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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

WATER, OCEANS AND WETLANDS

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2008

 

Water, Oceans and Wetlands Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

OCEAN NOISE: TURN IT DOWN
(IFAW, December 2008)
This report highlights the dramatic increase of undersea noise from human activities in recent decades. It notes that this increase is set to continue and, unless tackled, poses a potentially major threat to marine animals of many kinds worldwide. The report calls for wide-ranging action, including a requirement that builders and owners of all vessels factor noise reduction measures into vessels’ design and operation. The report.

ESTABLISHING RESILIENT MARINE PROTECTED AREA NETWORKS – MAKING IT HAPPEN
(IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, 2008)

This document represents a synthesis of the expertise, knowledge and views of leading experts in marine protected area network design and implementation. It highlights global commitments for marine conservation and shows how to move from individual MPA sites to an effective system of national regional MPA networks. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES OF THE UPPER BLUE NILE RIVER BASIN, ETHIOPIA
(International Water Management Institute, November 2008)

This research report evaluates the impacts of climate change on the hydrological regime and water resources of the Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. It starts from the construction of climate change scenarios based on the outcomes of several general circulation models, uses a simple hydrological model to convert theses scenarios into runoff, and examines the impacts by means of a set of indices. The report.

OIL SPILL IN THE KERCH STRAIT
(UNEP, November 2008)
Subtitled “Ukraine Post-Disaster Needs Assessment,” this report, which was drafted by UNEP and the European Commission, reviews their efforts to help Ukraine complete its recovery from the oil spill that occurred in the Kerch Strait in November 2007, when a severe storm caused the Volgoneft-139 to release over 1,300 tonnes of fuel oil into the sea. The resulting, extensive physical damage to the sea and land led to property losses, contamination of the marine and coastal flora and fauna, as well as high clean-up costs and significant revenue losses for local industries. The report provides a series of recommendations to improve oil spill preparedness and response in Ukraine. Recommendations are particularly targeted at strengthening strategic policy, contingency planning, information management, environmental monitoring and assessment, and waste management. The report.

GENDER AND EQUITY IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF WEST AFRICA
(IUCN and the Fondation Internationale du Banc d’Arguin (FIBA), 2008)

This report examines the role of gender equity in protected area management in West Africa. Featuring several case studies of marine and coastal protected areas, the report discusses the relationship between conservation and social equality between the sexes. It also offers several recommendations for applying an equity-based approach to protected area management in West Africa and elsewhere. The report.

PRETENDING TO BE GUIDED BY SCIENCE – TIMELINE OF A FISHERY FAILURE
(WWF, November 2008)

This chronology provides background information on the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and what WWF qualifies as “its so far ineffective efforts to prevent the Mediterranean bluefin fishery following the trajectory of collapse already illustrated in the northern and western Atlantic bluefin fisheries.” The timeline.

CONTINUING CCAMLR’S FIGHT AGAINST IUU FISHING FOR TOOTHFISH

(WWF Australia, TRAFFIC, 2008) While the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) carries out estimates of the illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) catch of Patagonian Toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides and Antarctic Toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni, there has been no recent trade analysis to compare those estimates with trade-based estimates of catch.

This paper uses available data to: estimate the total annual trade in toothfish over the period 2003–2007; calculate the total live weight equivalent of that trade as a basis for estimating global catch; compare the estimated global catch with CCAMLR’s CDS records of landings; and estimate the level of IUU catch. The analysis is then used to assess the effectiveness of CCAMLR’s monitoring, control and surveillance regime for toothfish, including the Catch Documentation Scheme, in addressing IUU fishing and as a basis for recommendations to improve the effectiveness of that regime. The paper.

FORESTS AND WATER
(FAO, 2008)

Written by L.S. Hamilton, this Forestry Paper of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. The paper suggests that forest cover’s importance in regulating hydrological flows has often been overestimated, stating that reforestation to prevent or reduce floods is effective at only a local scale of a few hundred hectares. The author notes that forests’ most significant contribution to the hydrological balance of watershed ecosystems is in maintaining high-quality water. FAO Forestry Paper 155.

INCIDENTAL CATCH OF MARINE TURTLES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA: CAPTURES, MORTALITY, PRIORITIES
(WWF, 2008)
After outlining the relevant parameters for assessing the impact of fishing activity on marine turtle populations, as well as the fishing gear, parameters and mitigating measures, this report describes the three species of marine turtles in the Mediterranean Sea. The author then provides an overview of the legal framework for the protection of marine turtles in the region and of the Mediterranean fishing fleet. The report then outlines the various interactions with fisheries in the Mediterranean and the possible conservation measures and strategies for marine turtles in the Mediterranean. The author concludes with a series of proposed priority actions to address the intentional and unintentional killings of marine turtles as well as general measures for their conservation. The report.

GLOBAL GROUNDWATER MAP
(UNESCO, 2008)
This UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) map of shared aquifers is the first-ever global inventory of this resource. The map shows the delineations of aquifers that are shared by at least two countries and provides information about the quality of their water and rate of replenishment. So far, the inventory comprises 273 shared aquifers: 68 are on the American continent; 38 in Africa; 65 in Eastern Europe; 90 in Western Europe; and 12 in Asia. The map.

ESTABLISHING MARINE PROTECTED AREA NETWORKS - MAKING IT HAPPEN
(IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, 2008)
This guide captures the emerging experience on building marine protected area (MPA) networks and was published with the support of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Nature Conservancy. It aims to help better understand the role of MPAs and MPA networks at local and regional scales to achieve marine conservation. It utilizes current scientific knowledge, institutional experience and global case studies to outline the latest information pertaining to building resilient and functional MPA networks. The Guide also highlights global commitments for marine conservation and shows how to move from individual MPA sites to an effective system of national and regional MPA networks. The guide.

DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING AN ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF OCEAN-RELATED ACTIVITIES
(DOALOS, 2008)
This UN Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) interdisciplinary manual focuses on the development and implementation of an ecosystem approach to the management of human activities and their impacts on the marine environment within a national context, while meeting regional and international obligations. The manual will form a basis for the delivery of a training workshop, organized by DOALOS in the context of the Train-Sea-Coast Programme, and in collaboration with the UN Environment Programme and other partners, to be held in Mombasa, Kenya, from 27 October to 1 November 2008. The objective of the workshop is to provide government officials and managers with the necessary knowledge and skills to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to the management of ocean-related activities. The manual.

AVAILABLE ASSISTANCE TO AND MEASURES THAT MAY BE TAKEN BY DEVELOPING STATES
(DOALOS, 2008; Document A/63/342)
This study was prepared by the UN Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) and focuses on the least developed States and Small Island Developing States (SIDS), as well as coastal African States, to help them realize the benefits of sustainable and effective development of marine resources and uses of the oceans within the limits of national jurisdiction. The study.

SUNKEN BILLIONS: THE ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION FOR FISHERIES REFORM
(World Bank –FAO; 2008)

This joint World Bank-UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report finds that economic losses in marine fisheries resulting from poor management, inefficiencies and overfishing add up to US$50 billion per year. The study also argues that well-managed marine fisheries could turn most of these losses into sustainable economic benefits for millions of fishers and coastal communities. The two agencies recommend the following measures: strengthening fishing rights to provide fishers and fishing communities with incentives to fish in an economically efficient and socially responsible manner; phasing out subsidies that enhance redundant fishing capacity; and increasing transparency in allocation of fish resources and public accountability for fisheries management and health of fish stocks, to help eco-labeling initiatives to certify sustainable fisheries. The study.

 

INTERACTIVE AQUASTAT MAPS

(FAO, 2008)

AQUASTAT is the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) global information system on water and agriculture developed by the Land and Water Division. It collects, analyzes and disseminates data and information by country and by region. It aims to provide users interested in global, regional and national analyses with comprehensive information related to water resources and agricultural water management across the world, with emphasis on countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. The FAO has released interactive maps as part of the AQUASTAT website, with population and water indicators. AQUASTAT website.

 

TEACHER’S MANUAL: INTERNATIONAL WATERCOURSES/RIVER BASINS INCLUDING LAW, NEGOTIATION, CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND SIMULATION TRAINING EXERCISES

(FAO, 2008)

This new UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Water Teachers Manual features exercises and activities that can help participants to explore their behaviors in the study of international water law and conflict resolution. The manual addresses issue like trust, encourages learning, and seeks to contribute to improved performance and interaction between group members. The manual.

 

GLAAS 2008 PILOT REPORT

(WHO, 2008)
The Global Annual Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) is a UN-Water pilot initiative led by the World Health Organization (WHO). UN-Water GLAAS constitutes a new approach to reporting on progress in the sanitation and drinking-water sectors that aims to strengthen evidence-based policy-making towards and beyond the Millennium Development Goals. The purpose of the GLAAS pilot report is to present the concept of a possible global, periodic, comprehensive reporting mechanism to inform policy-making in the sanitation and drinking-water sectors. The GLAAS pilot report does not draw conclusions on the sector status, but it is meant to stimulate discussion on how to improve reporting on the sanitation and drinking-water sectors. The
report.

REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS
(ICES, 20908)
This resource is the report of the third and final workshop of the Environmentally Sound Fishery Management in Protected Areas project (EMPAS), which took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 2-4 June 2008. Coordinated by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the three-year EMPAS project has aimed to develop fisheries management plans for Natura 2000 sites within the German EEZ of the North Sea and Baltic Sea. It is also meant to serve as a pilot for development of similar plans throughout offshore EU waters. The publication and EMPAS project website

PROCEEDINGS FROM THE FIRST CONFERENCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN MPAS NETWORK
(Port-Cros National Park, 2008) 
This resource reviews the proceedings from the First Conference of the Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Network (MedPAN), which met from 24-27 October 2007, on the Island of Porquerolles, France. The conference’s objective was to promote the development of a comprehensive, representative and effectively managed network of MPAs throughout the Mediterranean region. The proceedings.

ECONOMIC VALUATION OF CRITICAL HABITAT CLOSURES
(Fisheries Centre at the University of British Columbia (Canada), 2008)
This report estimates the cost to fisheries of closing areas, using a spatial model of fleet operations. Focusing on protected sea lion habitat in the eastern North Pacific, the report links spatial variability of fisheries biomass and profitability over time to environmental variables. It also develops estimates of opportunity costs of time and area closures to the fishing industry at various scales. The authors suggest that their findings have direct applications to evaluating boundary changes to existing Marine Protected Areas and other spatial management decisions. The report.

SELFISH EUROPE
(ActionAid, 2008)

According to this report, subtitled “How the Economic Partnership Agreements would further contribute to the decline of fish stocks and exacerbate the food crisis in Senegal,” West African seas are being devastated by legal and illegal overfishing, while local fishing industries decline. The study focuses on the role played by Europeans in overexploiting Senegal’s marine resources, before dealing with the issue of the Economic Partnership Agreements. The report finds that overfishing of West African coastal waters, often by large European trawlers and sometimes by “fishing pirates” who trawl without any authorization, has largely depleted local fish stocks. The report.

TARIFF HIKES WITH LOW INVESTMENT: THE STORY OF THE URBAN WATER SECTOR IN ZAMBIA
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, June 2008)
This one-pager, written by Hulya Dagdeviren and Degol Hailu, discusses why Zambia is unlikely to meet the MDG on water. Main bottlenecks include unaffordable tariffs, low investments in infrastructure, and failure of privatization schemes. The authors indicate that the proportion of the population in Zambia with access to safe drinking water declined from 72% in 1992 to 57% in 2002. The one pager.

PROGRESS ON DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION
(UNICEF and WHO, July 2008)

This
UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UN World Health Organization (WHO) report finds that, despite recent progress, more than 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation, while nearly 1.2 billion people defecate without sanitary facilities, posing a major health threat to their communities. At present, 87% of the world’s population can access improved water sources with the figure expected to rise to 90% by 2015. The report also indicates that rural dwellers without access to improved water sources outnumber their urban counterparts by four to one. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER

(IPCC, June 2008)
The sixth in the IPCC Technical Paper series addresses issues of freshwater and climate change. The paper notes “abundant evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly impacted by climate change, with wide ranging consequences for human societies and ecosystems.” It also notes projections for increased flooding and drought, increased water pollution, and the need for integrated adaptation strategies on both the demand and supply sides. The paper was developed by an interdisciplinary team of authors from the three IPCC working groups, and has been subject to expert and government review, although it has not been considered by the IPCC for its approval. The paper.

TRACING POWER AND INFLUENCE IN NETWORKS: NET-MAP AS A TOOL FOR RESEARCH AND STRATEGIC NETWORK PLANNING
(IFPRI, 2008)
This International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) report, authored by Eva Schiffer and Douglas Waale, notes that, believing that stakeholders should have a say in policies that concern them, policymakers have begun to promote the development of stakeholder forums and organizations to address governance issues such as water management. This paper presents an innovative empirical research tool—Net-Map—developed to better understand multi-stakeholder governance by gathering in-depth information about governance networks, goals of actors, and their power and influence. Researchers and implementers alike can use Net-Map to collect qualitative and quantitative information in a structured and comparable way. It can be used both as a research tool and as an instrument for organizational development and strategic network planning. A case study on the development of a multi-stakeholder water governance body in northern Ghana illustrates the application of this research method. The method can be used on many different levels, from the community, to national or even international levels. The report.

WATER AND THE RURAL POOR INTERACTIVE MAPS
(FAO-IFAD, 2008)
These maps are an electronic complement to the Food and Agriculture Organization-International Fund for Agricultural Development (FAO-IFAD) joint report
Water and the Rural Poor. Their purpose is to enable users to make comparisons between various categories of mapped data in order to establish similarities and patterns in areas involving water and rural livelihoods. The maps.

GREEN HARBOURS: HONG KONG AND SHENZHEN - REDUCING MARINE AND PORT-RELATED EMISSIONS
(Civic Exchange, June 2008)

This report, which was based on consultations with stakeholders from government and the private sector, highlights the fact that many private sector port operators and ship-owners have already taken voluntary measures to improve environmental performance, and are willing to do more. The report identifies the need for the government of China to create a level playing field for all, so that slow implementers do not reap competitive advantage from non-action. The report also outlines case studies of best practice from European and US ports and proposes a framework for the Governments of Hong Kong and Shenzhen to take the lead in setting strategies for emissions reductions. The report.

GLOBAL CORRUPTION REPORT 2008: CORRUPTION IN THE WATER SECTOR
(
Transparency International, 2008)
This report demonstrates that the onset of climate change and the increasing stress on water supply around the world make the fight against corruption in water more urgent than ever. It also shows that the corruption challenge needs to be recognized in the many global policy initiatives for environmental sustainability, development and security that relate to water. A number of encouraging initiatives are described, showing success in tackling water corruption. The report.

REAL AND PRESENT DANGER: FLAG STATE FAILURE AND MARITIME SECURITY AND SAFETY
(WWF and International Transport Workers Federation, June 2008)
This study, authored by Matthew Gianni, found that as flags of convenience countries seldom exercise adequate control over the operation of ships registered to fly their flags, their ships also dominate records on sub-standard shipping, poor safety, maltreatment of crew and pollution of the marine environment. The report cites the number of fishing vessels registered to States without fishing authorizations and the extent to which these vessels have been mentioned in connection with illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing. WWF calls for the establishment of a UN Committee to negotiate a new implementing agreement to the UN Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that sets out enforceable measures to ensure flag states fulfill their responsibilities under UNCLOS and prevents States from operating vessel registers in breach of regulations and international agreements. The study.

ASSESSING MANAGEMENT REGIMES IN TRANSBOUNDARY RIVER BASINS: DO THEY SUPPORT ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT?
(Ecology and Society, 2008)

This paper presents an overview of regime features that support adaptive management, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using the adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management. The
paper.

TOWARDS A NEW GOVERNANCE OF HIGH SEAS BIODIVERSITY
(IDDRI, 2008)
This report of the seminar entitled the seminar “Towards a New Governance of High Seas Biodiversity,” which took place from 20-21 March 2008, in Monaco, and addressed the management of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. The seminar was organized by the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and convened experts from international organizations, national governments, NGOs and research centers. The report.

US COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS ON MPA COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT
(US Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee, May 2008)
This set of management principles for enhancing compliance and enforcement in marine protected areas (MPAs) was adopted by the US MPA Federal Advisory Committee during its meeting in Silver Spring, Maryland, US, from 22-24 April 2008. The recommendations.

LEASING AND OWNERSHIP WITHIN OCEAN AND COASTAL WATERS — A CONSERVATION PRACTITIONER’S TOOLKIT
(The Nature Conservancy and partners, 2008)
This online toolkit describes how land and resources in ocean and coastal waters can be leased or bought for conservation purposes. It describes the policy basis and rationale for such conservation efforts, and walks practitioners through the processes of acquiring marine-related resources and implementing private management. The toolkit provides 24 case studies, eight country assessments, and 24 US state assessments, as well as other resources. The toolkit.

ECOSYSTEM-BASED ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING TRAWL SELECTIVITY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
(WWF Mediterranean, April 2008)

This
report encourages the switch from the unselective diamond-mesh nets currently used by bottom-trawlers in the Mediterranean to more selective square-mesh nets, sooner than the obligatory deadline of 2010 stipulated under European legislation (EU Council Regulation 1967/2006). The WWF report is based on new ecosystem-based management analyses that use computer models to assess the effects of square-mesh nets on marine ecosystems and fishing fleets. Results show that square-mesh nets will make trawling more selective – meaning the capture of less immature juveniles and non-target species, and reducing discards – and thus allowing the Mediterranean’s fragile marine life to begin recovery. The report.

REGIONAL EURO—MEDITERRANEAN PROGRAMME FOR THE ENVIRONMENT (SMAP)
(SMAP, 2008)

The SMAP programme constitutes the environmental component of the Euro Mediterranean Partnership. It builds on the Barcelona Declaration. It has recently launched a weekly Press Review service, which check press sites across the Mediterranean region for environment news. The resource.

GLOBAL EXTENT OF ILLEGAL FISHING
(MRAG/FERR, April 2008)
This report, published by the Marine Resources Assessment Group (MRAG) and the Fisheries Ecosystems Restoration Research (FERR), Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, represents the first detailed quantitative analysis of the problem of illegal fishing on a global scale and reveals that global annual losses from illegal fishing could be double earlier estimates, at $10 to $23 billion annually. The report follows a similar recent study by the Institute for Security Studies, which stated that the scale of illegal fishing now threatens around ten million African people who depend on fishing for an income. The report.

EXPORTING SEAFOOD TO THE EU
(International Trade Centre, April 2008)
This bulletin provides a guideline on how to export seafood products to the EU. It describes, inter alia, the required EU system of official assurances, the main regulations and requirements for the Competent Authorities and operators along the value chain. The bulletin.

WETLAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING – A GUIDE FOR SITE MANAGERS
(IUCN, WWF, Wetlands International, Ramsar, 2008)
This guide is intended to provide a summary of the steps to develop wetland management planning processes and deals with several pragmatic aspects: building trust, participation and capacity; assessing wetlands values; and setting achievable objectives. The guide.

SQUARING THE DIAMOND MESH – HOW SQUARE-MESH TRAWL NETS WILL BENEFIT FISH AND FISHERMEN IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
(WWF, April 2008)
This WWF report encourages the switch from the unselective diamond-mesh nets currently used by bottom-trawlers in the Mediterranean to more selective square-mesh nets, sooner than the obligatory deadline of 2010. The WWF report is based on new ecosystem-based management analyses that use computer models to assess the effects of square-mesh nets on marine ecosystems and fishing fleets. WWF also advocates that further management measures, like one-day-a-week closures and a reduction in fishing capacity, are needed in parallel to the mesh change for a meaningful recovery of severely depleted stocks. The report.

TYPOLOGY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND RESPONSE OPTIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS
(FAO. 2008)
This interactive map aims to help devise decision-support systems that include monitoring and forecasting and observations of ongoing socio-economic drivers. Such systems can indicate to decision makers the envelope of potential planned action, from timing of new infrastructure to governance and capacity building in the water management sector. The map.

CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED WATER STRESS AND ITS IMPACTS ON NATURAL AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS
(Ecologic, IEEP and SYKE, 2008)
This study explores which ecosystems will be most impacted and analyzes how the effects of climate change act as causes of additional emissions, thereby reinforcing global warming in a positive feedback loop. The paper was prepared for the European Parliament by Ecologic jointly with the Institute for European Environmental Policies (IEEP) and the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). The study also highlights existing policy and management approaches, identifies gaps in the regime and concludes with sector-specific policy recommendations. The study.

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN PROGRESS TOWARDS CANADA’S COMMITMENT TO A NATIONAL NETWORK OF MPAs BY 2012
(Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, 2008)
This report presents the results of the assessment by the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) of the challenges delaying Canada’s progress towards its international commitment to establish a network of MPAs by 2012. It also identifies opportunities for reaching the 2012 goal. An accompanying document, entitled “Myth and Madness: Conquering the tragedy of marine protection in Canada,” presents a summary of key findings and recommendations from the Report. The report. The accompanying document.

SAVING WATER: FROM FIELD TO FORK – CURBING LOSSES IN THE FOOD CHAIN
(Stockholm International Water Institute, May 2008)
This report stresses the link between food production and water use, and indicates that the magnitude of current food losses presents challenges and opportunities. It outlines a number of steps to reduce by half, by 2025, the amount of food that is wasted after it is grown, such as supporting farmers with improved harvesting and water storage facilities; benchmarking standards for businesses to minimize waste in processing and transport; and educating consumers on the impacts of over-eating and food waste on water resources. The report.

Water and the Rural Poor
(
FAO and IFAD, 2008)

This publication, by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), addresses the linkage between water and rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. It seeks to help decision-makers make informed choices on where and how to invest, and emphasizes matching investments in infrastructure with interventions in institutions, knowledge and finance. The report.

FRESHWATER ECOREGIONS OF THE WORLD
(WWF and Nature Conservancy, May 2008)

Launched in May 2008, this collaborative project displays biodiversity in all the world’s freshwater ecosystems. Including a map and a database, the project was designed: to be a
tool for underpinning global and regional conservation planning efforts, particularly to identify outstanding and imperiled freshwater systems; for serving as a logical framework for large-scale conservation strategies; and for providing a global-scale knowledge base for increasing freshwater biogeographic literacy. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World website.

STATUS REPORT ON IWRM AND WATER EFFICIENCY PLANS FOR CSD16
(UN-Water, 2008)
This new report aims to illustrate progress made on meeting the target to “Develop integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans by 2005, with support to developing countries, through actions at all levels” which was agreed as part of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation during the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. The new report is based on a survey covering 104 States and recognizes that countries use different terminology for their water resources management plans. It provides an objective and comprehensive overview of the current status of water resources management and includes information gathered by the more informal surveys conducted earlier by the Global Water Partnership and the African Development Bank. The report.

GEF Knowledgebase for Lessons Learned and Best Practices in the Management of Coral Reefs
(GEF, 2008)

This website aims to formalize the experiences, outcomes and lessons learned from previous Global Environment Fund (GEF) projects, as well as major non-GEF initiatives involving coral reefs and associated ecosystems. Its objective is to identify, analyze, and translate lessons into good practices and information resources, and then disseminate this information globally for use in future project design and development. The resulting “Toolkit” will be updated on a quarterly basis to provide the latest information available on coral reef management issues. Also available online are an e-mail listserve and a weblog space for coral reef managers to discuss their ideas and experiences. The website. The listserve.

Minutes and Decisions of the first general meeting of the Mexico-US ICRI Secretariat
The first general meeting of the Mexico-US International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) Secretariat and the official international launch of the International Year of the Reef was held from the 22- 25 January, 2008 in Washington DC, US. The decisions adopted by the meeting include: the adoption of the Action Plan for the period 2007-2009; the request to the ICRI Secretariat to take forward the planning of the ICRI Regional Workshop on Sustainable Tourism in the Caribbean; and the request to ICRI Secretariat to consider the question of the relationship of ICRI to its Operational Networks, making recommendations to the next ICRI General Meeting in July 2008.
The meeting website. The Action Plan and meeting minutes.

StatuS of Caribbean Coral reefS After bleaChing And hurriCaneS in 2005
(Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and partners, 2008) This report documents the devastating impact that the hottest summer and the most active hurricane season ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere had on the coral reefs of the Caribbean and Atlantic Basins. The report predicts that coral bleaching will be occur more frequently by 2030 and is likely to be an annual event by 2100, and acknowledges that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations must be maintained below double the pre-industrial levels if coral reefs are going to survive in something resembling their current form. The report.

Climate change-induced water stress and its impacts on natural and managed ecosystems
(European Parliament, 2008)

 This study explores which ecosystems will be most impacted and analyses how the effects of climate change act as causes of additional emissions, thereby reinforcing global warming in a positive feedback loop. The paper was prepared for the European Parliament by Ecologic jointly with the Institute for European Environmental Policies and the Finnish Environment Institute. The study.

Gulf of Maine Ecosystem-Based Management Toolkit Survey Report
(Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment, March 2008)
The Gulf of Maine Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) Toolkit Survey was conducted in 2007 to help determine the types of tools and information needed to put EBM into practice. The survey included 55 people involved in ocean and coastal management in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and US and Canadian federal waters. The report provides region-specific information on management issues to which practitioners seek to apply EBM, critical obstacles to implementing EBM, and tools and information needed to put EBM into practice. The survey report.

Summary Report for the Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management Course Needs Assessment
(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center, 2008)
This assessment looks at results from about 250 respondents to a survey carried out by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center regarding their Ecosystem-Based Management knowledge, attitudes, use, obstacles, and data, tools, and training needs. The survey assessment report.

Economic Valuation of Large Marine Ecosystems
(IUCN, 2008)
This report offers proceedings from an IUCN workshop that took place in Cape Town, South Africa, from 29-30 July 2007, on the economic valuation of large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The workshop provided an overview of economic valuation as a tool in LME management, and profiled several cases of LME valuations worldwide, including for the Benguela Current, Caspian Sea, and Yellow Sea. The report.

ILLEGAL FISHING IN ARCTIC WATERS
(WWF, April 2008)
This report shows that pervasive and profitable illegal fishing for Atlantic cod and Alaska pollock in the Arctic threatens the health of these globally important fisheries and their resilience to climate change. The authors advocate that stopping IUU fishing in the Arctic is an urgent matter for policymakers and outline a series of recommendations as preconditions for saving the arctic marine ecosystems for future generations. The report.

Adaptation to Climate Change in Marine Turtles
(WWF, 2008)

This website aims to provide a platform for the public, educators, conservationists and scientists to share information and projects to try to gain a better picture of how climate change will affect turtles and what might be done to combat the impacts. By 2010, the project hopes to understand the current state of knowledge about the impacts of climate change on marine turtles and their habitats with a global network of marine turtle and climate specialists, and make management recommendations for their conservation. The website is an initiative of WWF through a grant from the MacArthur Foundation and support from Hewlett Packard. It hosts free downloads, information and scientific research. The website.

Mechanisms for the Protection of Water Resources in Arab Countries
(UNEP/GPA, 2008)

As one a contribution to the International Year of Sanitation, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP)/
Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA) Coordination Office, jointly with the Arab Water Council, the Egyptian Ministry for Water Resources and Irrigation, and Delft-Environment, coordinated the delivery of a regional training course on wastewater management for decision-makers from Arab Countries, held 3 -5 January 2008 in Cairo, Egypt. This is the final report of this course, which was subtitled “Improving Municipal Wastewater Management.” The report.

EMPOWERS Guidelines, Methods and Tools

(Euro-Med Participatory Water Resources Scenarios (EMPOWERS), 2007)

Authored by Patrick Moriarty, Charles Batchelor, Firas T. Abd-Alhadi, Peter Laban, and Hazem Fahmy, this book contains guidelines, methods and tools for use in processes of planning and dialogue within and between local and intermediate levels. It describes a practical and logical framework of activities based on the involvement of those who use and manage water. The guidelines advocate a process of collaboration through dialogue, to bring about a change in the way water sector professionals and water users work with each other. The book.

 

Background to Guidelines and Key Concepts

(Euro-Med Participatory Water Resources Scenarios (EMPOWERS), 2007)

Authored by Patrick Moriarty, Charles Batchelor, Peter Laban, and Hazem Fahmy, this booklet provides an explanation of the conceptual background to the EMPOWERS approach to water governance and is a companion volume to EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools. This background booklet looks at the nature of water governance and its role in intergrated water resource management. It examines how stakeholder dialogue can improve the nature of multi-stakeholder platforms and outlines how the role of the expert is changing from someone who provides solutions to someone who helps stakeholders to address their problems and to develop their own solutions. The booklet.

How to Climate Proof Development: Adapting to the Inevitable - Challenges in a Water Stressed World
(Swedish Water House, 2008)
On 5 February 2008, the Swedish Water House, the UN Development Programme and the Stockholm International Water Institute convened a seminar titled “Adapting to the Inevitable – Challenges in a Water Stressed World: How to Climate Proof Development.” The seminar used the recommendations from the 2007/2008 Human Development Report as an entry point to discuss water-related issues that remain central to both climate change adaptation and development. Seminar report.  

Wings Over Wetlands Project Website
The Wings Over Wetlands (WOW) Project is a partnership of organizations involved in the conservation of waterbirds and their wetland habitats. It is a collaborative effort between Wetlands International and BirdLife International, with support from the United Nations Office for Project Services and UN Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF). WOW supports the implementation of both the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, and is sponsored by the GEF through UNEP, the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, the AEWA Secretariat, and several other donors. The project’s website.

UNASYLVA – FORESTS AND WATER
(UN Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007)

The latest issue of this publication of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization focuses on the theme of forests and water. Articles address, inter alia: water pollution filtration by forest ecosystems; forests and water in arid lands; and policies for integrating forests, water and people. The publication.

MPAs local and TRADITIONAL fishing community perspectives
(International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, 2008)
This website provides perspectives on the planning tool from local and traditional fishing communities. It includes an overview of MPAs, an outline of international legal instruments protecting the resource rights of local communities, and summaries of case studies from five countries (Brazil, India, Mexico, South Africa, and Thailand). The website.

Race for the last bluefin
(WWF, March 2008)
This report contains an analysis of the Mediterranean bluefin tuna fleet and shows it conservatively has twice the fishing capacity of current quotas and more than three and a half times the catch levels recommended by scientists to avoid stock collapse. WWF reports that the size of the fleet would require illegal fishing to cover its costs, and indicates that the countries with the highest over-capacity are Turkey, Italy, Croatia, Libya, France and Spain. The report.  

Coping with water scarcity in developing countries: What role for agricultural biotechnologies?
(FAO, 2007)

This document provides a summary of the moderated e-mail conference, hosted by the FAO Biotechnology Forum from 5 March to 1 April 2007, on the role agricultural biotechnologies can play in helping developing countries cope with water scarcity. The summary outlines the main issues discussed during this e-mail conference, namely the application of biotechnologies to develop crops with improved drought resistance or water-use efficiency; the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi in water-limited conditions; and the use of biotechnology in wastewater treatment. The summary.

WATER ALTERNATIVES: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL ON WATER, POLITICS AND DEVELOPMENT
(Water Alternatives, 2008)
This online, free journal will include articles addressing water resources development, management and use, and their relations with society and the environment. It will be published three times a year, with the first issue to be released 1 June 2008. The journal.

IN DEAD WATER: MERGING OF CLIMATE CHANGE WITH POLLUTION,

OVER-HARVEST, AND INFESTATIONS IN THE WORLD’S FISHING GROUNDS

(UNEP, February 2008)

This report, which was compiled by researchers including many from various UN Environment Programme (UNEP) offices, suggests that at least three-quarters of the world’s key fishing grounds may become seriously impacted by changes in circulation as a result of the ocean’s natural pumping systems fading and falling. The report draws on a range of new and emerging science, including the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the World Meteorological Organization. The report.

 

Global fishery resources of tuna and tuna-like species

(FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 483, 2008)

This Technical Paper, authored by Jacek Majkowski, reviews the state of fishery resources of tuna and tuna-like species on a global scale, concentrating on the most important commercially. The paper also outlines the potential improvements in knowledge of the status of stocks, and the outlook for this status and catches in the future. The paper.

 

Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation

(WHO, January 2008)

This study, carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, estimates the cost of achieving the WHO’s water and sanitation target by 2014. From 2005 to 2014, an estimated US$ 70 billion (EUR 48.2 billion) needs to be spent annually on water and sanitation, of which US$ 18 billion (EUR 12.4 billion) would increase coverage to the currently unserved population and US$ 52 billion (EUR 35.8 billion) would maintain existing coverage. The study recommends that the preferences of service users should be considered in the planning of water and sanitation services. The study.

 

SCARCE WATER, PLENTY OF CONFLICTS? LOCAL WATER CONFLICTS AND THE ROLE OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION

(Institute for Development and Peace, March 2008)

This Policy Brief, authored by Annabelle Houdret, analyses the causes of intrastate water conflicts and introduces the main challenges for international development cooperation. By typologizing water conflicts and showing corresponding policy options, the paper provides an overview of possible strategies to cope with water conflicts. Finally, the Policy Brief offers recommendations on how to better identify, resolve and prevent conflicts in the water sector. The policy brief.

 

World Water Day website

(UN-WATER, 2008)

UN-WATER officially launched its website for World Water Day 2008, which will be celebrated by the UN on 20 March. In 2008, the day will highlight issues on sanitation in accordance with the International Year of Sanitation 2008. The Website features factsheets, videos and news on the upcoming World Water Day celebrations in Geneva. The website.

A GLOBAL MAP OF HUMAN IMPACTS TO MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
(National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, 2008)
The goal of the research presented in this map is to estimate and visualize, for the first time, the global impact humans are having on the ocean’s ecosystems. The analysis shows that over 40% of the world’s oceans are heavily affected by human activities and few, if any, areas remain untouched. The map.

WWF BY-CATCH INITIATIVE
(WWF, 2008)

This online resource provides up-to-date information on by-catch (the capture of non-target creatures in fishing gear) and how to reduce it. This website is aimed at fishers and consumers and identifies by-catch problems and proven or potential solutions. The website

HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA: A SECTOR ASSESSMENT
(ADB, 2007)

India’s vast hydropower potential can contribute to the country’s energy security in an environmentally sustainable and socially responsible manner. Hydropower projects also contribute to irrigation, flood control and river navigation, among others. This report provides an assessment of the hydropower development potential in India and highlights how water can provide power for all by 2012. The report.

HOSTAGE TO POLITICS: THE IMPACT OF SANCTIONS AND THE BLOCKADE ON THE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION IN GAZA
(Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, January 2008)
This report shows that sanctions imposed on the Gaza administration by both Israel and western States and Israel’s closure of Gaza’s border crossings has left more than 250,000 people without adequate water supply, and the restrictions on fuel may leave 1.5 million people without water and sewage services. The report includes a series of recommendations to Israel, the Gaza administration, the Government of President Abbas and Prime Minister Fayyad, donor States, the Arab League, the UN and to UN member States. The report.

 

MANUAL ON THE RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION
(Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, 2007)

This Manual, which has been produced by the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Science and Human Rights Programme and the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), offers a tool to assist policy makers and practitioners as they develop strategies for implementing the human right to water and sanitation. The manual.

 

WATER AND ENERGY FUTURES IN AN URBANISED ASIA: SUSTAINING THE TIGER
(Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2007)

This paper addresses the problems of water shortages in Asia, noting that, in spite of Asia’s bleak environment picture, there are opportunities for actualizing sustainable development in the region, especially in the fields of technology and governance. The paper also proposes new approaches to environmental governance that can be implemented in China and neighboring developing countries. The paper.

UPDATE AFTER FIVE YEARS OF MARINE TURTLE MONITORING IN GAMBA, GABON
(Association for the Protection and Understanding of the Environment, 2007)

This technical report presents the result of five years of monitoring of sea turtles in Gabon by the NGO Ibonga-ACPE in collaboration with WWF and his partners. After presenting the geographical context, the report describes the different conservation activities, provides the final results and analyzes them to end with suggestions for future activities. The report.

ACCESS TO WATER - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SMALL MUNICIPALITIES
(
Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, 2007)

This case study emphasizes that, despite uncertainties around quantitative assessments of climate change impact and water resource management, climate change will have an effect on water resources. Focusing on the economic consequences of water resource scarcity on poor and small municipalities, the study aims to assist municipal planners to develop appropriate strategies to ensure the sustainability and affordability of long term water supplies. The case study.

ASIAN WATER DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK 2007
(Asian Development Bank, 2007)

This report on future Asian water development is cautiously optimistic, stating that Asian countries should not experience a water crisis in the future. It argues that the region has enough knowledge, technology, and expertise to solve existing and future water problems. However, the report states that if a crisis materializes, poor water management more than water scarcity would likely be the cause. The report.

LIFE AND EUROPE'S WETLANDS - RESTORING A VITAL ECOSYSTEM
(European Communities, 2007)

This brochure illustrates the LIFE programme’s contributions to a large number of projects supporting the conservation of wetland ecosystems within the Natura 2000 network. LIFE (“The Financial Instrument for the Environment”) is a programme launched by the European Commission and coordinated by the Environment Directorate-General. The 68-page brochure presents a selection of wetland projects that have received LIFE co-funding since 1992. The majority of case studies focus on the restoration and management of wetlands, while a number also target key wetland species. The brochure.

WATER IMPLICATIONS OF BIOFUELS PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES
(National Research Council, 2007)

This study was written by a US National Research Council committee that was convened to look at how shifts in US agriculture to include more energy crops, and potentially more crops overall, could affect water management and long-term sustainability of biofuel production. Among its findings, the committee found that agricultural shifts to growing corn and expanding biofuel crops into regions with little agriculture, especially dry areas, could change current irrigation practices and greatly increase pressure on water resources in many parts of the US. The study.

ANNUAL EC REPORT ON MEMBER STATES’ EFFORTS DURING 2006 TO ACHIEVE A SUSTAINABLE BALANCE BETWEEN FISHING CAPACITY AND FISHING OPPORTUNITIES
(European Commission, December 2007)

This report is based on the most recent annual reports provided by member States on their fleets, together with data from the EU Fishing Fleet register. The Commission concludes that: the quality of the reports from member States is not satisfactory and does not allow it to draw clear conclusions regarding the overcapacity of the EU fleet; nominal capacity continued to decline in 2006 at a slow but steady rate; and this reduction is too little, given the big reductions in fishing effort required for the sustainable management of several key commercial fish stocks. The
report.

BENCHMARKING STUDY ON INTERNATIONAL AQUACULTURE CERTIFICATION PROGRAMMES
(WWF Switzerland and Norway, 2007)

In this study, WWF has identified four main areas of concern that must be addressed by any certification programme aiming to influence the long-term sustainability of the aquaculture industry: environmental issues; social issues; animal welfare and health; and standard development and verification procedures. The study.

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recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
Diego Noguera, IISD

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