selecting IRENA's interim Director-General and interim headquarters, paving the way for IRENA's founding conference, to be held on 26 January 2009, in Bonn, Germany. A Preparatory Commission was established as an interim body of IRENA. Its first meeting will be held on 27 January, the day after the founding conference. Participants at the final preparatory conference also expressed general agreement on the scope of IRENA's initial activities. The work programme will be further developed between the Founding Conference and the second meeting of the Preparatory Commission in June 2009. Emphasis will be placed on providing, upon request, policy advice for national governments, and facilitating technology transfer and capacity building. The agency will work in close coordination with other related international organizations. Link to further information IRENA website
REGIONAL CONSULTATION MECHANISM MEETING OF UN AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS WORKING IN AFRICA CONVENES

The ninth Regional Consultation Mechanism (RCM) meeting of UN agencies and organizations working in Africa convened in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 21-22 October 2008. The meeting was co-Chaired by UN Deputy Secretary-General Asha-Rose Migiro, who warned that the global financial crisis, compounded by food shortages and the effects of climate change, could “derail Africa's prospects” of attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). She underlined that all the global challenges faced by Africa are intertwined and that efforts to address climate change and food security are integral parts of achieving the MDGs. Migiro called on all UN agencies and organizations working in Africa in support of the African Union to work together and coherently at all levels to seek common solutions to these challenges. The participating organizations concluded that there is a “strong need for coordinated UN-wide support in the area of capacity building of the key players in the continent, including at the levels of African Union Commission, Regional Economic Communities, NEPAD Secretariat, and other African organizations.” They called on all RCM clusters to work collectively to assist all stakeholders to build capacity, and to support efforts to enhance the relationships between the UN and African regional and subregional organizations, and to strengthen the RCM Secretariat based at the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). Links to further information ECA Press Release, 24 October 2008 RCM website Deputy Secretary-General's Statement, 21 October 2008
WIPO COMMITTEE ON GENETIC RESOURCES AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE CONSULTATIONS TO CONTINUE

Held from 13-17 October 2008, in Geneva, Switzerland, the 13th session of the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) ended with no agreement. Despite the encouragement of WIPO Director General Francis Gurry to move to concrete progress, two detailed analytical background papers from the secretariat, and a proposal from the African Group, positions remained largely unchanged from past IGC meetings. What stalled this week's meeting was disagreement on two competing proposals on future work: one submitted by the African Group early Monday morning, 13 October, and then revised following consultations with members, and one tabled by meeting Chair Rigoberto Gauto Vielman (Paraguay) at midday on Friday. The Chair's text adhered closely to a text circulated by France, which sources said was on behalf of the EU, in informal sessions earlier on Friday. Key disagreements were over the composition of the proposed three intersessional working groups, the timing of the sessions, and whether or not to make the three meetings concurrent. The three working groups would focus on the following issue areas: traditional knowledge; traditional cultural expressions;and genetic resources. Following the meeting's closure, WIPO Director General Francis Gurry and Chair Rigoberto Gauto Vielman said they would pursue efforts in the coming weeks to bridge differences on the way to move negotiations forward. Links to further information WIPO press release, 21 October 2008 IP Watch, 18 October 2008 All IP Watch articles on the meeting Meeting website
UNU, UNCCD, UNEP AND IMO ORGANIZE ENVIRONMENTAL REFUGEE CONFERENCE

The UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), UN Environment Programme (UNEP), and International Organization for Migration (IOM) were among the organizing partners for a UN University (UNU) hosted International Conference on Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability, which took place in Bonn, Germany, from 9-11 October 2008. Participants were asked to capture the current state of research and debate on the issue, and to conclude with recommendations for moving forward. Speaking at the Conference, the UNCCD Secretariat suggested that an international definition of “environmental refugees” should be agreed upon, because UN treaties recognize only political refugees as eligible for aid from the UN refugee agency. Coinciding with the meeting, the UNCCD developed a webpage on desertification and migration. The page notes that Operational Objective 2 of the ten-year strategy for the UNCCD, which was adopted in 2008, covers the issue of environment and migration. The conference also served as a platform to introduce the Climate Change, Environment and Migration Alliance (CCEMA), which was initiated in April 2008 by UNU, IOM, UNEP and the Munich Re Foundation. This Alliance is a multi-stakeholder global partnership that aims to mainstream environmental and climate change considerations into migration management policies and practices, and to bring migration issues into global environmental and climate change discourse. Links to further information International Conference on "Environment, Forced Migration a..., Bonn, Germany, 9-11 October 2008 UNCCD Statement UNCCD Desertification and Migration webpage UNU-EHS Press Release
FAO'S COMMITTEE ON FISHERIES DISCUSSES CHALLENGES FACED BY AQUACULTURE

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) Committee on Fisheries (COFI), Sub-Committee on Aquaculture, met in Puerto Varas, Chile, from 6-10 October 2008. At the meeting a report prepared by the FAO outlining issues facing the future of fish farming was presented. In the report, the FAO expresses concern that the aquaculture industry may struggle to meet future world demand for fish as a rising global population consumes an increasing quantity of fish and small farmers in poor countries face difficulties in exporting their produce. During the meeting, participants discussed: the Technical Guidelines on aquaculture certification; improving progress reporting on the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, in particular the provisions relevant to aquaculture and culture-based fisheries; improving governance in aquaculture; and opportunities for addressing the challenges in meeting the rising global demand for food fish from aquaculture. Links to further information COFI Sub-Committee on Aquaculture - 4th Session website FAO Press Release, 6 October 2008
WHO EXPERTS DEVELOP RESEARCH AGENDA ON CLIMATE AND HUMAN HEALTH

Climate change and human health experts discussed health risks from climate change at a meeting in Madrid, Spain, from 6-8 October 2008, and agreed on a research agenda for the topic. The research plan was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) with input from researchers in the field, and makes note of five priority research areas: interactions of climate change with other health-related determinants and trends; direct and indirect climate impacts on human health; effectiveness of various strategies to contend with climate-related health impacts; health implications of climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and means to enhance public health systems. Link to further information WHO Press Release

September 2008

Water Operators Partnership of Africa Convenes

September 2008: Approximately 100 representatives from African water utilities met in Dakar, Senegal, in September 2008, to discuss areas in which they could share information. The workshop was sponsored by the Water Operators Partnership (WOP) of Africa, a concept that was initiated in 2006 through a process organized by the UN Division for Sustainable Development (DSD). The WOP of Africa was created in 2008. Participants identified areas in which to share technology and experiences, with a view to creating a joint database. [DSD 2006 WOP Workshops] [AllAfrica.com News Story, 18 September 2008] [AllAfrica.com News Story, 22 September 2008] [AllAfrica.com News Story, 24 September 2008]

August 2008

UNEP AND WHO HOLD CONFERENCE ON HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT IN AFRICA

The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) organized the First Inter-ministerial Conference on Health and Environment in Africa, from 26-29 August 2008, in Libreville, Gabon. At the conference, which sought to catalyze the reduction of environmental threats to health, Health and Environment experts and Ministers from across Africa considered: policy actions to address current environmental risks to human health; climate change; new and emerging environmental threats to human health; tools and approaches for policy making in environmental management and public health; policy frameworks for addressing health and environmental impacts; health impact assessment; economic and development dimensions of environmental risk factors to human health; and international legislative and regulatory frameworks. The meeting closed with the adoption of the Libreville Declaration which, inter alia, called on WHO and UNEP to establish a network for addressing communicable and non-communicable diseases. Links to further information IISDRS coverage of meeting Conference website
FAO TECHNICAL CONSULTATION ADOPTS DEEP SEA FISHERIES GUIDELINES

The Second Session of the Technical Consultation on International Guidelines for the Management of Deep-Sea Fisheries in the High Seas took place in Rome, Italy, from 25-29 August 2008, under the auspices of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The 69 participating countries adopted guidelines aimed at protecting deep-sea fish species and habitats outside national waters that are at risk from overfishing. The guidelines, which follow two years of preparation and negotiations, were needed in part because many deep-water fish species grow slowly, reach sexual maturity late and may not always reproduce every year. In addition, until now, no framework for tackling this issue existed. According to the FAO, even in national waters, few countries have addressed deep-water fishing management since it is a relatively new activity and requires considerable investment and technology. The Guidelines state that all fishing activity in deep sea areas should be “rigorously managed” and lay out measures to be taken to identify and protect vulnerable ecosystems, and provide guidance on the sustainable use of marine living resources in deep-sea areas. Links to further information FAO Press Release, 3 September 2008 The guidelines

July 2008

FOLLOWING WTO MINISTERIAL COLLAPSE, FUTURE OF BIODIVERSITY ISSUES UNCERTAIN

Following the collapse of the 21-29 July 2008 WTO ministerial, the future of talks on a possible amendment of the TRIPS Agreement to include a requirement for disclosure of origin of genetic resources and/or associated traditional knowledge in patent applications remains uncertain. Intellectual property issues were reported to have been discussed consistently by key delegations during the ministerial, but never rose to the level of full negotiation, the main issues remaining agriculture and industrial goods. On the eve of the ministerial, an unprecedented coalition of developed and developing countries led by Brazil, the EU, India and Switzerland had presented “draft modalities” on three controversial intellectual property issues: disclosure of origin in patent applications, extension of geographical indications to all goods, and the establishment of a multilateral register for geographical indications for wines and spirits. The proposal to address these issues together in the horizontal negotiations on modalities in the industrial and agricultural sectors had been rejected by Australia, Canada, Chile, Mexico, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan and the US. According to the draft modalities, members would agree, prior to official negotiations on the issue, to amend the TRIPS Agreement so that all patent applications would be required to disclose the origin of genetic resources and/or associated traditional knowledge used in the product in question. Patent applicants would also have to provide proof of prior informed consent and benefit-sharing. Links to further information IP Watch, 31 July 2008 IP Watch, 29 July 2008 ICTSD Bridges Weekly Trade News Digest, 16 July 2008
ECOSOC Concludes July Substantive Session

July 2008: The UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) concluded its July 2008 substantive session with the adoption of nine resolutions and three decisions on 25 July 2008. Decisions adopted during the session addressed issues including strengthening coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance and promoting full employment and decent work for all, and a Ministerial Declaration on “Strengthening the efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger, including through the global partnership for development.” A resolution on ECOSOC's coordination segment reaffirms the need to continue to strengthen the Council as the central mechanism for system-wide coordination, and recalls that it should increase its role in overseeing system-wide coordination and the balanced integration of economic, social and environmental aspects of UN policies and programmes aimed at promoting sustainable development. The resolution also welcomes the holding of the first Development Cooperation Forum and second Annual Ministerial Review as “steps forward in strengthening of the Council,” and stresses that preparation for the 2009 Annual Ministerial Review should be fully supported by the UN system, especially the funds, programmes and specialized agencies, in coordination with national Governments. It also welcomes strengthened cooperation between the Council and the Bretton Woods institutions, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and emphasizes that interaction should be further improved. In his closing statement, ECOSOC President Léo Mérorès (Haiti) indicated that, during the final semester of 2008, he would focus on two issues: responding to the mandate regarding adaptation of the working methods of the Council, for which he would convene a meeting to explore possible areas for further action; and finding ways and means to further strengthen the Council's oversight role on funds and programmes, as envisage in the Triennial Comprehensive Policy Review resolution. The Council also decided that the theme of its 2009 thematic discussion would be “current global and national trends and their impact on social development, including health,” and the themes for its Annual Ministerial Reviews in 2010 and 2011 would be, respectively, “implementing the internationally agreed goals and commitments in regard to gender quality and empowerment of women” and “implementing the internationally agreed goals and commitments in regard to education.” Links to further information ECOSOC Press Release, 25 July 2008 ECOSOC Press Release, 24 July 2008 ECOSOC website
HOKKAIDO TOYAKO MAJOR ECONOMIES MEETING ADOPTS DECLARATION, MINUS TARGETS

Political leaders from 16 countries and the EU have met in Hokkaido Toyako, Japan, on 9 July 2008, for a Meeting of the Major Economies on Energy Security and Climate Change process. The meeting, which was held alongside the G8 Summit, was part of a process initiated by the US Government in 2007. In Japan, the leaders of the G8 countries plus leaders from Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, South Africa and the EU agreed on a political declaration of major economies, which focused on climate change and energy issues. The meeting followed an earlier gathering of officials held on 21 and 22 June, in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The Seoul meeting prepared the draft text for political leaders at the Hokkaido Toyako meeting, although negotiators were not able to agree on emissions targets for either the medium or long-term – unlike the G8 Summit, where a long-term “vision” was approved (see related article). In their Hokkaido Toyako declaration, leaders affirmed the commitment of major economies from both the developed and developing world to combat climate change, taking into account their “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.” The major economies' declaration underscores the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as the global forum for climate negotiations, welcomes the outcomes from the 2007 Bali Climate Change Conference and highlights the December 2009 deadline to reach an agreement. The declaration also emphasizes the contribution of the Major Economies Meetings to the UNFCCC, stresses the importance of a long-term goal and mid-terms goals, commitments and actions, and underscores the role of carbon sinks, mitigation, adaptation, technology, and financial resources. Finally, the declaration announces that “Our nations will continue to work constructively together to promote the success of the Copenhagen climate change conference in 2009.” Links to further information Declaration of Leaders Meeting of Major Economies on Energy ..., 9 July 2008 CNN news article, 9 July 2008

June 2008

SEOUL MAJOR ECONOMIES MEETING ENDS WITHOUT TARGETS DEAL

The fourth Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change, which gathered representatives from 16 major countries and the European Union during a 21-22 June 2008 meeting in Seoul, Republic of Korea, prepared a draft text on climate change for consideration at the G8 Summit in Hokkaido, Japan. However, reports indicated that negotiators did not reach a breakthrough on emissions targets for either the medium-term (2020) or long-term (2050). The Major Economies Meeting Process was launched by US President Bush in 2007. Links to further information Reuters article, 23 June 2008 Kyodo news/Japan Times, 23 June 2008
FfD PROCESS DISCUSSES OUTCOME DOCUMENT FOR DOHA REVIEW CONFERENCE

Having concluded six informal review sessions on the six thematic areas of the Monterrey Consensus, Ambassadors Abdelaziz (Egypt) and Løvald (Norway) held informal consultations on the contents of the outcome document for the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development (FfD), also called the Doha Review Conference. These consultations took place on 9 and 16 June 2008, at UN headquarters in New York, US. In their presentations to the meeting, the G-77 and the Rio Group proposed a structure for the outcome document, including an assessment of implementation of Monterrey Consensus targets, and a proposal for a way forward to further implementation. The G-77 highlighted that the document should assess in particular the implementation of commitments by developed countries. The EU proposed an action oriented outcome document that reflects, in a balanced way, the responsibilities and commitments of both developed and developing countries. The EU emphasized the primary role of domestic resources in development, and said this should be clearly stated in addition to references to the complementarity of international resources and international assistance. In this respect, Japan cautioned that “the last thing we want to see is fingers being pointed or accusations flung.” The informal consultations held on 16 June were followed by a workshop on “Carbon Taxes - A Tool for Managing Climate Change or a Threat to the World's Poor?” on 17 June, and hearings with representatives of civil society and the business sector on 18 June. The President of the General Assembly will issue informal summaries of the review sessions and will present, by the end of July 2008, a draft outcome document of the Conference. Link to further information Financing for Development Office website
UN CONSIDERS BUSINESS PRACTICE ASPECTS OF SYSTEM-WIDE COHERENCE

June 2008: UN member States met on 13 June 2008 to discuss business practice aspects of System-wide Coherence. Member States heard a presentation by representatives of the Chief Executives Board (CEB) on a “Plan of Action for the Harmonization of Business Practices in the UN System” and discussed the six high-level objectives presented, which include adoption of international standards and replication of best practices, facilitation of effective inter-agency coordination, and enhanced transparency and accountability. Links to further information Center for UN Reform press release, 13 June 2008
AFRICAN MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENT ADOPTS DECLARATION

The twelfth session of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN-12), which convened from 7-12 June 2008, in Johannesburg, South Africa, adopted the AMCEN Johannesburg Declaration on the Environment for Sustainable Development, in addition to decisions on: implementation of the Action Plan of the Environment Initiative of NEPAD; climate change, including sections on Africa's preparations for developing a common negotiating position on a comprehensive international climate change regime beyond 2012 and on a comprehensive framework of African climate change programmes; AMCEN's Constitution; the status and use of the general trust fund; chemicals and hazardous waste management; environmental education and technology-supported learning; Africa Environment Day; and the Africa Environment Outlook process and the Africa Environment Information Network. Link to further information IISD RS Coverage
Marrakech Process Meetings Convene

June 2008: Costa Rica recently hosted the Fourth Meeting of the International Task Force on Sustainable Tourism Development, which is one element of the Marrakech Process, a global process to support the elaboration of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes (10YFP) on sustainable consumption and production, as called for by the World Summit on Sustainable Development's Johannesburg Plan of Action. The 8-12 June 2008 meeting in San Jose and Arenal, Costa Rica, discussed issues including the protection of natural resources, promotion of sustainable production and consumption patterns in the tourism industry, and best regional practices on sustainable tourism development. Labels, standards and certification processes for sustainable tourism, and integrated coastal zone management were also addressed. This was the first meeting of the sustainable tourism task force to take place outside France, the leading country for this task force. In other Marrakech Process news, the first Advisory Committee of the Marrakech Process met on the sidelines of the sixteenth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), on 8 May 2008, in New York, US. The Advisory Committee is a body of experts drawn from all regions and key stakeholder groups to provide guidance to UNEP and UNDESA in developing and implementing the Marrakech Process on sustainable consumption and production. Among other agreements, Committee participants agreed that the Secretariat should prepare a first draft of the 10YFP, to be sent to the Committee members by the beginning of June 2008. The Marrakech Process website indicates that the first draft of the 10YFP will be made available on 1 July 2008. The Advisory Committee also agreed that its next meeting will take place on 22 October 2008, in Paris, France, on the margins of UNEP's Annual Dialogue with Business and Industry. [Newswire Today, 9 June 2008] [The Marrakech Process website] [Minutes of the First Advisory Committee meeting]
UNGA CONSIDERS ROLE OF GLOBAL PRIVATE INVESTMENTS IN CLIMATE CHANGE

The UN General Assembly (UNGA) considered private investment's role in mitigating climate change and how climate change, in turn, influences private investment decisions, during this body's first follow-up to its February 2008 thematic debate on climate change. Panelists at the 9 June 2008 meeting outlined the scope of environmental concerns that affect the market, which they said is marked by more uncertainty than predictable regulation regimes. The panelists offered examples where specific local regulations spurred investment and technological innovation, and agreed on the need to adopt stable regulations to provide incentives for private sector action. Panelists agreed that incentives need to be put in place through stable regulation, which could get companies to move, rather than taxes paying for an overall adaptation and mitigation scheme. In addition, they emphasized the importance of making consistent and clear information on all aspects of climate change factors readily available. Representatives from developing countries highlighted the concept of equal but differentiated responsibilities in relation to panelist's suggestion for a substantial worldwide carbon tax. Sha Zukang, UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, pointed out that, while equal but differentiated responsibilities are not a private sector concern, they are a major principle for international organizations. Links to further information Meeting website UN Press release, 6 June 2008 Press summary, 9 June 2008
OECD MINISTERIAL COUNCIL AND FORUM FOCUS ON THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Forum 2008 and the annual OECD Council at ministerial level met from 3-5 June 2008, in Paris, France. This year the Forum addressed the role of biofuels, sustainable cities, innovation and climate change, as well as the relationship between climate change and other issues including nuclear energy, partnerships and finance. The OECD ministerial summit discussed the economic impact of climate change, rising food prices and a broad range of other trade, growth and development issues. Ministers also addressed food-price inflation and its linkages to broader issues such as alternative fuels, climate change and impacts on distribution of income and growth within economies. Links to further information Chair's summary of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, Pa... OECD Forum 2008, Climate Change, Growth, Stability, Paris, 3-4 June

May 2008

UNWTO RECOGNIZES LEADERS MEETING FUTURE CHALLENGES

The UN World Trade Organization (UNWTO) held its annual Ulysses Conference from 28-29 May 2008, in Madrid, Spain. Focusing on “Education and Knowledge Management: Meeting Future Challenges,” the conference included an emphasis on sustainable development and environmental education, with “Education in Tourism-related Climate Change” as one of two major themes. At the conference, the UNWTO Ulysses Prize and Ulysses Awards were conferred, including on the Eurochile Business Foundation, which won the First Prize for Innovation in Non-Governmental Organization for its achievements as a Sustainable Management Model for Tourism Destinations. Links to further information UNWTO Press Release, 30 May 2008 UNWTO Press Release on the Ulysses Prize and Ulysses Awards, 30 May 2008 Eurochile Business Foundation website
FFD PROCESS REVIEWS INTERNATIONAL TRADE AS AN ENGINE FOR DEVELOPMENT

The review session on Chapter III of the Monterrey Consensus, which considered “International trade as an engine for development,” convened from 19-20 May 2008, at UN headquarters in New York, US. Delegates considered submissions by the EU, the Rio Group, the US, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which focused on the role of international trade liberalization in promoting development. During the meeting, participants heard panel presentations and participated in interactive debates that addressed the challenges currently confronting the Doha Development Round negotiations, and the need to advance further in the Doha development mandate and Aid for Trade initiatives. Link to further information UN Financing for Development Website for review of Chapter I...
CONFERENCE REVIEWS PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING MPA NETWORKS TARGETS

On 16 May 2008, the Committee of the Regions, in Brussels, Belgium, hosted the Institute for European Environmental Policy and the Natural Resources Defense Council Transatlantic Conference on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The Conference's objective was to improve understanding of EU and US policies and legislation relating to MPAs with the aim of sharing best practice in the establishment and development of MPA networks. Participants considered how to build up a coherent network of MPAs in a complex and conflicting ecological, legislative, political, and social environment, and how to successfully and efficiently design, implement and manage more integrated MPAs. The outcome of the meeting includes key points emerging from three break-out sessions on: the approach for designation of MPAs; the way to integrate other activities within an MPA; and the political and legal aspects of MPA networks (IISDRS sources). Link to further information Conference website
CSD-16 Completes Review of Agriculture, Desertification, Africa

May 2008: Delegates to the sixteenth session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD16), which convened at UN headquarters in New York, US, from 5-16 May 2008, reviewed the thematic cluster of agriculture, rural development, land, drought, desertification and Africa. Throughout CSD-16, participants highlighted the connections between the session's thematic agenda and both the current food crisis and climate change, and highlighted the drivers of food prices, including land degradation, high energy costs, climate change, poor harvests, speculation in agricultural commodities, inequitable terms of trade, decline of investments in agricultural and rural development, and increased production of biofuels from food crops. A Chair's Summary outlines the issues discussed. Delegates will attain take up these issues at the May 2009 meeting of CSD17, during which policy recommendations will be negotiated. [IISD RS coverage]
UN SYSTEM-WIDE COHERENCE CONSULTATIONS ADDRESS GENDER

The UN General Assembly consultations on System-wide Coherence continued on 16 May 2008, when UN member States met at UN headquarters in New York, US, to discuss the gender dimension of system-wide coherence. Deliberations focused on the establishment of a new UN gender entity and the creation of an Under-Secretary-General post on gender and women's rights, with some countries supporting the creation of a new body, and others favoring further discussions before any decision is made. Co-Chair Paul Kavanagh (Ireland) stressed the importance of addressing gaps within the UN system and asked the UN Secretary-General to submit a non-paper on the current status of gender within the UN system. Delegations were informed that a debate to address the gender issue on a more programmatic level is scheduled for the beginning of June 2008. Also planned for early June is an information session to learn more about the undertakings within the Chief Executive Board. Links to further information Center for UN Reform Education press release, 19 May 2008 Co-Chairs Mahiga and Kavanagh's letter, 12 May 2008
FORUM CONSIDERS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CLIMATE CHANGE

A forum on intellectual property (IP) has examined the links between the IP system and climate change. The European Patent Forum, which took place from 6-7 May 2008, in Ljubljana, Slovenia, considered how patenting and the IP system could bring benefits to the environment and help combat climate change, with participants discussing in particular the need to encourage greater innovation. “The patent system can foster innovation ... but then you'd better have a functioning patent system,” said Alison Brimelow, President of the European Patent Office, in a closing address. ”The patent system is drifting toward dysfunctionality… but I think we are also showing here that regulators are becoming less Olympian...and much more open to dialogue,” she added. In his address, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Yvo de Boer noted that intellectual property rights are perceived as a barrier to technology transfer for developing countries in the context of the climate change negotiations. He proposed further discussion on: clarifying where IP rights are a barrier to technology transfer and where they are not; regulating patent regimes to balance reward and access; removing barriers to accessing technologies in the public domain; assessing the impact of higher costs on the dissemination of technologies; and compulsory licensing. The two-day Forum was organized by the European Patent Office, the government of Slovenia (which currently holds the EU Presidency), the Slovenian IP Office and the European Commission. It was attended by participants from 45 countries. Links to further information Forum website, May 2008 EPO conference update, 7 May 2008 Intellectual Property Watch report, 14 May 2008 Yvo de Boer's speech (powerpoint presentation), 7 May 2008
UN AND BRITISH GOVERNMENT LAUNCH BUSINESS PUSH FOR MDGs

On 6 May 2008, in London, UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown took a step further to advance the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Call to Action, an initiative launched in July 2007 that has the support of 14 heads of state and 21 major private sector leaders to encourage the international community to accelerate progress to reach the MDGs. The Business Call to Action event, organized jointly by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UK Government, was attended by the Presidents of Rwanda and Ghana as well as over 80 business leaders, UN officials and members of think tanks. The event sought to galvanize a global partnership of innovative and creative initiatives from the private sector to promote poverty reduction in least developed countries to meet the MDGs. Concrete actions were announced by a number of businesses in attendance, and are expected to generate employment opportunities and potentially improve the lives of poor people across Africa and Asia. During the event, UNDP Administrator Kermal Dervis highlighted that innovative business leaders from the North and the South are changing the way traditional business operate, making markets more inclusive and generating more wealth to groups that were previously excluded. UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown indicated that European leaders will meet in Brussels next month to discuss what else can be done to scale up MDG achievements, which will feed into the G-8 Summit in July. The President of the UN General Assembly, Srgjan Kerim, noted that many business leaders present at the Call to Action event would be invited to announce new initiatives and champion specific MDGs during the High-Level MDG Summit at the UN in New York, US, on 25 September, which he will convene jointly with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Links to further information Business Call to Action DFID MDG Call to Action UNDP News, 6 May 2008 UN News Centre, 6 May 2008
UNGA TO CONSIDER FURTHER DISCUSSIONS ON IEG

A draft resolution has been presented on international environmental governance (IEG) during a recent meeting at UN headquarters in New York. During a meeting of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) informal process on strengthening IEG held on 2 May 2008, Co-Chairs Peter Maurer (Switzerland) and Claude Heller (Mexico) presented a draft resolution entitled “Strengthening the environmental activities in the United Nations system.” Noting that the discussions on IEG do not take place in a vacuum, the Co-Chairs underlined that the draft IEG resolution is an attempt to keep related processes, such as those on climate change, system-wide coherence, management decisions of UNEP, and others, in mind, while offering support to other parts in the UN system. The operative part of the draft resolution follows the seven building blocks that were presented in the Options Paper from June 2007. The blocks deal with scientific assessment, monitoring and early warning capacity, agency coordination, MEAs, regional processes, the Bali Strategic plan, IT, partnerships and advocacy, and funding. The draft resolution suggests that the Environment Management Group (EMG) is placed under the direct authority of the UN Secretary-General to raise its profile, while its management would remain under the Executive Director of UNEP. To facilitate inter-agency planning and coordination, the resolution requests UNEP's Executive Director to submit an annual consolidated appeal containing needs, planned activities and estimated funding levels for all environmental capacity building activities in the UN system, including for MEAs and for the implementation of the Bali Strategic Plan. On financing, the resolution suggests the creation of a Global Environmental Financial Tracking System, a web-based database relying on voluntary self-reporting by donors and recipients to provide transparent information on multilateral and bilateral financial flows for environmental activities. The resolution acknowledges that diverse views have been presented on the broader transformation of IEG system. In this regard, the Co-Chairs indicated that member States had expressed a preference for a step by step approach to improve the present system. On steps forward, the resolution suggests to continue the informal consultations during UNGA's 63rd session to discuss the broader IEG transformation and the interaction among different intergovernmental bodies, and to assess progress achieved at UNGA's 64th session. The Co-Chairs announced that the first feedback session on the draft resolution is tentatively scheduled for 21 May 2008. Links to further information The draft resolution Co-Chairs' talking points, 2 May 2008
ECOSOC DISCUSSES CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS

The UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) has convened two special sessions, the first to discuss climate change and the second to discuss the global food crisis. The Special Event on Climate Change and Development, “Achieving the MDGs and coping with the challenges of climate change,” took place on 2 May 2008, at UN headquarters in New York, US. The event, which was funded by the Government of Italy, included panel discussions on “learning to cope with climate change” and “reducing the world's carbon footprint.” The outcomes of the event are expected to serve as input to the forthcoming ECOSOC Annual Ministerial Review in July 2008, which will focus on sustainable development. The 20 May 2008 session, which extended into 22 May 2008 due to the large number of UN member states wishing to take the floor, convened at UN headquarters in New York, US. Léo Mérorès, President of ECOSOC, emphasized that “agriculture has to be put back in the center of the development agenda,” adding that “we need to concentrate efforts on minimizing greenhouse emissions, deforestation and global warming, while finding ways to promote investments in agriculture [and] maximize the use of agro-science and technology, with the aim of reducing the costs of production and substantially increasing the productivity and output of every hectare of arable land.” UN General Assembly President Srgjan Kerim also emphasized the need for greater investment in agriculture, calling for the “best science, tools and technologies to optimize efficiency and boost production,…[and] policies that support land and resource ownership.” Kerim also drew attention to the role that high oil prices have played in rising food prices, and emphasized that “A sustainable solution to the crisis must therefore be linked to oil price stability and our efforts to tackle climate change.” Links to further information IISDRS coverage of Special Event on Climate Change and Devel... Special Session on global food crisis website Statements
UNFF8 ADOPTS RESOLUTION ON FORESTS IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT, DEFERS DECISION ON FINANCING TO 2011

The eighth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF8) was held from 20 April - 1 May 2008, at UN Headquarters in New York. Over 600 participants attended the two-week session, to address: means of implementation for sustainable forest management (SFM); and forests in a changing environment, including forests and climate change, reversing the loss of forest cover and degradation, and forests and biodiversity conservation. After an all-night session on the last night of the session, delegates adopted a resolution on forests in a changing environment, enhanced cooperation and cross-sectoral policy and programme coordination, and regional and subregional inputs. Delegates were not able to agree on a decision on financing for SFM. The principle contention from the outset were the disparate views of developing countries and donor countries: the G-77/China favored the establishment of a global forest fund as soon as possible; and JUSCANZ and the EU preferred to establish a facilitative process to, inter alia, enable easier access to current funding and create enabling conditions for private sector and other investment. Delegates almost reached agreement on setting up a process to consider recommendations on the establishment of the fund, but attempts to find compromise text did not result in a reconciliation of the needs of both donor and recipient countries. Delegates ultimately decided to forward bracketed negotiating text to the Forum's next session. Link to further information IISD RS coverage of UNFF8

April 2008

PARIS CONFERENCE DISCUSSES RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

The International Conference on Resource Efficiency, jointly organized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), was held in Paris, France, from 23-25 April 2008. More than 300 participants from governments, industry and non-governmental organizations heard presentations on and discussed issues relating to: indicators for measuring resource efficiency; sustainable mining and recycling; policies on transforming waste to resources; sustainable manufacturing and distributions; and technology and innovation. Among other things, the key conclusions of the conference included: the need to set up monitoring systems for measuring resource efficiency; the importance of supporting the UNEP/UNIDO network of National Cleaner Production Centers; and the need for efforts on waste management and recycling to be strengthened. Link to further information OECD press release, 25 April 2008
BUSINESS-ENVIRONMENT SUMMIT CONSIDERS CLIMATE CHANGE, BIODIVERSITY-HEALTH LINKS

The Global Business for the Environment Summit, jointly organized by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Global Compact, met in Singapore from 22-23 April 2008 to discuss business-driven solutions for mitigating and adapting to climate change. During the event, UNEP announced that ten new participants joined the Climate Neutral Network (CN Net). The CN Net is an online forum set up by UNEP, in cooperation with the UN Environment Management Group, to tackle the challenge of increasing greenhouse gases. The initiative was launched in February 2008, during UNEP's Governing Council in Monaco. The meeting also revealed the findings of a newly released book entitled Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity, which provides a comprehensive view of how human medicines, biomedical research, the spread of infectious diseases, and the production of food depend on biodiversity. Links to further information UNEP press release on CN Net, 23 April 2008 UNEP press release on "Sustaining Life," 24 April 2008 Sustaining life website, Harvard Medical School
MAJOR ECONOMIES DISCUSS CLIMATE ACTION, NEW US TARGET

A meeting of “Major Economies” was held in Paris, France, from 17-18 April 2008, to continue discussions on climate change. The third in a series of events initiated by US President Bush in 2007 to support climate change negotiations taking place under the framework of the United Nations, the Major Economies Meeting in Paris involved representatives of 16 countries, the European Union, and the UN. Discussions focused on the value of sectoral approaches, long-term and medium-term goals, new technologies, financing, forestry, adaptation and national planning. Delegates also reportedly commented on a new announcement by US President George W. Bush on 16 April, setting a target of stabilizing US greenhouse gas emissions by 2025. While some participants in Paris apparently welcomed the announcement as a step forward, others, including some EU officials, suggested that the target was not ambitious enough. In 2007, the EU proposed a target of 30 percent reductions for developed countries by 2020 compared with 1990 levels, while the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report included a scenario for a 25-40 percent reduction by 2020. Responding to questions about targets in a press conference held after the Paris meeting, US official Jim Connaughton said many other developed countries do not support the EU position, and described the Bush proposal as “realistic and achievable.” Links to further information US official post-meeting briefing, 18 April 2008 EurActiv new report, 18 April 2008 ABC news report, 19 April 2008 CNN report, 17 April 2008
Regional Discussions Held Ahead of CBD COP 9

April 2008: Meetings have been held in Africa and the Pacific as part of regional preparations for upcoming ninth Conference of the Parties (COP 9) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). A meeting of African leaders on access and benefit-sharing was held from 10-12 April 2008, in Mahé, Seychelles, as part of preparations for the high-level segment. In his statement to the meeting, CBD Executive Secretary Ahmed Djoghlaf underlined that “access and benefit-sharing is a corner stone of the Convention and we are at a pivotal stage in the negotiations of the International Regime. The success of these negotiations depends on the involvement, at the highest level, of decision makers, who have the ability to pull their leverage together to influence the final outcomes of this important process.” Meanwhile, the Pacific region held a regional preparatory meeting for COP 9 from 13-16 April 2008, in Apia, Samoa. At the meeting, nine Pacific island countries defined their priorities and modalities to work together during CBD COP 9. Priority agenda items include: financial resources and mechanism; agricultural biodiversity; forest biodiversity; invasive alien species; access and benefit sharing; Article 8(j) and related provisions; biodiversity and climate change; protected areas; marine and coastal biodiversity; and island biodiversity. In Europe, the European Parliament has adopted a resolution on preparations for CBD COP 9 and the fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, to note their deep concern at the continued loss of biodiversity and at the EU's ever increasing ecological footprint, which extends the impact on biodiversity well beyond EU's borders. The resolution highlights the need to implement the CBD work programme on protected areas, agree on common principles and criteria for good forest governance, ban all terminator technologies and agree a moratorium on genetically modified trees, and ensure a legally binding liability regime under the Biosafety Protocol. COP 9 is taking place from 19-30 May, in Bonn, Germany. [Speech of the CBD Executive Secretary at the Africa meeting] [SPREP news release, 25 April 2008] [EP press release, 24 April 2008]
OXFORD SEMINAR HIGHLIGHTS LINK BETWEEN TOURISM AND CLIMATE CHANGE

An international seminar entitled “Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism Sector: Frameworks, tools and practices,” which primarily focused on developing countries and small island developing States (SIDS), was held from 9-11 April 2008 in Oxford, the UK. The event was jointly organized by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), Oxford University's Centre for the Environment and the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and brought together some 30 high-level tourism and environmental officials to discuss capacity building and pragmatic adaptation and mitigation methods for developing countries and SIDS to meet the climate change challenge. One of the seminar's conclusions was that the tourism industry has a key role to play in confronting the challenges of climate change, by reducing its green house gas emissions and by helping the communities where tourism represents a major source of income to adapt to the changing climate. Links to further information Seminar website UNEP press release, 11 April 2008
MERCURY PARTNERSHIP MEETING FINALIZES FRAMEWORK

In accordance with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) Governing Council decision 24/3 paragraph 27, UNEP Chemicals convened a meeting from 1-3 April 2008, in Geneva, Switzerland, to finalize the overarching framework for the Global Mercury Partnership. The meeting was attended by over 70 participants from more than 30 countries, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations and industry groups. The outcome of the meeting was an agreed framework for the Global Mercury Partnership. The framework outlines the goal, organizational arrangements (including a Partnership Advisory Group), and operational guidelines for the individual partnership areas (IISD Sources). Link to further information UNEP Mercury Programme meeting report

March 2008

THIRD MEETING OF THE AHJWG ON COLLABORATION AND COORDINATION BETWEEN THE CHEMICAL CONVENTIONS PROPOSES JOINT EX-COP

The Third Meeting of the Ad Hoc Joint Working Group (AHJWG) on Enhanced Cooperation and Coordination between the Basel, Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions convened from 25-28 March 2008, in Rome, Italy. The AHJWG was able to reach agreement on all recommendations laid out in the co-chair's paper UNEP/FAO/CHW/RC/POPS/JWG.3/2. The key outcome of the meeting was the proposal to convene a joint extraordinary conference of the parties (Ex-COP) of the three Conventions. The Ex-COP is proposed to be held in conjunction with the next special session of the UN Environment Programme Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GMEF) in February 2010. The aim of the meeting would be to organize the joint recommendations, as well as the recommendation to synchronize the three Convention budgets. Before the Ex-COP is confirmed, the AHJWG recommendations must be agreed by the three COPs: the Basel Convention in June 2008; the Rotterdam Convention in October 2008; and the Stockholm Convention in May 2009 (IISD Sources). Link to further information Ad Hoc Joint Working Group on Synergies meeting documents
UN SYSTEM-WIDE COHERENCE SESSIONS ADDRESS “DELIVERING AS ONE,” FUNDING AND GOVERNANCE

Within the framework of the UN General Assembly consultations on UN System-wide Coherence, member States met on 28 March 2008 at UN headquarters in New York, US, to consider the issue of Delivering as One at Country Level, on 7 April 2008 to discuss the UN's funding structure, and on 17 April 2008 to address governance and institutional reform. On 28 March, UN Deputy Secretary-General Asha-Rose Migiro noted that significant progress had been achieved on the “One budgetary framework,” as well as on increased accountability and national ownership, while cautioning that new priorities must be set for 2008, including closing the funding gap. Several members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Group of 77 also drew attention to the funding gap, underlining that savings must be channeled back into the system. Discussions on funding on 7 April focused on achieving a better balance between non-core and core funding, resource mobilization and reviewing funding mechanisms. On 17 April, delegates heard briefings on the Resident Coordinator system at country level, and subsequently discussed governance, primarily on the intergovernmental level. Discussions centered, among other things, on the balance between national ownership of development strategies and mechanisms for intergovernmental oversight, and several delegates noted that coherence at the country level needs to be reflected at the central level. Links to further information Co-Chairs Mahiga's (Tanzania) and Kavanagh's (Ireland) state..., 17 April 2008 Co-Chairs statement, 7 April 2008 Co-Chairs' statement, 28 March 2008 Center for UN Reform Education, press release 18 April 2008 Center for UN Reform Education, press release 8 April 2008
GLENEAGLES DIALOGUE ON CLIMATE CHANGE, CLEAN ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DISCUSSES POST-2012 POLICIES

Japan hosted the Fourth Ministerial Meeting of the Gleneagles Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development from 14-16 March 2008, in Chiba. The Gleneagles Dialogue was launched at the G8 meeting of industrialized countries' Gleneagles Summit in July 2005, and brings together 20 countries plus the European Union to informally discuss ideas and measures outside the formal negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Over 200 participants attended the Chiba meeting, which focused on technology, finance and investment, and the post-2012 international framework. The meeting reportedly included discussions on a Japanese suggestion regarding a sectoral approach to mitigation. South Africa and other developing countries, however, raised questions about the details of such a proposal, including the role of financing and technology transfer, and the use of benchmarks. During a statement on the future framework during the opening session, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair reportedly told delegates that major polluters, including the US and China, should agree to binding emissions targets. A Chair's summary is expected to be prepared from the Fourth Meeting, and the results of the Gleneagles Dialogue will be reported at the 2008 G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit, in July 2008. Links to further information Japanese Ministry of Environment Gleneagles Dialogue 2008 we... Japanese Ministry of Environment News Headline, 17 March 2008 AFP/Google news, 16 March 2008 AFP/WBCSD news, 15 March 2008 Reuters Africa, 15 March 2008
EU SPRING SUMMIT CONSIDERS EUROPEAN EMISSION GOALS

European leaders discussed climate and energy issues at the EU Spring Summit, which took place from 13-14 March 2008, in Brussels, Belgium. According to reports, some EU member states, including Germany and France, raised concerns about the impact of foreign competition on some European industries, should the EU go ahead with its own unilateral greenhouse gas emissions goals. In 2007, the EU set a unilateral goal of cutting emissions by 20% by 2020 compared with 1990 levels. At its latest meeting, the EU also set a deadline for enacting new legislation on climate change by early 2009. In recent days, Japan has also announced plans to cut its greenhouse gas emissions. It is considering 11% cuts by 2020 compared with 2005 levels – a target that differs from those proposed by the EU for industrialized countries. Links to further information BBC news report, 14 March 2008 BBC analysis of EU meeting, 14 March 2008 EurActiv news report, 17 March 2008 Reuters/AlertNet news, 19 March 2008
TRIPS COUNCIL MEETING SEES INCREASED SUPPORT FOR BIODIVERSITY AMENDMENT

Held on 13 March 2008, the meeting of the World Trade Organization Council for Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) was marked by further support for an amendment to the TRIPS Agreement to include a mandatory requirement to disclose the origin of biological resources and/or associated traditional knowledge in patent applications, as well as evidence of compliance with prior informed consent and fair and equitable sharing of benefits. Initially proposed by a group of developing countries led by India and Brazil, the proposal has subsequently gained the support of the African Group and the group of Least Developed Countries. Following the announcement that the Dominican Republic and the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific countries also back the proposal, it was noted during the TRIPS Council meeting that nearly 80 of the WTO's 151 members now support the amendment. The US, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Korea did not consider a disclosure requirement to be the most efficient way to address biopiracy and reiterated they did not believe a conflict existed between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity. The EU stated that it was prepared to negotiate a disclosure of origin requirement, while noting it would not support requirements for either prior informed consent or proof of equitable benefit sharing. In addtion, the EU said the World Intellectual Property Organization, rather than the WTO, was the appropriate forum for discussions on disclosure. Links to further information IP Watch, 14 March 2008 Bridges Trade BioRes, 20 March 2008
UNEP-SUPPORTED MEETING DISCUSSES CLEAN FUELS

A regional policy development meeting on ‘Clean Fuels and Vehicles,' organized by the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) and supported by the UN Environment Programme's Regional Office for West Asia, was held from 12-13 March 2008, in Manama, Bahrain. The event gathered more than 70 representatives from governments, the Arab League, oil companies, the vehicle industry and civil society to discuss cleaner fuels and vehicles, as well as challenges and recommendations towards regional harmonization. Participants also deliberated the goals of PCFV to achieve a global ban on leaded petrol and a worldwide target of less than 50 parts per million for the sulphur content of diesel and petrol fuels. Links to further information PCFV conference page Fia Foundation Press release
FFD REVIEW SESSIONS ON MONTERREY CONSENSUS ADDRESS EXTERNAL DEBT AND IFIs

Review Sessions on Chapters V and VI of the Monterrey Consensus took place from 10-12 March 2008, at UN headquarters in New York, US. Chaired by Ambassadors Adbelaziz of Egypt and Løvald of Norway, the review sessions provided a forum for the sharing of information and proposals in the lead-up to the Follow-up International Conference to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus (Doha, Qatar, 29 November-2 December 2008). The session on Chapter V addressed the topic of “External debt” and featured panel presentations by Thomas Courbe, Secretary General of the Paris Club (France); Deepak Nayyar, Jawaharlal Nehru University (India); Martine Guerguil, International Monetary Fund (IMF); Hitoshi Shoji, Japan Bank for International Cooperation; and Leonce Ndikumana, UN Economic Commission for Africa. During the discussion, Bangladesh, on behalf of Least Developed Countries (LDCs), said that LDCs are “stuck in a perpetual debt overhang” and have little room for maneuver in terms of policy choices due to conditionality attached to debt restructuring programs. The session on Chapter VI “Addressing systemic issues: enhancing the coherence and consistency of the international monetary, financial, and trading systems in support of development” received inputs by the US Government, International Labor Organization, the EU, the NGO Committee on Financing for Development and several civil society groups. Panel presentations and an interactive discussion were held and participants addressed, among other issues, coordination between the Bretton Woods Institutions and the UN and governance reforms at the World Bank and IMF. The outcomes of the sessions will be summarized by the President of the 62nd session of the General Assembly, Srgjan Kerim, and will be used as a basis for the outcome document that will be prepared for negotiation during the second semester of 2008. Links to further information Finance for Development (FfD) Official webpage Programme, presentations and submissions for the Review session on Chapter V of the Monterrey Consensus, “External debt” Programme, presentations and submissions for the Review Session on Chapter Chapter VI of the Monterrey Consensus, “Addressing systemic issues: enhancing the coherence and con...
UN FISH STOCKS AGREEMENT MEETING AGREES TO RESUME REVEW CONFERENCE IN 2010

The seventh round of Informal Consultations of States Parties to the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (UNFSA) met from 11-12 March 2008, at UN headquarters in New York. The meeting was attended by some160 participants and focused on reviewing progress towards the implementation of the UNFSA, including outcomes of its 2006 Review Conference, and considered the date of the resumed Review Conference and the next round of informal consultations. The two key achievements of the consultations were the in-depth engagement in discussing the obstacles to wider participation in the UNFSA by non-parties and developing countries, and agreeing on resuming the Review Conference in 2010 and the modalities for its preparatory process. Link to further information IISD RS coverage
MDG AFRICA STEERING GROUP HOLDS SECOND MEETING

The second meeting of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Africa Steering Group was held at UN headquarters in New York, US, on 10 March 2008. Immediately following the meeting, a briefing was held for media and other observers. The briefing involved high-level members of the Steering Group. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon chaired the Steering Group meeting and opened the briefing, highlighting the “unprecedented” collaboration and involvement in the group. He stressed the tremendous gains possible for Africa if international commitments can be translated into action. He also outlined examples of progress on some MDGs in particular African countries, such as achievements in Malawi on child mortality, in Senegal on water and sanitation goals, and in Tanzania on primary education. He stressed that the challenge now is to replicate and expand on these successes. He explained that the Steering Group had reviewed recommendations for future action and approved a plan for Africa to work towards a “green revolution” to achieve the MDGs across a range of issues and sectors, including economic growth, hunger and malnutrition, education, gender parity, water and sanitation, and infectious diseases. He stressed rising food prices and agricultural productivity in Africa as key issues, urged progress in the Doha round of trade talks, and said African countries needed to mobilize domestic resources and receive the necessary support from development partners. He announced that a high-level meeting on the MDGs would bring together world leaders, civil society and the private sector at UN headquarters on 25 September 2008, to “translate commitments into action.” Responding to a question about sub-Saharan Africa being the most “off-track” region to date in terms of the MDGs, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon highlighted the need to replicate the examples of specific country successes, and emphasized maternal mortality as a major issue. With regard to food prices and the issue of market access and subsidies, several members of the Steering Group highlighted the need to raise agricultural productivity in Africa. Louis Michel, European Commission for Development and Humanitarian Aid, stressed that the Least Developed Countries already have unlimited access to European markets, noted the issue of quality standards as an area of concern, and outlined EU action to support developing countries. World Bank President Robert Zoellick highlighted the need for more action on hunger and malnutrition, especially given its impact on other MDGs. On subsidies, he said this is an ideal time to address them, given high food prices. He outlined the World Bank's efforts to support agricultural productivity in Africa. Regarding a question on security and instability in Africa, Alpha Oumar Konaré, Chair, African Union Commission, underscored Africa's responsibility for what is happening and said the continent must acquire the means to act in a timely way and not simply wait for help to come from outside. He urged respect for the rule of law. On China's investment in the region, Konaré said China can be a major partner, adding that no outside group should be allowed to exploit Africa, as has sometimes been the case with investors in the past. He insisted that a new sort of partnership is needed that encourages Africa's development and is consistent with democratic values. On UN spending in Africa and the large sums spent on contracts for large EU and US companies' services, Konaré stressed the UN's positive cooperative role, but said that it was “scandalous” that large sums were going into potentially avoidable disasters such as Darfur when so much was needed for development goals, and that Africa had a role to play in resolving such issues. Participants also discussed replicating the “self-help spirit” of the Republic of Korea in local communities in Africa (IISD sources). Links to further information UN News Center, 10 March 2008 MDG Africa Steering Group Website
ECOSOC MEETING CONSIDERS AMR CONTRIBUTION

A Global Preparatory Meeting for the 2008 High-level Segment of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) convened on 6 March 2008, in New York, US. The meeting sought to provide participants an opportunity to identify: next steps that ECOSOC could take to make the Annual Ministerial Review (AMR) a central forum for reviewing progress on implementation of the UN Development Agenda; measures to make national voluntary presentations more effective and make them a process of continuous engagement rather than a one-off event; and major challenges in the area of sustainable development that require urgent action by ministers at the AMR July 2008 session. Sha Zukang, UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, suggested that the goal of the AMR should be to establish it as the implementation “ARM” of the UN, with “A” standing for accountability, “R” for review and renewal of commitments, and “M” for mobilizing and maintaining the momentum. Antonio Pedro Monteiro Lima, Permanent Representative of Cape Verde, told participants that his country has volunteered to give an AMR national voluntary presentation and to participate in the Delivering as One initiative to get advice and help in addressing its challenges, and said an AMR voluntary presentation will only have an impact if it is embedded in a proper preparatory and follow-up process. Link to further information AMR Global Preparatory Meeting website
HIGH-LEVEL GATHERING DISCUSSES SYSTEM-WIDE COHERENCE

The high-level dialogue United Nations System-wide Coherence: The Next Steps, organized by the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), convened from 4-5 March 2008, in Vienna, Austria, gathering representatives from governments, the “Delivering as One” pilot countries, aid agencies, and the UN system. The objective of the dialogue was to focus discussions on the development aspects of system-wide coherence and the “Delivering as One” initiative, as well as reviewing the status of inter-governmental consultations on system-wide coherence and the next steps to be taken. Co-Chairs Augustine Mahiga (Tanzania) and Paul Kavanagh (Ireland) of the UN General Assembly consultations (UNGA) on System-wide Coherence outlined experiences from their recent visits to three of the pilot countries, Tanzania, Mozambique and Cape Verde, emphasizing that the ‘Delivering as One' projects are resulting in significantly greater alignment of UN system activities to national plans and priorities, and highlighting the political commitment of the governments concerned. They also stressed the need for various headquarters to catch up with progress at country level and for granting greater flexibility to the UN country teams. The recognition and popularity of the project is reportedly growing, with some 30 small and medium-sized states having asserting their interest in joining as pilot countries. In related news, on 26 February 2008, Co-Chairs Mahiga and Kavanagh put forward a preliminary programme of work for the UNGA consultations on System-wide Coherence, where they suggested holding consultations on 28 March to consider the topic delivering as one at country level, and on 7 and 17 April to discuss issues relating to funding and governance, respectively. Furthermore, the Co-Chairs expressed their intention to invite the UN Secretary-General to brief delegations on the efforts toward greater coherence being made under the auspices of the Secretary-General and the Chief Executives Board in early May 2008. Links to further information UNIDO High-level dialogue website Statement by Co-Chairs Augustine Mahiga and Paul Kavanagh, 4 March 2008 Co-Chairs' letter to UN member States, 26 February 2008

February 2008

ECOSOC EVENT DISCUSSES CORPORATE PHILANTHROPY AND THE MDGS

A special event of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) has discussed “How corporate philanthropy can contribute to advancing the Millennium Development Goals, particularly for sustainable development.” The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, with support from the UN Office for Partnerships (UNOP) and the Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy (CECP), organized the 25 February 2008 event, which gathered more than 200 executives, corporate philanthropists, UN officials and country representatives at UN headquarters in New York, US. Amir Dossal, Executive Director of UNOP, summarized the proceedings, highlighting that participants had raised issues related to questions of scale and strategic approach, and the need for private-public partnerships to be beneficial to both sides. Participants also noted a role for developing guidelines for building partnerships with the UN, and indicated that the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) has experience in this regard. A synthesis of the event will be reported to ECOSOC and the UN General Assembly. Link to further information ECOSOC News Release, 25 February 2008
Expert Group Discusses Land, Africa Before CSD-16

February 2008: The Expert Group Meeting on Land for Sustainable Urbanisation in Africa, which convened in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 21-22 February 2008, was convened to prepare for the thematic reviews on Land and Africa at the upcoming sixteenth session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-16), which will take place in New York, US, from 5-16 May 2008. The meeting provided an opportunity for African participants who will be attending CSD-16 to discuss urban land issues that can inform decision making in the African context. Participants identified emerging issues requiring attention, emphasized the need for innovation in Africa's land management, called for recognition of the dynamic nature of land tenure systems in Africa, proposed off-farm activities to increase Africa's land productivity, and called for improvement in information management to streamline land administration and attain better governance. [IISD RS meeting coverage]
UNEP COUNCIL APPROVES DECISION ON MEDIUM-TERM STRATEGY

More than 800 participants from governments, UN agencies, business and industry, academia and non-governmental organizations gathered for the tenth special session of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GCSS-10/GMEF) in Monaco, from 20-22 February 2008. The meeting adopted decisions on UNEP's Medium-term Strategy for 2010-2013, the Global Environmental Outlook, chemicals management, mercury and waste management, the sustainable development of the Arctic region, and the International Decade for Combating Climate Change. The approval of the decision that authorizes the Executive Director to use the Medium-term Strategy in formulating UNEP's programme of work and budget was seen by many as a positive step in shaping a regenerated UNEP. In parallel, the GMEF ministerial consultations addressing “Mobilizing for the climate challenge” concluded that, while economic growth is compatible with addressing climate change and investment capital is available, financing adaptation remains limited. The need to establish policy frameworks was also emphasized. Discussions on “International Environmental Governance and UN reform” highlighted converging views on the need to strengthen UNEP in parallel with a dialogue addressing more far-reaching ideas. Prior to GCSS-10/GMEF, the ninth Global Civil Society Forum gathered close to 200 participants on 19 February 2008, at the same venue. The Forum addressed a range of issues, including civil society engagement at GCSS-10/GMEF, the adoption of the “Guidelines for improving the Global Civil Society Forum Cycle,” and “globalization and the environment, mobilizing finances to meet the climate challenge.” Participants also heard a panel discussion on the Medium-term Strategy and engaged in a dialogue with UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner. Links to further information IISD RS coverage of UNEP GCSS-10/GMEF Global Civil Society Forum website
UNGA CLIMATE CHANGE EVENT FOCUSES ON POST-BALI TALKS AND PARTNERSHIPS

The need for a global agreement on climate change for the post-2012 period, the importance of collaborative partnerships, and the role of the United Nations system were the focus of discussions during a three-day “thematic debate” in the UN General Assembly (UNGA). The event, which met at UN headquarters in New York, US, from 11-13 February 2008, took as its theme: “Addressing climate change: the United Nations and the world at work.” The meeting, which went one day longer than originally scheduled, drew more than 100 high-level speakers from governments, the UN, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, the media, and other key stakeholders. The event opened with statements from UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, General Assembly President Srgjan Kerim, and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Secretary-General Ban stressed the priority of reaching a global agreement by the end of 2009 to limit greenhouse gas emissions. “A deal in Copenhagen, on time, and in full, is my priority and that of all the Funds, Programmes and Agencies of the United Nations family,” he said, referring to the UN Climate Change Conference scheduled to take place in Denmark from 30 November to 11 December 2009. On the first day, participants held high-level panel discussions focused on partnerships and on the work of the United Nations. During a panel discussion entitled “Responding to a multifaceted challenge: the UN at work,” the Co-Chairs of the UN General Assembly consultations on International Environmental Governance (IEG), Peter Maurer (Switzerland) and Claude Heller (Mexico), noted that aside from the debate on scientific knowledge and the policy responses to the climate change challenge, the third dimension of IEG was how to organize the international community to respond more efficiently to these challenges. Drawing attention to the lack of coherence and coordination among the UN agencies dealing with the environment, the Co-Chairs underlined that strengthening IEG would be beneficial for all bodies managing environmental issues, including climate change. In addition, the Co-Chairs stressed the need to move the IEG process forward, and expressed their intention to facilitate a draft resolution in the near future. At the conclusion of the first day's sessions, Yvo de Boer, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, said countries participating in these talks had the responsibility to turn the outcomes of the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali in December 2007, into a success through a “truly comprehensive climate change strategy” that united the developed and developing worlds. De Boer also stressed that finance and technology mechanisms would be an essential component of the negotiations that lay ahead. On the second day, a number of member States made statements. Antigua and Barbuda, speaking for the Group of 77 developing countries and China, said multilateral action should remain “fully rooted in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol,” and that developing countries should receive technology, capacity building and other support “in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner,” as agreed in the Bali Action Plan. Slovenia, speaking for the EU, urged a global agreement for strong post-2012 action and also outlined the EU's unilateral policy agreements on emissions and renewable energy. Other speakers addressed issues including reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, the vulnerability of small island developing States, and the role of public-private sector partnerships. On the final day, member States commented on issues including “climate proofing” development assistance, the importance of energy efficiency, market mechanisms, clean technologies, financing for adaptation and mitigation in developing countries, and the need to follow up on the Bali conference by designing and agreeing on an inclusive and effective post-2012 framework for global action. At the close of the meeting, Assembly President Srgjan Kerim reflected on the discussions, noting that the large number of speakers was a “testament to the importance of taking immediate practical action” to combat climate change. He highlighted speakers' comments on the need for both long-term targets and short-term action and said the UN system must respond with policy solutions that could help member States answer some of the questions and issues raised during the discussions. He also announced that he would hold two additional meetings in 2008 that would focus on the concerns of vulnerable countries and on corporate responsibility and sustainability. Links to further information UN press statement/report (day one), 11 February 2008 UN press statement/report (day two), 12 February 2008 UN press statement/report (day three), 13 February 2008 UN press overview of meeting, 14 February 2008
UNESCO MEETING DISCUSSES FUTURE OF BIOSPHERE RESERVES

The third World Congress on Biosphere Reserves, organized by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Spanish Ministry for the Environment, opened on 4 February 2008 in Madrid, Spain, and will finish on 9 February. Gathering more than 1000 participants, the event will aim to take stock of the current Biosphere Reserves Programme and define an action plan for the five years ahead. Biosphere reserves are sites recognized under UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme, which innovate and demonstrate approaches to conservation and sustainable development. They are also tools to help countries implement the results of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and, in particular, the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Ecosystem Approach. There are 529 sites worldwide in 105 countries. Links to further information Congress website UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme website
UNESCO CONFERENCE SAYS BIOSPHERE RESERVES CAN SPUR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

Participants at the third World Congress of Biosphere Reserves, which took place from 4-9 February 2008, in Madrid, Spain, and was organized by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), have adopted the Madrid Declaration, which underlines that biosphere reserves can spur efforts “to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and to promote the greater use of renewable energy,” as well as to tackle challenges such as the loss of traditional knowledge and cultural diversity. Conference participants also adopted the Madrid Action Plan, mapping out the Man and the Biosphere Programme's strategy and actions for 2008-2013, which emphasizes the need to use biosphere reserves to demonstrate effective responses to poverty, growing urbanization, climate change and desertification. UNESCO's world network of biosphere reserves now includes 531 reserves spread over 105 countries, following the addition of the Rostowsky Biosphere Reserve in Russia and the Islas Marietas Biosphere Reserve off Mexico's western coast. The Rostowsky reserve provides a habitat for more than 460 species of plants, 30 species of mammals and 200 species of birds, while the Islas Marietas is home to many species of coral, the humpback whale and other mammals, birds and fish. At each reserve listed in the network, local communities try to enhance their socioeconomic development while promoting biodiversity conservation. Links to further information UNESCO news release, 11 February 2008 World Congress on Biosphere Reserves website
UN SYSTEM-WIDE COHERENCE DISCUSSIONS RESUME

An informal meeting of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) consultations on System-wide Coherence took place on 7 February 2008 in New York, US, aiming to take stock of recent developments and the report of the previous Co-Chairs during the 61st UNGA session. The new Co-Chairs, Augustine Mahiga (Tanzania) and Paul Kavanagh (Ireland), proposed using a bottom-up approach in exploring ways for the UN to work more coherently and effectively. Co-Chair Mahiga stressed that they would strive to reach an agreement in June 2008 on the modalities for implementing greater coherence across the UN development activities system, noting that this will require a careful assessment of progress made so far, particularly focusing on the implementation of the 'One UN' pilot projects. He also said that the Co-Chairs plan to tour four pilot-countries and report back to member States in mid-March 2008. UNGA President Srgjan Kerim cited recent encouraging developments, including the adoption of the Triennial Comprehensive Policy Review, which contains many elements that will promote better coherence across the UN's operational activities for development, and he also stressed the importance of system-wide coherence in the context of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Among the statements made, the EU, Japan, Canada, Australia and New Zealand stressed the importance of increased efficiency and accountability “on the ground,” while the G-77/China put priority on overall funding, development and governance, as well as demand-driven development cooperation. A more detailed program of work is expected from the Co-Chairs shortly. In related news, the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has announced that it will host a conference entitled United Nations System-Wide Coherence: The Next Steps from 4-5 March 2008 in Vienna, Austria. This high-level conference will provide a platform for interactive and action-oriented discussions on the development aspects of system-wide coherence and the “Delivering as One UN” initiative, among representatives of governments, aid agencies and UN organizations. Links to further information Center for UN Reform Education news release, 12 February 2008 UNGA President Srgjan Kerim's statement UNIDO conference website
LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENT MINISTERS DISCUSS CLIMATE CHANGE

The Sixteenth Meeting of the Forum of Ministers of Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean met from 27 January-1 February 2008, in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The meeting was organized by the Government of the Dominican Republic through the State Secretariat for the Environment and Natural Resources and the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP/ROLAC), in its capacity of Secretariat of the Forum. A Preparatory Meeting of High Level Governmental Experts convened from 27-29 January, to elevate decision proposals to the Ministers and Heads of Delegation present at the Sixteenth Meeting of the Forum, which took place from 30 January-1 February. Issues addressed include the implications that future international environmental negotiations on climate change and biological diversity will have for the region, including in relation to initiatives to improve air quality and fuels. Participants also considered implementation of the decisions adopted by the Fifteenth Meeting of the Forum and the application of the Bali Strategic Plan for Capacity Building and Technology Support. Among the 20 decisions adopted by Ministers were agreements to: redouble regional, sub-regional and national efforts in applying the Latin American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development (ILAC); maintain the operation of the Interagency Technical Committee under the coordination of UNEP; urge further development and implementation of the Caribbean SIDS programme, and call on UNEP to maintain and further develop its technical programme for Caribbean SIDS and to continue its support to the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC); support the continuation of the Working Group on Environmental Indicators of the Forum; establish a regional network of authorities tasked with addressing atmospheric pollution; approve the Action Plan on Sustainable Consumption and Production; promote capacity building of indigenous peoples; and request the Interagency Technical Committee and the Secretariat of the Forum to, in coordination with the Global Mechanism of the UNCCD, prepare a regional proposal, including specific actions and modalities to facilitate and increase the flow of financial resources for UNCCD implementation at national, subregional and regional levels, consistent with the UNCCD´s 10-years Strategy. Links to further information Meeting website Final Report of the Preparatory Meeting of Experts

January 2008

MAJOR ECONOMIES MEETING CONSIDERS BALI FOLLOW-UP

A second “Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change” has been hosted by the US Government. The meeting, which convened in Honolulu, Hawaii, from 30-31 January 2008, was attended by representatives of leaders from 16 countries, the EU and the UN. Participants focused on how to develop a detailed contribution in taking forward the roadmap and Action Plan agreed in December 2007 during the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali. According to the Chair's summary, participants at the Honolulu event noted that the Major Economies Meetings can assist work carried out to take the Bali Action Plan forward. Delegates reflected on issues that could potentially be addressed by heads of state or government. They also welcomed Japan's plan to host a clean energy technology workshop in Chiba, Japan, in mid-March 2008, suggesting that this could provide a useful opportunity to consult on the Major Economies Meetings. Delegates also welcomed France's offer to host a gathering of leaders' representatives in April 2008. Media reports indicated that the meeting was productive, with some suggesting more “flexibility” in the US position and more openness to discussing objectives and targets. The event took place just days after President George W. Bush's State of the Union speech, in which he proposed committing US$ 2 billion to assisting developing countries deploy clean energy technologies. Links to further information Chair's summary from the meeting, 31 January 2008 Pre-meeting press briefing by US officials Jim Connaughton a..., 25 January 2008 President Bush's State of the Union Address, 28 January 2008 Greenwire / WBCSD report, 1 February 2008 Reuters report, 1 February 2008 Seattle Post-Intelligencer report, 1 February 2008 Xinhua News Agency report, 1 February 2008
WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM ADDRESSES CLIMATE CHANGE, MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND WATER

The World Economic Forum made climate change one of its major areas of discussion during its latest session in Davos, Switzerland. The event, which convened from 23-27 January 2008, included sessions on “going nuclear to fight climate change?” and on international collaboration in moving “beyond Kyoto,” as well as discussions on “the effectiveness of carbon trading.” In the closing session of the Davos event, business, government and civil society leaders called for “a new brand of collaborative and innovative leadership to address the challenges of globalization, particularly the pressing problems of conflict in the Middle East, terrorism, climate change and water conservation.” As well, Japan's Prime Minister, Yasuo Fukuda, announced a five-year, US$ 10 billion fund to support efforts in developing countries to combat global warming. Japan also plans to create a new multilateral climate change mitigation fund with the US and the UK. The Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, also attended the Davos meeting, where he outlined the scientific basis of climate change and the need for urgent action. Prior to the event, UNFCCC Executive Secretary, Yvo de Boer responded to the pre-meeting “Davos question” posed for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. In a video interview, de Boer responded to the question, “What one thing do you think that countries, companies or individuals must do to make the world a better place in 2008?” by highlighting the immediate and long-term risks of climate change, including economic implications. On 25 January 2008, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates, U2 rockstar Bono, Queen Rania (Kingdom of Jordan), World Economic Forum Chairman Klaus Schwab, Nigerian President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua, and Cisco CEO John Chambers issued a joint statement at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting, vowing to make 2008 a turning point in the fight against poverty and to get back on track to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon affirmed that 2008 will be the year of the bottom billion, referring to those living on under $1 dollar per day. Prime Minister Gordon Brown has called for a meeting with the private sector in May to galvanize support towards financing the MDGs. Bono, U2 rockstar, warned that pledges would not be enough and said a binding contract is needed among governments, with the assistance of the private sector. Among other announcements, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced a US$ 306 million package of agricultural development grants “designed to boost the yields and incomes of millions of small farmers in Africa and other parts of the developing world so they can lift themselves and their families out of hunger and poverty.” In his address to the World Economic Forum, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon emphasized that both governments and businesses must play a role in the efforts to achieve the MDGs and to secure safe water for all. The Secretary-General called on business leaders to make water sustainability a corporate priority, and commended the efforts of Nestlé, Coca-Cola and Dow Chemical to address water scarcity and sanitation through initiatives such as The CEO Water Mandate. The CEO Water Mandate was launched at the UN Global Compacts' Leader Summit in July 2007 and represents both a commitment to action and a strategic framework for companies seeking to address the issue of water sustainability in their operations. The first implementation conference for endorsers of the CEO Mandate will convene on 5 March 2008 at UN headquarters in New York, US. Links to further information World Economic Forum 2008 – list of events and summaries World Economic Forum 2008 – statement from the closing sessi... IPCC Chair Rajendra Pachauri's speech, January 2008 UNFCCC Executive Secretary Yvo de Boer's video presentation ... January 2008 Davos session on Call to Action on MDGs, 25 January 2008 World Economic Forum Press Release, 25 January 2008 AllAfrica.com News Story, 25 January 2008 DFID News release, 25 January 2008 End Poverty 2015 Millennium Campaign, 25 January 2008 BBC News Story, 25 January 2008 UN Secretary General's address, 24 January 2008 The CEO Water Mandate homepage
WHO EXECUTIVE BOARD ADOPTS RESOLUTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH

Delegates to the 122nd session of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Executive Board meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, adopted a resolution on climate change and health (EB122.R4). The resolution, which will be forwarded to the Sixty-first World Health Assembly in May 2008 for adoption, details a comprehensive Organization-wide response to climate change, and outlines a role for WHO in the implementation of the UNFCCC Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change. The resolution proposes that the WHO Director-General work in close cooperation with appropriate UN organizations and Member States to develop capacity to assess the risks from climate change for human health and to implement effective response measures, by promoting further research and pilot projects in this area, including work on: health vulnerability to climate change and the scale and nature thereof; health protection strategies and measures relating to climate change and their effectiveness, including cost-effectiveness; the health impacts of potential adaptation and mitigation measures in other sectors such as water resources, land use and transport, in particular where these could have positive benefits for health protection; decision-support and other tools, such as surveillance and monitoring, for assessing vulnerability and health impacts and targeting measures appropriately; and assessment of the likely financial costs and other resources necessary for health protection from climate change. Link to further information Full Text of the WHO EB resolution
DIALOGUE ON MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT ADDRESSES LEGAL AND POLICY PERSPECTIVES

The Center for Migration Studies and the International Organization for Migration hosted a Conference on International Migration and Development in New York, US, on 17-18 January 2008. The Conference aimed to continue the dialogue initiated by the High-Level Dialogue on Migration convened by the UN Secretary-General in 2006 and the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) launched in 2007. During the two-day conference, policy-makers, practitioners and experts reviewed the outcomes and achievements of past events to assess the direction of the international debate on migration and development as well as policy and legal implications. In her opening address to the conference, UN Deputy Secretary-General Asha-Rose Migiro stressed how the debate on migration and development has matured from a sensitive, conflictive issue to a collaborative one between recipients and countries of origin. The meeting will feed into the second GFMD to be held in Manila, the Philippines, from 27-30 October 2008. Greece will host the third GFMD in 2009. Links to further information UN News Centre, 17 January 2008 Deputy Secretary General remarks, DSG SM/370, 17 January 2008 Conference website
UNEP-ORGANIZED CONFERENCE ADDRESSES ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN ASIA PACIFIC

The Asia Pacific Regional Conference on Environmental Justice and Enforcement, organized by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, convened on 14-16 January 2008, in Bangkok, Thailand, bringing together judges, prosecutors and legal practitioners from about 40 countries in the Asia Pacific region. The event was aimed at strengthening the role of judges and legal practitioners in environmental governance, enforcement and the rule of law. Participants discussed, among other issues: emerging trends in environmental jurisprudence and enforcement of environmental laws; the interface between international policy and legal frameworks and national legal systems; and ways to strengthen environmental justice to deal with major environmental challenges, including climate change. Several delegates noted that corruption and a lack of political will are slowing down efforts to enforce environmental laws in the Asia Pacific region. Links to further information UNEP ROAP News release, 14 January 2008 Bangkok's Independent Nation, 15 January 2008
EU, US PROPOSE LIBERALIZING TRADE IN CLIMATE-FRIENDLY GOODS AND SERVICES

The EU and US have submitted a joint proposal at the World Trade Organization (WTO) calling for trade liberalization in climate-friendly goods and services. The proposal was offered during an informal meeting of the WTO's Committee on Trade and Environment Special Session (CTESS). The proposal calls for the elimination of trade barriers facing goods and services directly related to mitigating climate change, with the ultimate objective of a “zero tariff world for climate friendly goods in the near future and no later than 2013.” It was also presented as a contribution to the 8-9 December 2007 meeting of trade ministers on the sidelines of the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali. The proposal has received mixed responses from developing countries. While some have recognized the convenience of boosting trade in climate-friendly technologies to address the most pressing climate change problems, many have suggested that the list of products presented are primarily of export interest to industrialized countries. Brazil has requested that biofuels and biofuel manufacturing equipment be included, along with consideration of a broader category of agricultural environmental goods. Links to further information Bridges Trade BioRes, 18 December 2007 Reuters, 10 December 2007