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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

WATER, OCEANS AND WETLANDS

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2009

 

Water, Oceans and Wetlands Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

ARSENIC IN GROUNDWATER: A WORLD PROBLEM
(Netherlands National Committee of the IAH, 2009)

This publication presents the problem of arsenic in groundwater in a manner accessible to a broad and involved public that might not normally have access to scientific literature. It includes sections on: sources and distribution of arsenic in groundwater and aquifers; geochemical experimentation and modelling are tools for understanding the origin of arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh and elsewhere; review of arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops and potential impacts on agriculture and food supply; and health effects in inorganic arsenic. The resource.

WATER RELATED MIGRATION, CHANGING LAND USE AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
(UNU and UNW-DPC, October 2009)
This publication, prepared by the United Nations University and the UN-Water Decade Programme on Capacity Development, focuses on one of the themes from the World Water Forum held in Istanbul, Turkey, from 17-18 March 2009: it aims to contribute to the understanding of rural to rural, rural to urban and cross-border migration in the face of water scarcity. The publication.

MARINE MENACE: ALIEN INVASIVE SPECIES IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
(IUCN, 2009)
This report indicates that the marine world is under threat and many factors are driving biodiversity loss, with the most insidious threat being posed by marine invasive species. The report summarises the main threats and what can be done to counter them. The report.

MONITORING FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HERBIVOROUS REEF FISHES AS INDICATORS OF CORAL REEF RESILIENCE: A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR CORAL REEF MANAGERS IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION
(IUCN, 2009)
Herbivores play a critical role in coral reef resilience by limiting the establishment and growth of algal communities that impede coral recruitment. This document provides practical advice to field practitioners based on an example from the Asia Pacific Region. The report.

RESILIENCE ASSESSMENT OF CORAL REEFS: RAPID ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL FOR CORAL REEFS, FOCUSING ON CORAL BLEACHING AND THERMAL STRESS
(IUCN, 2009)
The need for rapid methodologies for measuring coral reef resilience and their application in assessing the effectiveness of coral reef conservation management measures is becoming increasingly acute. This document outlines a protocol that defines some basic resilience indicators for rapid assessment methods. The document.

WATER FOR BUSINESS: INITIATIVES GUIDING SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR
(WBCSD and IUCN, 2009)
This report, produced jointly by IUCN and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), identifies 16 initiatives or tools for water management, driven by business leaders, civil society and governments, which have emerged since 2006. It includes the WBCSD Global Water Tool, which helps companies map their water use and assess water risks and opportunities across their global operations. This guide is aimed at helping business identify which initiatives and approaches will most suit its needs, and to help developers of schemes understand opportunities for increasing impact through consensus building and joint action. The
report.

NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH - EARLY DETECTION AND RAPID RESPONSE TO BIOLOGICAL INVASION ALONG US TRADE PATHWAYS
(IUCN and US EPA, 2009)

This report, produced by IUCN, states that ports and trade hotspots in the US require better ways to detect invasive species, as well as more rapid response protocols. The publication urges swift action to improve biosecurity measures, including improved coordination between agencies and greater international cooperation. Neighborhood Watch offers recommendations to improve biosecurity measures at US ports, as well as a possible funding mechanism based upon the “polluter pays” principle. The report.

 

HYDROLOGICAL EXTREMES IN SMALL BASINS

(UNESCO-IHP, Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 84; 2009)
Edited by W. Chelmicki and J. Siwek, this volume constitutes the proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of the Euromediterranean Network of Representative and Experimental Basins (ERB) held in Krakow, Poland, from 18-20 September 2008. The conference addressed the issue of hydrological extremes in small basins and was organized by the Institute of Geography and Spatial Management of the Jagiellonian University under the umbrella of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, “PUB” initiative (Prediction in Ungauged Basins) and the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Northern European FRIEND Project. This volume includes the 24 articles submitted by the authors after the conference, including the text of the keynote presentation. The technical document.

THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF PELAGIC SHARKS AND RAYS: REPORT OF THE IUCN SHARK SPECIALIST GROUP PELAGIC SHARK RED LIST WORKSHOP
(IUCN, June 2009)
This study is the first to determine the global conservation status of 64 species of open ocean (pelagic) sharks and rays and reveals that 32% are threatened with extinction, primarily due to overfishing. The percentage of open ocean shark species threatened with extinction is higher for the sharks taken in high-seas fisheries (52%) than for the group as a whole. The report.

JOINT WATER QUANTITY/QUALITY MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS IN A BIOFUEL PRODUCTION AREA: USING AN INTEGRATED ECONOMIC-HYDROLOGIC MODEL
(IFPRI, 2009)
This discussion paper was published by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), a research center of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. It examines the application of the integrated hydrologic-economic basin model to water management in the Pirapama River Basin in Brazil, to study both water quantity and quality issues. The model results show that incorporating water quality aspects into water allocation decisions leads to a substantial reduction in application of vinasse byproduct to sugarcane fields. The paper also suggests that to enforce water quality restrictions, the shadow price for maintaining water in the reservoir could be used as a pollution tax for fertirrigated areas, which are currently not subject to pollution charges. The paper.

RESILIENCE ASSESSMENT OF CORAL REEFS
(IUCN, 2009)

This report, subtitled “Assessment protocol for coral reefs, focusing on coral bleaching and thermal stress,” shows that the amount of damage done to corals depends not only on the rate and extent of climate change, but also on the ability of coral reefs to cope with change. This report outlines a protocol that defines basic resilience indicators that can be quantified using rapid assessment methods. The report.

WORLD DATABASE ON MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

(UNEP-WCMC, June 2009)

This decision-making tool aims to provide the most current and relevant information about marine and coastal biodiversity and its protection status. The tool was created by the UN Environment Programme’s World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) with IUCN, and is part of the recently redeveloped World Database on Protected Areas – the authoritative and most globally comprehensive list of marine and terrestrial protected areas. The database.

INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DEEP-SEA FISHERIES IN THE HIGH SEAS
(FAO, June 2009)
This set of technical guidelines is aimed at helping the fisheries sector reduce its impacts on fragile deep-sea fish species and ecosystems. The guidelines provide a framework that countries can use, individually and in the context of regional fisheries management organizations, to manage deep-sea fisheries in high-seas areas outside of national jurisdictions. They prescribe steps for identifying and protecting vulnerable ocean ecosystems and provide guidance on the sustainable use of marine living resources in deep-sea areas. They also outline ways that information on the location and status of vulnerable marine ecosystems, including vulnerable deep-sea fish stocks, should be improved. The guidelines.

MARINE LITTER: A GLOBAL CHALLENGE
(UNEP, 2009)

This report provides an overview of the status of marine litter in UNEP’s assisted Regional Seas, and highlights the amounts, main sources, impacts and economics of marine litter. It also discusses: legislation, policies, compliance and enforcement mechanisms; institutional frameworks and stakeholder involvement; education and outreach strategies; monitoring programmes and research; and mitigation activities. It concludes that there is an urgent need to approach the issue of marine litter through better enforcement of laws and regulations, expanded outreach and educational campaigns, and the employment of strong economic instruments and incentives. It proposes some general and specific recommendations regarding marine litter. The report.

IUCN’S COMPILATION OF CASE STUDIES ON THE ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF MPAs

(IUCN, May 2009)

This compilation of case studies concludes that protecting the oceans through marine protected areas (MPAs) can provide higher and more sustained income through tourism and controlled fisheries than continued exploitation. Kulape-Batu-Batu Marine Protected Area, Philippines. Navakavu Locally Managed Marine Area, Fiji. Western Hawaii Marine Protected Area Network, US. Lundy Island No Take Zone, UK.

ABANDONED, LOST OR OTHERWISE DISCARDED FISHING GEAR
(FAO/UNEP; 2009)
This study on abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) aims to raise awareness of the extent of the problem and to recommend action to mitigate the problem of ALDFG by flag States, regional fisheries management bodies and organizations, and international organizations. The report reviews: the magnitude and composition of ALDFG; its impacts; the factors which cause fishing gear to be abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded; and the measures currently in place to reduce ALDFG. The report concludes with a number of recommendations for future action to reduce ALDFG debris, be it on a mandatory or voluntary basis. The report.

SCAR-MARBIN PORTAL
(Census of Antarctic Marine Life, May 2009)

SCAR-Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN) is an International Polar Year Core Initiative, which lets users instantly download data and map the occurrence and abundance of polar marine organisms. This database enables access to over one million records from 120 datasets and is updated by over 70 experts worldwide. The database.

STUDY ON THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF GROUNDWATER AND BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPEAN FORESTS
(IUCN, Confederation for European Forest Owners, 2009)

Written by Chantal van Ham, Thomas Greiber, Gerben Janse and Marta Gaworska, this study explores the state of development of forest-groundwater related payments for environmental services (PES) schemes in the European Union. It shows that PES structures already exist in a number of EU member states, which fund afforestation and sustainable management practices and thus support, maintain, and even develop the protective functions of forests with regards to groundwater. The study.

AFRICAN WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE: ASSESSMENT OF BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH DESIGNATIONS UNDER THE RAMSAR CONVENTION
(Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, vol XXI, issue 2; Winter 2009)
This survey is authored by Royal Gardner, Stetson University College of Law, Kim Diana Connolly, University of South Carolina School of Law, and Abou Bamba, Ramsar Secretariat. The article discusses the survey results from 26 sites in 18 countries. It finds that benefits associated with a Ramsar designation include increased: support for protection and management of the sites; scientific studies; funding opportunities; ecotourism and poverty alleviation. The survey.

RAMSAR SITES OF THE WORLD
(The Ministry of Environment Korea, WWT, and UNDP/GEF Korea Wetland Project; April 2009)

This book shows exemplary conservation practices of 17 Ramsar sites around the world: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mali, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Sweden, the UK and the US. These Ramsar sites are described by 24 wetland experts and over 40 photographers. The book.

 

INNOWAT: WATER, INNOVATIONS, LEARNING AND RURAL LIVELIHOODS

(IFAD, March 2009)

This tool kit, published by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), seeks to strengthen IFAD’s capacity as a knowledge management broker for development partners interested in water and rural poverty, and to provide IFAD country programme managers with practical tools for project development, implementation and pro-poor, water related interventions. Case studies cover Bangladesh, Gambia, Niger, Peru and Tanzania. The tool kit.

MARINE BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION NETWORK
(Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 2009)
Created by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), an inter-disciplinary committee of the International Council for Science, the Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN) is a collaborative web portal that provides free and open access to information on Antarctic marine biodiversity. The portal started as a major Belgian contribution to the International Polar Year, but grew into an international collaborative effort. The portal.

SEA CUCUMBERS: A GLOBAL REVIEW OF FISHERIES AND TRADE
(FAO, April 2009) This report finds that sea cucumber stocks are under intense fishing pressure throughout the world and that most high value commercial species have been depleted. In a majority of countries reviewed and in the African and Indian Ocean regions, stocks are overfished and in the Asian Pacific region the most sought-after species are largely depleted. The report also identifies additional threats for sea cucumber populations worldwide, including global warming, habitat destruction, and illegal fishing. The report.

FACING THE CHALLENGES
(UNESCO, March 2009) This volume of case studies was published in conjunction with UN World Water Development Report 3. This first stand-alone volume includes 20 studies from Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America, where conditions of water-related stress and socio-economic settings vary widely. These case studies will continue the work of previous reports by providing in-depth analysis of the state of freshwater resources and related challenges that directly affect the livelihoods of people in the societies. The volume.

IWRM GUIDELINES AT RIVER BASIN LEVEL 
(UNESCO, March 2009)
These Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Guidelines were produced as a contribution of UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme towards the World Water Assessment Programme with dedicated support from Japanese Government. They consist of two parts: overarching Principles of IWRM at River Basin Level for policy-makers; practical keys for success and good examples intended for practitioners of IWRM at River Basin Level. The Guidelines propose a ‘Spiral Model’ of IWRM, which illustrates the evolving and dynamic nature of the IWRM process. Accumulated ‘Key for Success’ can be used in practice to help IWRM succeed at the river basin level. ‘Good examples’ in several different river basins worldwide show how these keys could overcome the issues. Brochure Presentation; Part 1 Principles; Part 2-1 Guidelines for IWRM Coordination; Part 2-2 Guidelines for Flood Management; Part 2-3 Invitation to IWRM for Irrigation Practitioners.

IUCN CASE STUDIES ON WATER AND PROTECTED AREAS 
(IUCN, 2009)
This compilation of case studies concludes that
protecting watersheds provides many of the world’s megacities with freshwater and saves billions of dollars. The cases relate to: Guatopo and Macarao National Parks;
Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park; Kruger National Park; and the Macquarie Marshes. Case studies.

UN WORLD WATER DEVELOPMENT REPORT 3 – WATER IN A CHANGING WORLD
(UNESCO, March 2009)
This report presents a comprehensive assessment of global freshwater resources to date. Starting from the conclusions of the first two reports presented, respectively, in Kyoto, Japan, in 2003 and in Mexico City, Mexico, in 2006, it emphasizes the role played by water in development and economic growth. It also examines a range of subjects, including population growth, climate change, altered ecosystems, food production, health, industry and energy, as well as biofuels and the importance of underground aquifers. The report is completed by a series of case studies on selected cities, regions and countries (Istanbul, Cameroon, Spain, the Netherlands, Sudan, Swaziland and basins of La Plata and Lake Merin). The report.

THE TWO ANALYSIS – INTRODUCING A METHODOLOGY FOR THE TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS
(SIWI, 2008) This SIWI report details an analytical framework for effectively developing transboundary water resources in a responsible manner. The report sets out a methodology that aims to: enable transboundary water stakeholders to collaborate on the equitable and sustainable use of their jointly held freshwater resources; optimize benefits for development and economic growth; and clarify tradeoffs in developing transboundary water resources. The report.

“FROM RIDGE TO REEF” WATER, ENVIRONMENT, AND COMMUNITY SECURITY: GEF ACTION ON TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES
(GEF, March 2009)
This publication explores the Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) work on International Waters projects. The GEF has supported regional collaborative efforts for 22 transboundary surface water basins, 16 large marine ecosystems, and 5 cross-border groundwater systems. The publication.

WATER SCARCITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE: GROWING RISKS FOR BUSINESSES AND INVESTORS
(Ceres and the Pacific Institute, February 2009)

This report details the growing business risks stemming from water scarcity and quality in eight key sectors: agriculture, beverage, electric power/energy, apparel, high-tech/IT, mining/metals, forest products, and biotechnology/pharmaceutical. The report concludes that climate change will exacerbate growing water risks, especially as the world population grows by 50 million people every year. Despite the looming challenges faced by the water sector, the report concludes that businesses and investors are largely unaware of water-related risks or how climate change will likely exacerbate them, and outlines recommended actions. The report.

FAO’S ETO CALCULATOR
(FAO, January 2009)
This UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) software’s main function is to calculate reference evapotranspiration (ETo) according to FAO standards. ETo represents the evapotranspiration rate from a reference surface, not short of water. The calculator.

THE STATE OF WORLD FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE 2008
(FAO, 2009)
This UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report features some of the aspects of fisheries and aquaculture that may receive increasing attention, including: climate change; the use of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction; and the proliferation of private standards and certification schemes in the international fish trade. This report also highlights a few of FAO’s special studies, such as the use of wild-fishery resources as seed and feed in aquaculture, and reviews of the world’s shrimp fisheries and of the management of marine capture fisheries in the Pacific Ocean. The authors recommend that existing responsible fishing practices be more widely implemented and current management plans be expanded to include strategies for coping with climate change. The report.

PLANNING FOR A WATER SECURE FUTURE - LESSONS FROM WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN AFRICA
(Global Water Partnership, December 2008)

This publication outlines the main observations and lessons learned from the Global Water Partnership’s activities in five African countries: Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Senegal and Zambia, between 2003 and 2007. The publication.

COPING WITH WATER SCARCITY: WHAT ROLE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGIES?
(FAO, 2008)
This UN Food and Agriculture (FAO) discussion paper
represents the outputs from an e-mail conference hosted by the FAO Biotechnology Forum from 5 March-1 April 2007. It provides an overview of the current status and future perspectives regarding water availability as well as a discussion of some major strategies that can be employed to deal with water scarcity. The paper then looks at the issue of water use in agriculture in more detail as well as some of the potential ways in which biotechnology could contribute to this area. It also contains a summary of the main issues discussed during the moderated conference, based on the messages posted by the participants. The discussion paper.

AQUACROP
(FAO, 2009)

This UN Food and Agriculture (FAO)
crop-model simulates yield response to water of several herbaceous crops. It is particularly suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop.

GLOBAL STUDY OF SHRIMP FISHERIES
(FAO, 2008)

This UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) study reviews current problems and solutions of shrimp fishing in ten selected countries: Australia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Kuwait, Madagascar, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Trinidad and Tobago and the US. It concludes that mechanisms, instruments and models exist to enable effective mitigation of many of the difficulties associated with shrimp fishing, taking a precautionary and ecosystem approach to fisheries. In many countries, however, weak agencies dealing with fisheries, lack of political will and inadequate legal foundations cause failures in the management of shrimp fisheries. The report makes specific recommendations in a few key areas: the management of small-scale shrimp fisheries; capacity reduction; and access to the fishery. The report.

Freshwater Under Threat: South Asia
(UNEP and Asian Institute of Technology, 2009)
This report highlights, inter alia, the threat that climate change poses to the freshwater supply of hundreds of millions of people. It forecasts that, given the dependence on receding Himalayan glaciers, climate change is likely to eventually lead to severe water shortages in all of South Asia’s water basins, and calls for urgent policy attention. The report.

 

GLACIER MASS BALANCE DATA 2006 AND 2007

(World Glacier Monitoring Service; 2009)
This last addition of the series “Fluctuations of Glaciers” was prepared by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), which continuously publishes internationally collected, standardized data on changes in glaciers throughout the world at five-yearly intervals. The publication aims to reproduce a global set of data that: presents a general view of the changes; encourages more extensive measurements; invites further processing of the results; facilitates consultation of further sources; and serves as a basis for research. The standardized data set is to serve as a working tool for the scientific community, especially concerning the fields of glaciology, climatology, hydrology and quaternary geology. The data set.

NATIONAL AND REGIONAL NETWORKS OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS: A REVIEW OF PROGRESS
(UNEP-WCMC; 2008)
This report by the UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) and the UNEP Regional Seas Programme explores national and regional efforts to develop representative networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and offers recommendations for strengthening the planning of such networks worldwide. This 156-page report reviews 30 nations’ networking initiatives, including progress made and lessons learned. The report.

THE MANAGEMENT OF NATURA 2000 SITES IN THE GERMAN EEZ: SUMMARY AND ADVICE DERIVED FROM THE RESULTS OF THE EMPAS PROJECT
(International Council for the Exploration of the Sea; 2008)
This report contains the advice and lessons derived from a project to develop fisheries management plans for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The three-year initiative, called the Environmentally Sound Fishery Management in Protected Areas (EMPAS) project, analyzed conflicts between nature conservation goals and fishing activities. It was coordinated by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and was meant to serve as a pilot for the development of similar plans throughout offshore EU waters. The report.

ADDRESSING CHINA’S WATER SCARCITY: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SELECTED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ISSUES 
(World Bank, January 2009)
This report commends China’s leadership for its awareness of the worsening water situation, and its commitment to transforming China into a water-saving society. It aims to provide an overview of China’s water scarcity situation, assess the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommend key areas for strengthening and reform. Based on government priorities, the report focuses on the following areas: water governance; water rights; water pricing and affordability; watershed ecological compensation mechanisms; water pollution control; and emergency prevention. This report synthesizes the main findings and recommendations from over 30 technical reports, case studies, and background papers recently produced by the World Bank in these areas. The report.

BUILDING AN ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO AQUACULTURE
(FAO, January 2009)

These UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) proceedings present the output of an expert workshop organized by FAO and the University of the Baleares from 7-11 May 2007, in Palma de Mallorca, Spain. They include contributed papers on definitions, principles, scales and management measures, human dimensions, economic implications and legal implications that are relevant for an ecosystem-based management in aquaculture. The proceedings.

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES OF THE UPPER BLUE NILE RIVER BASIN, ETHIOPIA
(International Water Management Institute Research Report 126, November 2008)
This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on the hydrological regime and water resources of the Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. It starts from the construction of the climate change scenarios based on the outcomes of several general circulation models, uses a simple hydrological model to convert theses scenarios into runoff, and examines the impacts by means of a set of indices. The report.


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recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
Diego Noguera, IISD

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