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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2009

 

Trade and Investment in Sustainable Development Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

 

A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ROADMAP FOR THE WTO

(IISD, November 2009)

This book, launched at the WTO on the eve of the Organization’s 2009 Ministerial Conference, argues that the WTO has committed to helping achieve sustainable development, and asks what the institution would look like it the members took that goal seriously. It surveys current practice and recommendations in areas as diverse as accession, dispute settlement, negotiations, trade and environment, trade and development and the process of self-assessment.  At once a blueprint for institutional reform and a positive vision, the book calls for a process to begin helping the WTO achieve its full potential for economic, social and environmental progress. The book.

THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CHILE
(ECLAC, 2009)
The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) published a study on The Economics of Climate Change requested by the Government of Chile and prepared by a group of experts from the Catholic, Chile and Valparaíso universities, under the technical coordination of ECLAC. The document examines the main effects that climate change will have on the Chilean economy, particularly in agriculture, mining, energy, fishing and forestry. The study.

 

ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA (ECA)

(World Bank, 2009)

This report highlights that, contrary to popular perception, ECA faces a substantial threat from climate change, with a number of the most serious risks already in evidence. It also notes that vulnerability over the next ten to twenty years will be dominated by socio-economic factors, the dire environmental situation and the poor state of infrastructure, rather than by the changing climate itself. The report.

 

CHANGES IN CO2 EMISSIONS FROM ENERGY USE: A MULTI-COUNTRY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS

(World Bank, October 2009)

This World Bank study, by Masami Kojima and Robert Bacon, on 100 countries’ energy use shows that growth of GDP per capita and growth in population contributed the most to the net increase in emissions, and reducing energy intensity contributed the most to the net decrease in emissions. The study looks at data from more than 100 countries covering the period 1994-2006. Key variables that define emission levels include the carbon intensity of the mix of fossil fuels, the share of fossil fuels in total energy consumed, the energy required to produce a unit of GDP (energy intensity), GDP per capita, and population. Reducing the amount of energy required to produce a unit of gross domestic product (GDP), particularly in the service sector, has been by far the greatest contributor to curbing emissions growth. The study.

 

TEEB REPORT FOR POLICY MAKERS
(UNEP TEEB Initiative, November 2009)
Prepared by The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) Initiative, this new report calls on policy-makers to accelerate, scale-up and embed investments in the management and restoration of ecosystems. It also calls for more sophisticated cost-benefit analysis before policy decisions are made. The report outlines a ten-point plan aimed at catalyzing a transition to more ecosystem savvy economies able to meet the multiple challenges and deliver the multiple opportunities on a planet of six billion people, rising to nine billion by 2050. Key recommendations include the need to: invest in ecological infrastructure; reward benefits through payments and markets; reform environmentally harmful subsidies; address losses through regulation and pricing; recognize that protected areas are a cornerstone of conservation policies and provide multiple benefits; halt deforestation and forest degradation; protect tropical coral reefs; save and restore global fisheries; recognize the deep link between ecosystem degradation and the persistence of rural poverty; and agree to a forest carbon deal at Copenhagen. TEEB study.

REDUCED EMISSIONS AND ENHANCED ADAPTATION IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES
(World Bank, October 2009)
The World Bank published a note emphasizing the role of good agricultural practices and integrated natural resource management (NRM) in addressing both mitigation and adaptation to climate change in production landscapes. The note focuses on the role of good agricultural practices in protecting existing stocks of soil carbon in croplands, peatlands, and wetlands; replenishing soil and biomass carbon and improving productivity in degraded lands; and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crop and grazing land. The note.

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR ADAPTATION
(World Bank, August 2009)
This report by Jon Padgham identifies and summarizes potential climate change impacts on agriculture in the developing world, examines causes of vulnerability, and suggests where investments are needed to better climate-proof agriculture. It concludes, inter alia, that: diversification of rural livelihoods through agricultural microenterprise development can reduce exposure to climate risks; farmer access to credit and information are important for adaptation to climate change; and increased flooding poses the greatest potential risk from climate change on urban and periurban agriculture. It also highlights that using untreated wastewater for irrigation and food production comes with substantial health and environmental risks, which will only increase with climate change, thus better wastewater treatment facilities and risk minimization policies for wastewater use are key challenges for adaptation. The report.

BUILDING CLIMATE RESILIENCE IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR OF ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
(Asian Development Bank (ADB), October 2009)
This report highlights that agriculture will pose a significant development challenge for Asia in the present century and discusses how to build climate change resilience into the agriculture sector in Asia. It presents broad indicators of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity in the region; highlights the vulnerability of the agricultural sector as a livelihood source for many, and as a source of food security for all; and also exposes the large heterogeneity in farming systems across Central, East, Southeast, and South Asia and the Pacific Islands. It further presents the many facets of vulnerability to climate change across the region, including undernourishment, poverty and slowing productivity growth, all of which will be exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The study.

LOW-CARBON DEVELOPMENT FOR MEXICO
(World Bank, October 2009)
This study concludes that Mexico could reduce its carbon (CO2) emissions by at least 42 percent (or 477 million tons) per year by 2030 without sacrificing economic development. Significant opportunities for CO2 reduction are identified in the areas of transport, power generation, oil and gas, agriculture and forestry, and energy efficiency. Implementing these initiatives on a larger scale over the next 20 years, however, will require changes to the country’s financial, regulatory and institutional frameworks. The study.

ASIA-PACIFIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT REPORT 2009: TRADE-LED RECOVERY AND BEYOND
(UNESCAP, October 2009)
This report looks at the validity of the trade-led development model in Asia-Pacific, and the lessons the crisis has revealed to make development more inclusive and sustainable in the years ahead. It examines how regional integration contributes to development, and whether private enterprise should continue to pursue business-as-usual. The report also emphasizes the need improve access to green technologies and services that help countries mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change and use resources in a sustainable manner. The report.

INVESTMENT: THE CHALLENGE
(FAO, October 2009)
This discussion paper was prepared by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization for the High Level Expert’s Forum on How to Feed the World in 2050, which convened at FAO headquarters from 12-13 October 2009. The paper notes that agricultural investment needs to increase by about 50 percent a year in order to feed over nine billion people in 2050. The paper estimates that one-third of the resources would be needed to feed China and India, and sub-Saharan Africa would require about US$11 billion. The paper also notes that primary areas for investments include crops and livestock production, storage facilities, market facilities and food processing. The paper.

THE STATE OF FOOD INSECURITY IN THE WORLD 2009: ECONOMIC CRISIS – IMPACTS AND LESSONS LEARNED
(FAO and WFP, October 2009)
This report, prepared by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Food Programme, examines the impacts of the food and economic crises and estimates that the number of hungry will exceed one billion this year. The report notes that almost all
of the world’s undernourished live in developing countries, aggravated by a weak global food security governance system. The report calls for urgent reform and increased investments. The report.

ECONOMICS OF ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE (EACC)
(World Bank, September 2009)
The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study estimates that the costs of adaptation to climate change in developing countries will be in the order of US$75-100 billion per year for the period 2010 to 2050. It further notes that the costs of adapting to a 2°C warmer world are of the same order of magnitude as current official development assistance (ODA). The study was funded by the Governments of the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, and has two broad objectives: to develop an estimate of the global costs of adaptation in developing countries; and to help decision makers in developing countries better understand and assess the risks posed by climate change. This in turn allows the design of strategies to adapt to climate change. The study.

REGIONAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, WEATHERING THE STORM
(IMF, October 2009)
This report, released by the International Monetary Fund, notes that although sub-Saharan African countries have been hit hard by the global recession, signs of resilience remain. The report indicates that South Africa and some other middle-income countries have been affected by international financial markets, and oil exporters had revenues reduced. However, some countries with wider natural commodity bases have so far escaped the worst of the crisis. The report also indicates that, with many households affected by the crisis, progress toward the Millennium Development Goals has reversed. The report.

THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION
(OECD, September 2009)
The book by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concludes that a fully-fledged global carbon market would cost just one-tenth of a percent of average world annual GDP growth between 2012 and 2050 to achieve moderately ambitious climate targets. According to the OECD, such a market would result in a 4% reduction in GDP in 2050 compared to a scenario where no policy action is taken. Over the same period, world GDP growth is projected to grow by more than 250%. The
study.

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT
(World Bank, September 2009)
The World Bank’s World Development Report 2010 focuses on Development and Climate Change. It suggests that developing countries can shift to lower-carbon paths while promoting development and reducing poverty, but only if financial and technical assistance from high-income countries is forthcoming. It also explores how public policy may help cope with new or worsened climate risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The report.

SHAPING CLIMATE-RESILIENT DEVELOPMENT
(GEF, September 2009)
The report by the Economics of Climate Adaptation Working Group provides a set of tools for decision makers to adopt a tailored approach for estimating adaptation costs based on local climate conditions, and for building more resilient economies. The methodology was tested in localities within eight different countries (China, United States, Guyana, Mali, United Kingdom, Samoa, India, and Tanzania), which together represent a wide range of climate hazards, economic impacts, and development stages. The report.

INVESTING IN LAND STEWARDSHIP: GEF’S EFFORTS TO COMBAT LAND DEGRADATION AND DESERTIFICATION GLOBALLY
(GEF, September 2009)
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) published a booklet portraying its activities in combating land degradation and desertification. The booklet contains several examples of projects in this thematic area and notes synergies in combating climate change. Land degradation affects more than 33 percent of the planet’s surface area, leading to deterioration of ecosystem services and negative consequences for 2.6 billion people in more than 100 countries. The goal of the focal area strategy in GEF-5 is to contribute to arresting and reversing current global trends in land degradation, specifically desertification and deforestation. The booklet.

TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2009
(UNCTAD, 2009)
The Trade and Development Report 2009, by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) addresses both how to respond to the global economic crisis and the role of climate change mitigation in development. The report suggests innovation in support of climate change mitigation is not fundamentally different from other innovation activities, but since climate change mitigation is increasingly recognized as a public good, innovation also calls for direct government intervention. The report.

BIOFUELS CERTIFICATION AND THE LAW OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
(ICTSD, August 2009)

This paper by Marsha A. Echols analyzes biofuels certification within the optic of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and proposes requirements for compliance with the international trading system. The paper explains how the compatibility of a biofuels-certification measure with international trade rules is determined from several perspectives, to determine whether the nondiscrimination rules of Article I or Article III of GATT apply and, if there is prohibited discrimination, whether it is excused by the health or environmental carve-outs of GATT Article XX (among other possible exceptions). The decisions also determine whether the detailed substantive and procedural rules of other WTO agreements apply. The paper further analyzes how implementation of certification schemes must also be aligned with WTO rules. The paper
.

CLIMATE AND TRADE POLICIES IN A POST-2012 WORLD
(UNEP and ADAM project, 2009)
This publication is the result of a joint effort by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the ADAM project (“Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy”). The publication provides a collection of short articles by experts on the relationship between trade and climate change policies. The authors examine, for example, the potential use of climate-related border adjustment measures and liberalizing trade in climate-friendly technologies. The report.

NEGOTIATING ADAPTATION: INTERNATIONAL ISSUES OF EQUITY AND FINANCE
(UNEP, Stockholm Environment Institute, International Institute for Environment and Development 2009)
The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) has released this discussion paper, which was developed jointly with the Stockholm Environment Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development. It is the latest in the UNEP Copenhagen Discussion Series, which consists of working papers produced by UNEP and its partners in the lead up to the UNFCCC Climate Talks in Copenhagen in December 2009. The paper addresses: requirements for adaptation finance in developing countries; the presence of an adaptation funding deficit; and the need for systematic appraisal to develop adaptation targets. The report.

COMMITTING AND ENGAGING – RESPONSIBLE PROPERTY INVESTMENT
(UNEP, 2009)
The Property Working Group of the UN Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) has launched a toolkit to help investors better understand and apply the principles of Responsible Property Investment (RPI). This toolkit uses case studies to identify seven steps that organizations should take to institutionalize RPI, including: understanding the meaning and value of RPI for an organization; identifying material risks and opportunities; managing and measuring success; and collaborating with stakeholders to develop and mainstream RPI practices. The toolkit.

WORLD COMMODITY TRENDS AND PROSPECTS
(UNCTAD, 2009)
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), describes historical trends for the commodity market. The report indicates that commodity prices reached their peak by mid-2008 and started a downward spiral triggered by the global economic and financial crisis, and reached their lowest point by the beginning of 2009. The report.

CONFERENCE ON THE WORLD FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ITS IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT: OUTCOME DOCUMENT
(UNGA, July 2009)
The outcome document of the Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development, which was adopted by the General Assembly, is now available as an annex to General Assembly resolution (63/303). The recommendations emphasize solutions that can foster an inclusive, green and sustainable recovery, and provide continued support for sustainable development efforts by developing countries. The outcome document.

GUIDE TO THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM): GUIDE 2009
(UNCTAD and UNDP, 2009)
This expanded version of the Guide to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Brazil, presented by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), was commissioned by Brazil’s Ministry of Science and Technology and drawn up under the sponsorship of the UN Development Programme (UNDP). It provides information ton CDM project activities, details specific regulations governing the submission of CDM project activities in Brazil, and facilitates an understanding of the process to promote the development of CDM projects in the country. The guide is also available in Spanish and Portuguese. The guide.

COMBATING ILLEGAL LOGGING: INTERACTION WITH WTO RULES
(Chatham House, June 2009)
Written by Duncan Brack, this paper analyzes the extent to which measures to control international trade in illegal timber are compatible with the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The paper.

CONVENIENT SOLUTIONS TO AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH: ECOSYSTEM-BASED APPROACHES TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(World Bank, 2009)
The World Bank’s Environment Department has published a report that sets out a compelling argument for including ecosystem
-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. Such ecosystem-based strategies can offer cost-effective, proven and sustainable solutions contributing to, and complementing, other national and regional adaptation strategies. The report notes three of the world’s greatest challenges over the coming decades will be biodiversity loss, climate change, and water shortages. It highlights that promoting further integration of ecosystem-based approaches into climate change responses and national adaptation strategies will require access to much greater sources of funding, including capitalizing on opportunities to protect natural ecosystems as part of major energy and infrastructure projects. The report.

TRADE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(WTO, UNEP, June 2009)
Th
is report by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and UN Environment Programme (UNEP) highlights that there is considerable scope and flexibility under WTO rules for addressing climate change at the national level, and that mitigation measures should be designed and implemented in a manner that ensures that trade and climate policies are mutually supportive. The report launched by the WTO and UNEP examines the science of climate change, its economic aspects, multilateral efforts to tackle climate change, and national climate change policies and their effect on trade. The report.
 
UNDERSTANDING AND RESPONDING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN DEVELOPING ASIA
(ADB, 2009) 
This report by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) outlines ongoing and planned interventions to help build low-carbon, climate resilient economies in Asia and the Pacific. To better align its investments and associated policy and institutional support with the priorities of its developing member countries relating to climate and development, each of ADB
s five regional departments has drafted a Climate Change Implementation Plan to serve as a guide for climate-related responses, both to mitigate greenhouse emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts. The report.

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: THE WORLD BANK GROUP AT WORK
(World Bank, June 2009)

This booklet provides an overview of the World Bank’s activities related to climate change, including sections on partnerships, strategy, finance and knowledge and capacity. The booklet.

 

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: ECONOMIC SITUATION AND OUTLOOK 2008-2009

(UN ECOSOC, June 2009)

This report (E/2009/19) notes that economic activity in the Latin American and Caribbean region grew by 4.2% in 2008. It notes that these results will not be repeated in 2009, due to the impact of the financial crisis and high unemployment rates. It notes that the slowdown of the world economy, which has affected the price of primary commodities and volume of exports, has had an impact in reducing remittances, demand for tourism services and foreign direct investments. The report.

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: THE WORLD BANK GROUP AT WORK
(World Bank, June 2009)
This 32-page booklet reviews World Bank activities related to climate change, including sections on partnerships, strategy, finance and knowledge and capacity. The publication.

ENERGÍA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: OPORTUNIDADES PARA UNA POLÍTICA INTEGRADA EN AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE
(CEPAL, 2009)
This online publication, which is available in Spanish only, was authored by Jean Acquatella. It assesses opportunities for integrated policy approaches towards energy security and climate change mitigation in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries during the 2010-2030 period. It notes that during the next decade, the LAC region will face a new international context for its energy policy characterized by two exogenous developments, namely: the implementation of a strengthened international climate mitigation regime in OECD countries (and other export markets); and continued energy security concerns due to international oil market volatility and the investment gap in energy infrastructure accumulated in most countries during the last decade. In order to address both challenges, an integrated approach towards energy policy during the 2010-2030 period is needed for the region. The report.

STATE AND TRENDS OF THE CARBON MARKET 2009
(World Bank, May 2009)
Despite the turmoil in the financial world, during 2008 the global carbon market doubled to US$126 billion, according to the World Bank’s report on State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2009. The report, based on data from the trading of European Union Allowances (EUAs) under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and from transactions completed under the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI)) as well as data from voluntary markets, also finds that the value of transactions from CDM projects in developing countries declined by 12% to an estimated US$6.5 billion in 2008, with an average price of US$16.8. The report.

THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: A REGIONAL REVIEW
(ADB, May 2009)
This report by the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) notes that business-as-usual in Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam could cause combined damages equivalent to more than 6% of those countries' gross domestic products per year by the end of this century, dwarfing the costs of the current financial crisis. The Bank has also published its second Sustainability Report presenting information on the promotion of environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive growth, and minimizing its corporate environment footprint. The sustainability report. The Economics of Climate Change report.

DEVELOPING COUNTRY INTERESTS IN CLIMATE CHANGE ACTION AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR A POST-2012 CLIMATE CHANGE REGIME
(UNCTAD, April 2009)
The paper by Aaron Cosbey of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) focuses on the cross-cutting objective of advancing development goals throughout the Bali Action Plan in a sustainable way, making the case that there are strategic interests for developing countries in simultaneously addressing climate change and nationally-defined development priorities. The paper

THE WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK (WEO) 2009
(IMF, May 2009)
This report, published by the International Monetary Fund, presents the IMF's analysis and projections of economic developments at the global level and focuses on major economic policy issues as well as on the analysis of economic development and prospects. The report is prepared twice a year and is used for activities of global economic surveillance. The latest report focuses in particular on the topic, “Crisis and Recovery.” The report.

UNCTAD INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS MONITOR

(UNCTAD, May 2009)
The UN Conference on Trade and Development has launched the first International Investment Agreements Monitor. This document provides an analysis of dispute settlement cases of investor-State filed under international investment agreements (IIAs), which is an UNCTAD programme that seeks to help developing countries participate in international rule-setting for investments. The monitor.

 

GLOBAL FINANCIAL STABILITY REPORT

(IMF, April 2009)
This report highlights policies that may mitigate systemic risks that led to the financial crisis, thereby contributing to financial stability and sustained economic growth. In the current crisis, the report traces the sources and channels of financial distress and provides policy advice on mitigating its effects on economic activity. The report.

 

GLOBAL MONITORING REPORT 2009: A DEVELOPMENT EMERGENCY

(World Bank, April 2009)

This report notes that the global financial crisis is expected to reverse the MDG achievements made by some countries thus far and to impair future MDG progress. The report warns that, although the Millennium Development Goals are still reachable by 2015, a reduction of investments for social services may limit this option. The report indicates that carbon markets can play an increasingly important role in mobilizing private financing in support of investments that promote environmental sustainability and that may contribute to the well-being of the poor. The report.

COUNTRY STUDIES ON AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(World Bank, April 2009)

The World Bank has published country notes for Latin America and the Caribbean on climate change and agriculture. The Country Notes identify specific climatic constraints and policy interventions related to the agricultural sector, highlighting the institutional make-up in the dialogue of climate change and agriculture. The notes.

GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS 2009 FORECAST UPDATE

(World Bank, March 2009)

This update on the World Bank’s Global Economic Prospects report published in December 2008 forecasts that the developing world in 2009 is expected to have 2.1% GDP growth, instead of the 4.4% predicted earlier, with a weak recovery in 2010. However, the report update notes that the pace and timing of recovery remain uncertain. The World Bank predicts that global GDP growth is now set to contract by 1.7% in 2009. This is a historic contraction, with world output set to decline for the first time since World War II. The report update.

COUNTRY STUDIES ON AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(World Bank, March 2009)

The country notes for Latin America and the Caribbean on climate change and agriculture identify specific climatic constraints and policy interventions related to the agricultural sector, highlighting the institutional make-up in the dialogue of climate change and agriculture. The country notes.

GLOBAL GREEN NEW DEAL: POLICY BRIEF
(UNEP, March 2009)
This report aims to inform the debate at the G20 meeting to be held in London, UK, in early April 2009, and makes the case that investing about US$750 billion of stimulus monies in the green economy could aid recovery from the economic downturn, create jobs, address poverty, promote achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, and fight climate change. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE WORLD BANK GROUP: EVALUATION OF WORLD BANK WIN-WIN ENERGY POLICY REFORMS
(World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), 2009)
This report finds, among other issues, that fuel pricing is a key policy affecting emissions and that important information for the design and management of emissions-related policies is missing. The report constitutes the first phase of a broader analysis of the Bank’s impact on combating climate change. It focuses on policies that combine gains at the country level with globally beneficial greenhouse gas reductions, namely the removal of energy subsidies and promotion of end- user energy efficiency. A response of the Management to the IEG’s findings is also included. The report.

TOWARDS A GLOBAL GREEN RECOVERY: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMMEDIATE G20 ACTION
(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, LSE Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change, March 2009)
This report, written by a team led by Ottmar Edenhofer and Lord Nicolas Stern, highlights key measures in seven strategic areas that G20 members can take to tackle the economic crisis and reorient development towards sustainable, low-carbon growth. The areas for immediate action include: improving energy efficiency; upgrading physical infrastructure; supporting clean-technology markets; initiating flagship projects; enhancing international research and development; incentivizing investment; and co-ordinating G20 efforts. The report.  

HARNESSING TRADE FOR A GLOBAL GREEN TRANSITION
(ICTSD and GEG-University College, Oxford, March 2009)
This chapter, authored by Mark Halle, highlights the challenges to addressing the global economic crisis and climate change. It emphasizes that the path ahead should take bold action to relaunch the economy on a green basis, decoupling growth from energy use, de-carbonizing the economy, and accelerating the transition to a sustainable globe. The chapter is part of the book “Rebuilding Global Trade: Proposals for a Fairer, More Sustainable Future, Short Essays on Trade and Global Economic Governance,” edited by Carolyn Deere Birkbeck and Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz. The book.

SWIMMING AGAINST THE TIDE: HOW DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE COPING WITH THE GLOBAL CRISIS
(World Bank, March 2009)
This paper, issued in preparation for the meeting of the G-20, indicates that debt issuance by high-income countries is set to increase, crowding out developing country borrowers, both private and public. The paper notes that many institutions that have provided financial intermediation for developing country clients have virtually disappeared. Developing countries that can still access financial markets face higher borrowing costs, and lower capital flows, leading to weaker investment and slower growth in the future. The paper.

 

REPORT OF THE FOLLOW-UP INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FINANCING FOR DEVELOPMENT TO REVIEW THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MONTERREY CONSENSUS
(UN Secretariat, March 2009)
The Report of the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus held in Doha, Qatar from 29 November-2 December 2008 is now available. The report focuses on the debate about the global challenges including the financial crisis, and additional costs of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The report.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: A REVIEW
(ECLAC, March 2009)

This review, presented by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), highlights that Latin America and the Caribbean may suffer more impacts of climate change than other regions due to the island States in the region, low coastal areas and prevalence of hurricanes. It further emphasizes that, considering that greenhouse gas emissions in the region are relatively low (11.7% of global emissions in 2000), authorities’ attention must focus on adaptation. The review.

GREEN TRANSPORT: RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION IN THE ROAD SECTOR IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Asian Development Bank, 2009)
This study examines how the development of China’s road system affects land, energy and environmental quality. It recommends policies and guidelines and presents a handbook to better balance the needs of economic growth with energy, resources and environmental impact concerns. The book.

“FROM RIDGE TO REEF” WATER, ENVIRONMENT, AND COMMUNITY SECURITY: GEF ACTION ON TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES
(GEF, March 2009)
This publication explores the Global Environment Facility’s (GEF) work on International Waters projects. The GEF has supported regional collaborative efforts for 22 transboundary surface water basins, 16 large marine ecosystems, and 5 cross-border groundwater systems. The publication.

CIVIL SOCIETY CONSULTATION ON REFORMS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM
(UNGLS, March 2009)
The UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service (UN-NGLS) has issued this report summarizing the results of civil society consultations on the work of the President of the UN General Assembly’s Commission of Experts on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System. Proposals presented suggest using the current crisis as an opportunity to develop a green global economy that “respects and preserves our global common goods, prevents further global warming and ensures a sustainable, safe and clean environment for future generations.” The report.

A NEW CLIMATE FOR FORESTS: GEF ACTION ON SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT
(GEF, March 2009)

This publication reviews the GEF’s work on sustainable forest management and its current portfolio as well as potential roles of the GEF in the post-2012 climate regime. The report.

WTO TRADE PROFILE 2008
(WTO, February 2009)
This report, published by the World Trade Organization (WTO), provides a synopsis of  national and trade statistics of WTO members and countries that are in the process of negotiating WTO membership. The report also combines information on trade flows and trade policy measures of members, WTO observers and other selected economies. It focuses on indicators on basic economic facts, trade policy, merchandise trade, commercial services, and industrial property. The report.

 

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE CURRENT FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS ON GLOBAL FDI FLOWS

(UNCTAD, February 2009)

This report indicates that the fall in global foreign direct investments in 2008-2009 is the result of two major factors. First, the capability of firms to invest has been reduced by a fall in access to financial resources and, second, the propensity to invest has been affected negatively by economic prospects, especially in developed countries that are hit by a severe recession. The report.

WORLD BANK ANNUAL REPORT 2008: YEAR IN REVIEW
(World Bank, February 2009)
The World Bank Group has issued its Annual Report 2008. The report covers the work of the Bank in 2008 in areas ranging from the Global Food Crisis Response Program, which provides up to US$1.2 billion of accelerated financial support to vulnerable countries, to its work on employment and inclusive growth. The report recalls the recommendations in the World Development Report 2008 to increase agriculture productivity, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, to reduce income inequalities between rural and urban areas, and to contribute to environmental sustainability. The report.

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT RULE-MAKING: STOCKTAKING, CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARD

(UNCTAD, February 2009)

The report reviews sixty years of international investment rule-making, identifies the core characteristics of the existing universe of international investment agreements and highlights the importance of a collective effort to make the system more conducive to growth and development. The report.

INVENTION AND TRANSFER OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ON A GLOBAL SCALE: A STUDY DRAWING ON PATENT DATA
(Mines ParisTech, CERNA, AFD, 2008)
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the geographic distribution of climate mitigation inventions since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. It uses statistics to suggest that the Kyoto Protocol has induced technological innovation in the recent period. This increase has taken place in Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but not in Australia and in the US. In contrast, there is no visible effect of the Kyoto Protocol on technology transfer: international technology flows have been increasing in the recent period, but the growth rate is the same as the average. The study.

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE WORLD BANK GROUP: TECHNICAL REPORT
(World Bank, 2009)
This technical report serves as a background for the Bank�s strategic framework for climate change, which was approved in 2008. The technical report covers in detail how the World Bank Group will support climate actions in country-led development processes, as well as how to mobilize additional concessional and innovative finance. It represents the culmination of a global multistakeholder consultation process that benefitted from feedback from thousands of development professionals, policy makers, academics, scientists, youth, indigenous peoples and the private sector representing a wide range of countries, views and perspectives. The
technical report. Executive Summary.

WORLD ECONOMIC SITUATION AND PROSPECTS 2009

(UN, January 2009)

World Economic Situation and Prospects 2009, an annual publication by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, emphasizes that the world economy is mired in the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. The report notes that world gross product will slow down to 1.0 percent, a significant deceleration compared to 2.5 percent growth in 2008. The report details the measures undertaken by policy makers to deal with the crisis and emphasizes that world commodity prices will continue to depreciate. Previous editions of the report have warned about the risks of the economic depression. The report.

ADDRESSING CHINA�S WATER SCARCITY: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SELECTED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ISSUES 
(World Bank, January 2009)
This report commends China�s leadership for its awareness of the worsening water situation, and its commitment to transforming China into a water-saving society. It aims to provide an overview of China�s water scarcity situation, assess the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommend key areas for strengthening and reform. Based on government priorities, the report focuses on the following areas: water governance; water rights; water pricing and affordability; watershed ecological compensation mechanisms; water pollution control; and emergency prevention. This report synthesizes the main findings and recommendations from over 30 technical reports, case studies, and background papers recently produced by the World Bank in these areas. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION IN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE
(World Bank, January 2008)
The World Bank has released a guide that provides guidance to policy-makers and development agencies on the linkages between the design of development programmes and the objectives of adapting to climate change and limiting emissions of greenhouse gases. The guide.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND TRANSPORT: PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT IN CHINA
(Asian Development Bank, 2009)
This paper, authored by Manmohan Parkash, evaluates the state of China�s transport sector in light of volatile fuel prices and increasing greenhouse emissions. It makes six key recommendations for promoting environmentally sustainable transportation in China, including to: implement administrative reforms; use economic instruments to promote sustainable transportation; and promote environmentally friendly transportation. In this regard, measures are proposed to optimize motor vehicle fuel consumption standards, establish fuel oil consumption standards for all new motor vehicles by 2010, and enforce the limits on fuel consumption by passenger cars. The fuel consumption of new motor vehicles should be reduced by 40�50% per 100 km by 2015. The paper.

INVENTION AND TRANSFER OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ON A GLOBAL SCALE: A STUDY DRAWING ON PATENT DATA
(Mines ParisTech, CERNA, AFD, 2008)

This study provides an in-depth analysis of the geographic distribution of climate mitigation inventions since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. It uses statistics to suggest that the Kyoto Protocol has induced technological innovation in the recent period. Between 1998 and 2003, innovation in climate mitigation technologies has been growing at a faster rate than other technologies, with an average annual rate of nine percent. This increase has taken place in Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but not in Australia or the US. In contrast, there is no visible effect of the Kyoto Protocol on technology transfer: international technology flows have been increasing in the recent period, but the growth rate is the same as the average. The study.

GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS: COMMODITIES AT THE CROSSROADS
(World Bank, 2009)

This report, published by the World Bank, notes that world poverty has increased due to increasing costs, food and fuel price rises in developing countries. The report predicts that global GDP growth is likely to decline to 0.9 percent with developing economies expanding by 4.5 percent in 2009, below the 7.9 percent growth rate recorded in 2007. To address the global food crisis, the report suggests that governments and aid agencies take concrete steps to increase investment in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and development and agricultural extension services in developing countries, conclude the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations and address carbon emissions. The report.

DATA AGAINST NATURAL DISASTER
(World Bank and UN, 16 December 2008)

This report aims to assist countries to put into place systems necessary to identify needs, manage data, and calibrate responses for effective relief operations vis-�-vis natural disasters. It emphasizes aid effectiveness in the context of disaster response, as
inefficiencies in aid distribution may lead to unnecessary economic losses, increased suffering and poverty. The report examines six country-level efforts to establish information management systems to coordinate disaster response, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Indonesia and Sri Lanka, hurricanes and floods in Guatemala, Haiti and Mozambique, and the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. The report.

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send a message to
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