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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2008

 

Trade and Investment in Sustainable Development Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

REDUCING THREATS TO PROTECTED AREAS: LESSONS FROM THE FIELD
(World Bank/ UNDP, 2008)

This paper analyzes a number of GEF biodiversity-funded projects to identify and analyze the effectiveness of different intervention strategies in production landscapes and their impact in reducing pressure on protected areas. The study presents general lessons, both positive and negative, that will assist in improving the design and implementation of projects aimed at strengthening protected area systems. The paper.

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2009: RESHAPING ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
(World Bank, November 2008)
This report is the flagship publication by the World Bank. This issue emphasizes that economic growth will be unbalanced, but development still can be inclusive. The report argues that the most effective policies for promoting long-term growth are those that facilitate geographic concentration and economic integration, both within and across countries. It proposes spatial transformations along three dimensions: density and rapid urban growth and concentration; distance and migration for economic opportunities; and division and integration of economies in world markets. The report.

ENVIRONMENTAL PRIORITIES AND TRADE POLICY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS: A REALITY CHECK
(ICTSD, November 2008) This issue paper by Veena Jha analyses trade data on environmental goods and services proposed for liberalization within the Doha Round mandate, in light of environmental knowledge generated through the UNEP Global Environmental Outlook and relevant environmental performance indices. It looks at the potential benefits of EGS negotiations for developing countries, in particular whether: (i) the import of goods proposed will help alleviate some of the pressing environmental problems of developing countries; and (ii) whether developing countries can compete successfully in these markets, at least in the medium term. An added issue is whether the losses (in terms of trade or government revenues from import tariffs), if any, from negotiations on EGS in developing countries can be offset by market opportunities gathered elsewhere in the Doha Round of negotiations. The issue paper.

CLIMATE CHANGE: FINANCING GLOBAL FORESTS
(Office of Climate Change, UK, October 2008)
Prepared by Johan Eliasch for the UK Government, this review provides a comprehensive analysis of international financing to reduce forest loss and its associated impacts on climate change. The review.

SUNKEN BILLIONS: THE ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION FOR FISHERIES REFORM
(World Bank –FAO; 2008)

This joint World Bank-UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report finds that economic losses in marine fisheries resulting from poor management, inefficiencies and overfishing add up to US$50 billion per year. The study also argues that well-managed marine fisheries could turn most of these losses into sustainable economic benefits for millions of fishers and coastal communities. The two agencies recommend the following measures: strengthening fishing rights to provide fishers and fishing communities with incentives to fish in an economically efficient and socially responsible manner; phasing out subsidies that enhance redundant fishing capacity; and increasing transparency in allocation of fish resources and public accountability for fisheries management and health of fish stocks, to help eco-labeling initiatives to certify sustainable fisheries. The study.

DOLLAR A DAY REVISITED
(World Bank, May 2008)
The dollar-a-day measure of poverty was first proposed in 1990. This paper, written by M. Ravallion, S. Chen, and P. Sangraula, presents the original authors’ first major update of this poverty measurement. It revisits the challenges of setting an international poverty line in the light of new data availabilities, and presents: a simple model of a socially subjective poverty line; a new compilation of national poverty lines across countries; an updated international poverty line of $1.25 a day; a comparison of new international poverty lines to past lines - both absolute and relative; and a discussion on how results change when poverty lines are adjusted to reflect the purchasing power of various groups. The paper.

ANNUAL REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS 2008 – SHARED GLOBAL CHALLENGES
(World Bank, October 2008)
This report focuses on assessing the World Bank’s development effectiveness, with attention to the provision of global public goods – including the global trading system, biodiversity conservation – and the issue of combating global public ‘bads’ – such as climate change and transborder contagion. The report notes that project performance has improved over the medium term and that country programmes that house a majority of the world’s poor have achieved some results, but there is a need to do more on areas where national interest is not clear. The report.

LOW-CARBON ENERGY PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: UNVEILING THE POTENTIAL, ADDRESSING THE BARRIERS
(World Bank, September 2008)

The report “Low-carbon Energy Projects for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Unveiling the Potential, Addressing the Barriers,” released during the Africa Carbon Forum in Dakar, Senegal, estimates that the current minimal share of CDM projects by the African region (1.4%) could be greatly enhanced. It estimates a potential for GHG emissions reduction projects in Africa that could be tapped through the CDM, amounting to 740 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, more than the region’s current annual greenhouse gas emissions (680 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent). The report.

TRADE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(IISD, August 2008)
In June 2008, IISD collaborated with the Government of Denmark, the German Marshall Fund and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development to convene a major seminar on trade and climate change in Copenhagen. The event's background papers have been revised and finalized, and constitute excellent brief surveys of the key issues in each of the six areas covered: Liberalization of Trade in Environmental Goods for Climate Change Mitigation; Border Carbon Adjustment; Embodied Carbon in Traded Goods; Climate Change, Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights; Clean Energy Investment, and; Standards, Labelling and Certification. The reports.

WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT: ONE-PAGE CASE SUMMARIES (1995 - 2007)
(WTO, July 2008)

This publication offers summaries of panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body since 1995. Each summary provides core facts, substantive panel findings, summaries of key findings on significant procedural matters and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports. Cases are indexed by article and by WTO agreement. The publication.

POST-MORTEM FOR THE GENEVA MINI-MINISTERIAL: WHERE DOES TRIPS GO FROM HERE?
(ICTSD, August 2008)
This article by Frederick M. Abbott provides an overview of the state of play in the negotiations on the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), including biodiversity-related issues, following the collapse of the WTO Geneva Ministerials. The article.

EBRD SUSTAINABILITY REPORT
(EBRD, July 2008)
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) Sustainability Report looks at the Bank’s 2007 investments in sustainable development across the 29 countries where it operates, from central Europe to central Asia. The report presents the Bank’s Sustainable Energy Initiative, investment in municipal infrastructure, micro and small business finance, and donor support. A special focus chapter looks at the water and wastewater sector in the Bank’s countries of operations, the impact of EBRD financing and remaining challenges and implications for the future. The report.

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: AN EVALUATION OF WORLD BANK GROUP SUPPORT
(World Bank, July 2008)
This report, written by the World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), evaluates the effectiveness of World Bank Group (WBG) support to the environment from 1990 to 2007, and recommends that the WBG increase its attention to environmental sustainability by ensuring that environmental issues enter fully into discussions of its strategic directions and in regional and country assistance programs. Among its findings, the report highlights insufficient attention to longer-term sustainable development, and the need to put in place more adequate systems to monitor environmental outcomes and to assess impacts across the WBG. The report.

WORLD RESOURCES 2008: ROOTS OF RESILIENCE – GROWING THE WEALTH OF THE POOR
(World Resources Institute, July 2008)

This report, produced collaboratively by UNDP, UNEP, the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute, looks at the overlap between ecosystems and poverty. The report argues that properly designed enterprises can create economic, social and environmental resilience that cushion the impacts of climate change, and help provide needed social stability. It suggests that efforts that foster resilience chart the first steps on the path out of poverty. The report.

WORLD ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SURVEY 2008: OVERCOMING ECONOMIC INSECURITY
(UNDESA, July 2008)
This annual report, produced by the UN Department of Economic and Scocial Affairs (UNDESA),  focuses on issues that impact economic security, including macroeconomic and financial shocks, natural disasters, conflict and poverty. The report notes that current global economic insecurity prevails despite strong growth in recent years and a decline in economic volatility. The report.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE: BIOPIRACY OR BIOPROSPECTING?
(ETH Zürich, June 2008)
Authored by Michael J. Krieger, this working paper examines issues related to bioprospecting as addressed by the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, as well as the friction created between the two treaties, in view of their differing goals. The paper.

THE ECONOMICS OF ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY – AN INTERIM REPORT
(EC, 2008)
Inspired by the momentum created by the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change, and proposed by the German Government and endorsed by the G8+5 leaders in 2007, this study was designed to “initiate the process of analyzing the global economic benefit of biological diversity, the costs of the loss of biodiversity and the failure to take protective measures versus the costs of effective conservation.” Under the leadership of Deutsche Bank’s Pavan Sukhdev, several partners worked during the first phase of the study to demonstrate the huge significance of ecosystems and biodiversity and the threats to human welfare if no action is taken to reverse current damage and losses. The second phase of the study will expand on this and show how to use this knowledge to design the right tools and policies. Preliminary findings included in this interim report were presented to the High-Level Segment of the ninth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP9). Final results will be presented at CBD COP10 in 2010. The report.

ADB ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM 2003-2007
(ADB, May 2008)
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) Environment Program 2003-2007 provides an overview of ADB actions promoting environmental sustainability in Asia and the Pacific, presenting information on relevant projects and technical assistance, current initiatives, programs and partnerships, knowledge products, and links to ADB’s environmental operations. The program.

EBRD ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL POLICY
(EBRD, May 2008)

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development approved, on 12 May 2008, its Environmental and Social Policy document, which will set the criteria for the consideration of labor and environmental standards and safeguards within the Bank’s investments and technical cooperation activities. The document.

THE GROWTH REPORT: STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINED GROWTH AND INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT
(Commission on Growth and Development, May 2008)
This report analyzes, among other issues, whether developing countries can grow as fast as the fastest growing economies without causing global greenhouse gases to spiral out of control. The answer is negative unless technology and new techniques are used to “radically” reduce the amount of energy needed to produce goods, as well as cut CO2 emissions, says the Growth Report. The Report is the result of two years work on the requirements for sustained and inclusive growth in developing countries led by 19 experienced policymakers and two Nobel prize-winning economists. Its work has been supported by the Governments of Australia, Sweden, the Netherlands, and United Kingdom, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and the World Bank Group. The
Growth Report.

PROMOTION OF WIND ENERGY: LESSONS LEARNED FROM INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND UNDP-GEF PROJECTS
(UNDP, 2008)
This report provides a review of the active UNDP-GEF wind energy portfolio. It looks at the design, costs and efficiency of existing projects, drawing on the experience of 14 wind energy projects that have been financed through UNDP to help national governments implement wind energy public policies. It includes a detailed analysis and recommendations for future projects on prioritizing countries, choosing types of policies and designing mechanisms. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), for example, emerges as a possible way of increasing revenues of wind energy projects. The report.

BIODIVERSITY: DELIVERING RESULTS
(UNDP-GEF, May 2008)

This publication features the UN Development Programme’s (UNDP’s) biodiversity work around the world, including the achievements and results from projects undertaken by UNDP’s network of 132 country offices and its specialized environment team. It highlights projects funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to mainstream biodiversity issues, build institutional capacity, and support the implementation of the Programme of Work on Protected Areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity. The publication.

Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2008

(UNCTAD, April 2008)
This second report on facts and figures, launched by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), provides a synopsis of UNCTAD’s independent research in the areas of trade and development, and related issues in the fields of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. The report.

RESPONSIBLE ENTERPRISE, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INVESTMENT PROMOTION
(IIED, April 2008)
Authored by Annie Dufey and Maryanne Grieg-Gran, this book brings together a series of papers identifying opportunities for Investment Promotion Agencies (IPAs) to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) associated with positive contributions to sustainable development and good corporate social responsibility practices. It points to a number of opportunities for IPAs in attracting FDI with good CSR practices and highlights key leverage points and practical tools to achieve this. The book.

THE MULTILATERAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT CONTEXT FOR BIOFUELS
(IIED, December 2007)
This paper looks at the multilateral trade and investment context for biofuels, particularly the agricultural crops that are being converted into liquid fuel on a commercial scale – ethanol and biodiesel. It summarizes some of the factors driving the rapid expansion in biofuel production and use, analyzes trade and investment issues for biofuels and issues on developing standards, and offers proposals for how governments, particularly small and medium-sized economies, might develop appropriate trade and investment rules to support a fair and sustainable biofuels sector. The
paper.

Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2008

(UNCTAD, April 2008)
This second report on facts and figures, launched by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), provides a synopsis of UNCTAD’s independent research in the areas of trade and development, and related issues in the fields of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. The report.

THE MULTILATERAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT CONTEXT FOR BIOFUELS: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
(Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy and International Institute for Environment and Development, 2008)
This paper, authored by Sophia Murphy, outlines the different interests of the largest global players in the biofuel market, including the US, EU and Brazil, and analyzes biofuel trade within the context of World Trade Organization rules governing agriculture, environmental goods, services, patents and investment. The resource.

Accra 2008: The bumpy road to aid effectiveness in agriculture  
(ODI, April 2008)
This issue is part of the Overseas Development Institute’s (ODI) Natural Resource Perspective series. It is written by Lídia Cabral and focuses on the principles of the Paris Declaration to improve the effectiveness of aid. The author argues that, although the principles are sound, they are not adaptable to challenges faced by different development sectors such as agriculture. The paper sets out areas requiring focused attention in the run-up to Accra 2008. The brief.

 

Export competitiveness and development in LDCs: policies, issues and priorities for least developed countries for action during and beyond UNCTAD XII

(UNCTAD, April 2008)
This UNCTAD report aims to assist least developed countries (LDCs) during the preparatory process for UNCTAD XII (20-25 April 2008, Accra, Ghana). The report agues that there is considerable scope for many LDCs to join the group of successful exporters, particularly in the field of traditional exports such as oil, copper, coffee, cocoa and groundnuts. The report.

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK
(IMF, April 2008)
This year’s World Economic Outlook (WEO) includes a chapter on climate change and the global economy, where the IMF cautions that serious efforts to abate climate change could have rapid and wide-ranging macroeconomic consequences. To minimize the costs of mitigation policies, the IMF recommends: long term and credible carbon-pricing policies; a multilateral policy framework that equitably distributes costs of mitigation across countries while engaging all groups of economies in pricing their emissions; and policies that aim for a common world price for emissions and are sufficiently flexible to accommodate cyclical economic fluctuations. The report.  

FROM DECLARATIONS TO ACTIONS ON COMMODITIES: MAKING THE TURNING POINT AT UNCTAD XII
(South Centre Policy Brief, March 2008)

This paper sets out a number of goals for UNCTAD XII delegates to consider before the April 2008 meeting. It indicates that “the time is high for translating pledges and action plans on commodities into concrete actions.” The brief.

GLOBAL MONITORING REPORT 2008: MDGS AND THE ENVIRONMENT – AGENDA FOR INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(IMF and World Bank, 2008)
This joint report prepared by the World Bank and IMF contains two main parts: monitoring the MDGs and a special focus on climate change. The report monitors both achievement of goals and policies, and it proposes a policy agenda to expedite progress toward the MDGs and to ensure their sustainability. It asserts that, for developing countries, the best way to reduce their vulnerability to the impact of climate change is to diversify their economies, strengthen infrastructure, and develop health systems. The report.

TOWARDS A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE WORLD BANK GROUP
(World Bank, March 2008)
The World Bank has released a concept and issues paper that develops a draft for a comprehensive Strategic Framework on Climate Change and Development for the World Bank Group (WBG). The draft will be subject to public consultations and proposed for endorsement by the Board in September 2008. The paper outlines objectives, principles, approaches and key issues, seeks to articulate the WBG’s vision on how to integrate climate change and development challenges, without compromising growth and poverty reduction efforts through country operations, including policy dialogue, lending and analytical work in client countries, and through regional and global operations. The paper.

BUILDING BIODIVERSITY BUSINESS
(Shell International, IUCN, 2008)

Authored by J. Bishop, S. Kapila, F. Hicks, P. Mitchell and F. Vorhies, this report calls for policy reforms to increase the commercial rewards for conserving biodiversity, increased penalties for biodiversity loss and better information on the biodiversity performance of business. The authors suggest that business will conserve biodiversity only if it becomes profitable, and identify pro-biodiversity business opportunities that can generate profits, as well as benefits for nature. The report.

THE LEGALITY OF PPMS UNDER THE GATT: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE TRADE POLICY
(IISD, 2008)
This article by Jason Potts, of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), analyses the divisive issue of process and production methods (PPMs) within the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) legal regime. PPMs include, for example, organic production methods, use of environmental fishing devices to prevent unwanted by-catch of endangered species, and sustainable forest management. They have been the object of several international trade disputes, as import barriers based on PPMs may violate the WTO principle that prevents discrimination among ‘like-products.’ This paper provides a brief overview of the current state of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) case law with respect to PPM issues and reviews the technical legality of PPM policy under the GATT. It concludes with a number of strategic recommendations for policy-makers aimed at improving the effectiveness of PPM measures for promoting sustainable development within the context of the Doha Agenda. The paper.   

GENDER, POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS ON AFRICAN COUNTRIES 2007
(African Development Bank, 2007)

This resource presents information on broad development trends relating to gender, poverty and environmental issues in the 53 African countries, including comparative cross-country tables and a special feature article on “The poverty-environment nexus in Africa.” The resource.

DOHA REVIEW CONFERENCE
(FfD, 2008)

The UN Financing for Development (FfD) Process has created a detailed work programme and calendar of high-level intergovernmental events on financing for development to be held during the preparatory process, leading to the Follow-up International Conference on FfD to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus, to be held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2008. The FfD Web portal also includes information for registration for preparatory events and key background documents. Doha Review Conference web portal.

TRADE IN ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS AND SERVICES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: DOMESTIC CONSIDERATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR WTO NEGOTIATIONS
(ICTSD, 2007)

This report, by Claro, Lucas, Sugathan, Marconini, and Lendo analyzes the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha negotiations on trade in environmental goods and services (EGS). It describes the status of negotiations, main issues of interest for developing countries, and alternatives for an agreement on the liberalization of EGS. The report seeks to facilitate strengthened engagement of developing countries in the EGS negotiations to enable them to work towards an outcome meaningful for their sustainable development goals and priorities. The report.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND ACCESS TO CLEAN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AN ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC, BIO FUEL AND WIND TECHNOLOGIES
(ICTSD, 2007)

This paper, issued by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), explores whether developing countries will face barriers accessing technologies in reducing their emissions of greenhouse gases due to intellectual property rights (IP). Focusing on the structure of the solar photovoltaic, bio-mass and wind energy sectors, the paper concludes that developing nations have good access to the current generation of bio fuel technology, and that the wind sector is competitive enough for developing nations to build wind farms without enormous IP costs. The paper.

 

THE FUTURE CONTROL OF FOOD: A GUIDE TO INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS AND RULES ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, BIODIVERSITY AND FOOD SECURITY
(Earthscan, 2008)
Edited by Geoff Tansey and Tasmin Rajotte and launched during the sixth meeting of the Working Group on Access and Benefit-sharing of the Convention on Biological Diversity, this book is a guide to the issues of intellectual property and ownership, genetics, biodiversity and food security. Its chapters cover negotiations and instruments in the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, Food and Agriculture Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants and other international bodies. More information.

 

TRADE AND CLIMATE CHANGE LINKAGES
(IISD 2007)
This brief, written by Aaron Cosbey, is the first of a pair of background papers prepared for the Trade Ministers' Dialogue on Climate Change Issues, held in conjunction with the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 8–9, 2007 (UNFCCC COP 13, Kyoto Protocol MOP 3). It lays out the full range of linkages by which trade and climate change are interlinked, including legal linkages, physical impacts of climate change on trade and investment flows, impacts of trade and investment policy changes on climate change, and competitiveness issues. The paper.

TRADE POLICY TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(IISD 2007)
This brief, written by Aaron Cosbey, is the second of a pair of background papers prepared for the Trade Ministers' Dialogue on Climate Change Issues, held in conjunction with the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 8–9, 2007 (UNFCCC COP 13, Kyoto Protocol MOP 3). It examines in depth the ways in which trade and investment policy might be employed to further climate change objectives. The discussion covers: liberalizing trade in low emission goods, allowing subsidies for greenhouse gas reductions, addressing domestic barriers to clean energy investment, amending intellectual property rights and lowering fossil fuel subsidies. The paper.

BOOM OR BUST: HOW COMMODITY PRICE VOLATILITY IMPEDES POVERTY REDUCTION, AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT
(IISD 2007)
This paper, written by Oli Brown, argues that commodity price volatility is a serious issue, but not a hopeless one. The basic economic tools necessary to help commodity producers get more predictable incomes are well-known and better understood than ever before. This publication synthesizes a sizeable body of commissioned work to investigate the experience, problems and promise of five different types of economic tools: supply management, national revenue management, market-based price risk management, compensatory finance and alternative trade initiatives. The paper, (soon available in French and Spanish).

 

ASIAN WATER DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK 2007
(Asian Development Bank, 2007)

This report on future Asian water development is cautiously optimistic, stating that Asian countries should not experience a water crisis in the future. It argues that the region has enough knowledge, technology, and expertise to solve existing and future water problems. However, the report states that if a crisis materializes, poor water management more than water scarcity would likely be the cause. The Report.

EROSION OF TRADE PREFERENCES IN THE POST-HONG KONG FRAMEWORK: FROM TRADE IS BETTER THAN AID TO AID FOR TRADE
(UNCTAD, 2007)
This study by UNCTAD looks at the erosion of trade preferences since the WTO’s Hong Kong Ministerial conference in 2005. It examines which products and countries have benefited the most from existing preferences granted by the US, Japan and the EU, and finds that the issue of erosion of trade preferences remains to be addressed to the benefit of many developing countries. The report.

KEY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN THE ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION 2008

(UNESCAP, 2007)

This report by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific highlights that developing countries in the Asia Pacific are projected to continue to grow at 8 percent. The report cautions against appreciating currencies vis-à-vis the weakening of the US market, and suggests that policymakers in the region make financial reforms a priority in the development agenda. The report.

CAN CHINA CONTINUE FEEDING ITSELF? THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE
(World Bank, 2007)
This paper by the World Bank’s Sustainable Rural and Urban Development Team looks at the supply and demand for food in China, in light of near-future expected changes in climate, and examines the effect of temperature and precipitation on net crop revenues. The analysis suggests that global warming is likely to be harmful to China, but the impacts are likely to be different in each region. The paper estimates that the likely gains realized by some farmers will nearly offset the losses to other farmers in China: the mid-latitude region of China may benefit from warming but the southern and northern regions are likely to be damaged. However, the study does not capture the effects of changed water-flow, which, if they occur, could lead to large damages not addressed in this study. The study.

WORLD ECONOMIC SITUATION AND PROSPECTS 2008
(UN, 2008) 
The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2008 report cautions that the global economy will face serious challenges as a result of the end of the housing bubble in the US, the decline of the US dollar vis-�-vis other major currencies, and the persistence of large global imbalances and high oil prices. It also notes that net real official development assistance (ODA) disbursements continue to be below the 0.7 percent target formulated in the Monterrey Consensus. Moreover, ODA flows included substantial net debt-relief grants, contradictory to the commitments made by donor countries as part of the Monterrey Consensus, which provided that debt relief would be additional to conventional forms of ODA. The report.

GLOBAL ECONOMIC PROSPECTS 2008: TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD
(World Bank, 2008)

This global economic report from the World Bank focuses on technological progress in developing countries, noting that the World Bank has helped to raise incomes and reduce the share of people living in absolute poverty from 29 percent in 1990 to 18 percent in 2004. However, the report highlights that despite these gains, the technology gap between rich and poor countries remains enormous, and the capacity of developing economies to adopt new technology remains weak. A central finding of the report is that most developing countries lack the ability to generate innovations at the technological frontier. The report.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE STATISTICS 2007
(WTO, 2007)
International Trade Statistics 2007, published by the World Trade Organization (WTO), provides statistics on trade in merchandise and commercial services. The report also provides disaggregated data by product, including agriculture, fuels and mining, iron and steel, and chemicals. The report.

 

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recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
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