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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

This page was updated on: 01/12/10


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Trade and Investment in Sustainable Development Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

Optimism and Poverty in Africa: Adaptation or a Means to Survival?
(The Brookings Institution, 2006)
This draft report, written by Carol Graham and Matthew Hoover, looks at the links between optimism and happiness and other positive traits and behaviors among the poor in Africa. The report explores linkages between labor market outcomes, health, support for markets and democracy.
The report.

IMPROVING LIVES: WORLD BANK GROUP PROGRESS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN FISCAL YEAR 2006
(World Bank, December 2006)

This report reviews the World Bank’s efforts to finance renewable energy and energy efficiency projects through 61 projects in 34 different countries. It notes that during fiscal year 2006, the Bank funded renewable energy and energy efficiency projects amounting to US$860 million and committed an additional US$668 million. These figures represent a 45% increase over fiscal year 2005, which more than doubles the World Bank’s target to increase financing of renewable energy by 20% per year adopted at the International Conference on Renewable Energy held in Bonn, Germany in June 2004. The report.

STATE OF THE AFRICAN CARBON MARKET
(World Bank, November 2006)
This report by Karan Capoor and Philippe Ambrosi examines the state of the carbon market in Africa. It suggests that Africa will not only be the continent hardest hit by climate change, but also is likely to benefit the least from the carbon market. It cites figures indicating that African projects represent a low fraction of the entire CDM pipeline; as of October 2006, 19 projects from Sub-Saharan Africa were in the CDM project pipeline, out of a total of 1274 projects for all developing countries. Among other reasons, the report notes that the small energy and industrial sectors in African countries have limited mitigation potential relative to countries such as China and India, and are thus less attractive to carbon market investors. The report.

BOOM OR BUST: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES' ROUGH RIDE ON THE COMMODITY PRICE ROLLERCOASTER
(IISD, October 2006)

This article by Oliver Brown and Jason Gibson describes the impacts of commodity price volatility and seeks to promote discussion about what can be done to help stabilize revenues for countries as well as producers. The paper describes the theoretical benefits of liberalized commodity markets and notes that, through the ups and downs of commodity prices, the environment suffers as price volatility does not create incentives for sound environmental stewardship. The paper highlights that an effective response requires complementary approaches. It also proposes possible future actions. The article.

STATE OF THE CARBON MARKET REPORT UPDATE
(World Bank/IETA, October 2006) This report highlights that, from January-September 2006, the carbon market grew to nearly US$22 billion, more than doubling the US$11 billion recorded in 2005. The report highlights increases in energy efficiency projects (nearly 14% of total Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) volumes) and renewable energy (12% of the CDM market), with wind energy leading this sector. It cautions on the need to provide a long-term signal to markets on the continuation of the carbon market. The report also shows that clean energy is benefiting from the carbon market and that a change in availability of finance to tap mitigation potential in developing countries is taking place as a result. The report.

A BETTER WORLD IS OUR BOTTOM LINE: TEN ENTREPRENEURS SHAPING TOMORROW’S MARKETS
(New Ventures and WRI, 2006) This publication urges the reader to view environmental crises as global challenges that require financially and ecologically sustainable solutions. It describes ten examples of innovative businesses in five emerging economies – Brazil, Mexico, China, India and Indonesia – showcasing how the greatest environmental challenges in these regions can be transformed into market opportunities. The issues addressed include clean technology, renewable energy, organic agriculture and ecotourism. The booklet.

PUTTING THE RIGHT PRICE ON NATURE: ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS
(SciDev.Net, 2006)
This policy brief by Anantha Duraiappah (UNEP) discusses how environmental economics can be used to ensure that the benefits obtained from ecosystems are properly valued, enabling a framework to be built for sustainable use and conservation of the environment. The policy brief.

ECOSYSTEM CHALLENGES AND BUSINESS IMPLICATIONS
(Earthwatch Institute, IUCN, WBCSD and WRI, 2006)
This publication is based on facts and projections from the UN's multi-year Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as well as interviews with business leaders to assess the implications and strategies needed to respond to environmental challenges. It indicates that many companies recognize the risks associated with degrading ecosystems and are trying to adapt accordingly, but most fail to associate healthy ecosystems with their business interests. Four partners, the Earthwatch Institute (Europe), the World Conservation Union (IUCN), the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI), produced the report, which is the first of three anticipated studies. The second will focus on how new business models, markets and entrepreneurs can profit from responding to ecosystem challenges, and the third will help business executives identify their dependences on ecosystem services and ways to retain them for the long term. The report.

THE WTO GMO DISPUTE: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE NEED FOR AN APPEAL
(GeneWatch UK, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Forum for Biotechnology and Food Security and GM Freeze, November 2006) Authored by Alice Palmer, this note is a legal analysis of the WTO Dispute Panel’s decision regarding the complaint by the US, Canada and Argentina against the EU over genetically modified organisms. It explains what the WTO Panel decided, what might be appealed, and what might be important to developing countries wanting to regulate GM imports and other products that could cause harm to health and the environment. The note reaches two conclusions. First, it stresses that developing countries currently considering what laws to introduce to regulate GM crops and products should be aware that the dispute was only about the implementation of the EC’s rules. Secondly, it concludes that the EC should not leave the Panel’s erroneous description and application of WTO law unchallenged. The report.

LINKING TRADE, CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
(ICTSD, 2006)
This collection of issue briefs addresses challenges in linking trade, climate and energy negotiations, looking at opportunities for the climate and trade systems to be mutually supportive. Essays analyze how climate-friendly measures – including incentives such as climate standards, strategically targeted subsidies and liberalization in environmental goods and services – within the various trade regimes could make a major contribution toward a sustainable energy transition, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The report.

FISHERIES, INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(ICTSD, October 2006)
This policy discussion paper aims to inform negotiations for multilateral, regional and domestic trade rules and policies in the fisheries sector so that they support sustainable development. It addresses key issues and trade policy tools, such as tariffs, subsidies, standards and eco-labeling, that impact the sustainability and development of the fisheries sector, assessing their impact on social development, employment and food security. The paper.

CAN AID FIX TRADE? ASSESSING THE WTO'S AID FOR TRADE AGENDA
(IATP, September 2006)
This report by Carin Smaller summarizes the Aid for Trade debate within the context of the WTO’s failed Doha negotiations, cautioning that if Aid for Trade is used to finance the implementation of the existing rules, it will exacerbate existing inequalities. It concludes that the current system is ill equipped to address the fundamental concerns facing developing countries, and that Aid for Trade could serve its purpose only if governments are ready to confront the failures of the existing model of trade and to refocus their objectives on achieving full employment and sustainable development. The paper.

TRADE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: ASSESSING THE IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE GATS
(ICTSD, 2006)
This paper by Colin Kirkpatrick seeks to assist developing countries in preparing their environmental services commitments within WTO negotiations, and specifically in the context of Paragraph 31 (iii) of the Doha Ministerial Declaration. It looks at the current “defensive” approach by many developing countries, and concludes that the realization of the potential benefits for sustainable development from environmental services liberalization requires countries to identify sectors and modes of supply where liberalization is compatible with national development goals, and to take necessary mitigation measures to safeguard the public interest. The paper.

SAVING THE FORESTS
(World Bank, October 2006)

This podcast contains a World Bank report addressing how global carbon finance can be used as an incentive to stop deforestation. The podcast.

NEW WEBSITE OF THE GEF SMALL GRANTS PROGRAMME

(UNDP, 2006) This new site of the Small Grants Programme funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) features a new mapping tool allowing precise illustration of the small grant programme project locations through Google Earth, a new project photo galleries and an indicator system for improved monitoring of project impacts. The new website.

 

THE REAFFIRMATION OF THINKING GLOBALLY, ACTING LOCALLY

(UNDP, 2006) Launched by the GEF Small Grants Programme at the GEF Assembly, this publication documents the successes and challenges faced by non-governmental and community-based organizations implementing GEF-supported projects, providing lessons learned for enhanced project implementation. The publication.

 

AN INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK FOR CLEAN ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT: A PROGRESS REPORT
(World Bank, September 2006) In this progress report on the development of an investment framework for clean energy and development, the World Bank analyses the energy needs currently conditioning development and the achievement of the MDGs. It also examines the transition to a low-carbon economy and adaptation, noting financing needs and proposing alternative funding instruments to channel resources for clean energy and development. The report asserts that the current financing gap for the energy sector in developing countries requires deeper and broader policy reforms to attract the private sector, as well as additional concessional support to meet the energy access challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. It underscores the importance of a long-term stable global regulatory framework, with differentiated responsibilities, to stimulate private investments and provide predictability to longer-term investments in clean energy sources. The report.

 

HOW THE WORLD BANK’S INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK SELLS THE CLIMATE AND POOR PEOPLE SHORT
(Friends of the Earth et al, September 2006) In response to the World Bank’s investment framework for clean energy, a group on NGOs prepared this paper to present their arguments for increased support from governments and international financial institutions for renewable energy technologies. Their report notes that while renewable energy will not be able to address all energy needs of developing countries, it could go a long way to cover the basic energy needs of the world’s poor. In their estimates, the basic electricity needs of one billion people could be covered with low or no-carbon technologies, would cost an estimated $100 billion dollars and would have a positive impact not just for poverty reduction, but also for combating climate change. The paper.

 

SOUTH CENTRE BULLETIN ARTICLES ON TRIPS AND THE CBD
The South Centre Bulletin no 128 (July 2006) includes two articles on the proposed amendment of the WTO TRIPS Agreement on disclosure of origin: “US: disclosure of origin could raise ‘legal cloud’ over patents”; and “Getting the relationship between TRIPS and CBD straight.” The Bulletin.

 

WTO REPORTS ON BIOTECH DISPUTE
(WTO, September 2006) The WTO has issued the report of the panel that examined complaints by the US, Canada and Argentina against the EU over genetically modified organisms. The report.

 

THE WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007: DEVELOPMENT AND THE NEXT GENERATION
(World Bank, September 2006) The World Bank released this report during it Annual Meetings in Singapore. The report suggests that developing countries that invest in better education, healthcare and job training for young people between the ages of 12 and 24 years of age could produce surging economic growth and reduce poverty. The World Bank report.

 

PROMOTING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRIORITIES IN THE URBAN TRANSPORT SECTOR
(World Bank, 2006) This paper reviews the World Bank Group’s experience in implementing urban transport projects under GEF Operational Program 11 on sustainable transport, and identifies opportunities for improving their effectiveness. It underlines the value of projects implementing Bus rapid transit (BRT) systems, which articulate busways, restrict the number of stations, reduce dwelling time, and design efficient route structures, as cost-effective modes of public transport that improve scale economies and limit greenhouse gas emissions. It suggests focusing on strategies for dealing with heavy-polluting transportation modes such as freight transport and high-density intercity transport, as well as new market-based and information-based mechanisms. The paper.

 

GENDER, POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS ON AFRICAN COUNTRIES 2006
(African Development Bank, 2006) The seventh in this series, this volume focuses on comparative cross-country data and national indicators on gender, poverty and environment for 53 countries, and indicators of this region’s progress in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The report.

 

SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND TRADE-OFFS
(World Bank, June 2006) This book identifies priorities for investment in sustainable land and natural resource management focusing on policy reform options to increase productivity and reduce poverty. More information.

 

CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENT - INTEGRATING ADAPTATION INTO WORLD BANK GROUP OPERATIONS
(World Bank, 2006) The World Bank has presented a study on how to improve climate risk management in Bank’s projects. Drawing analytical work, in country dialogues, and experience in a growing number of investment projects, this report highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda. In particular it recommends: Integrating climate risk management into the project cycle, by adopting early risk identification (for instance by applying a quick and simple risk-screening tool) and following up throughout the design process if necessary; integrating climate risk management into country and sector dialogues, especially in countries and sectors that are particularly vulnerable; enhancing internal support for and coordination of climate risk management; and supporting the establishment of proper financing mechanisms for adaptation. The report.

 

DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA AND AID FOR TRADE
(IMF/ World Bank, August 2006) This paper summarizes recent developments in the Doha Round negotiations, and aid for trade. It reviews existing mechanisms for cross-country and regional aid for trade needs, and proposes possible options to overcome the coordination and capacity problems affecting regional cooperation. The paper.

 

SUSTAINING THE ENVIRONMENT AT THE WORLD BANK
(WRI, 2006) This policy note by Frances Seymour of the World Resources Institute (WRI), examines the implications of the merger of the World Bank’s environment and infrastructure units and raises questions about whether and how the Bank will promote environmental sustainability. The policy note.

 

POVERTY, HEALTH, AND ECOSYSTEMS: EXPERIENCE FROM ASIA

(IUCN, Asian Development Bank, 2006) This book, edited by Paul Steele, Gonzalo Oviedo, and David McCauley presents a series of case studies focusing on the links between poverty, health and ecosystems in poor and often resource-dependent households across Asia. Case studies illustrate the links between livelihoods and ecosystems, highlighting pressures on some agricultural systems, effects of ecosystem pollution on health, as well as the complex linkages between gender, poverty and environment. The book.

 

EBRD SUSTAINABILITY REPORT 2005

(EBRD, June 2006) This report looks at the promotion of sustainability by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). This year’s report has a special focus on energy, covering the development of the EBRD’s new energy policy and its activities across the energy sector. Case studies also address the Bank’s consideration of environmental and social issues in project finance. The report.

 

TRADING PRECAUTION: THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE AND THE WTO

(UN University, Institute of Advanced Studies, November 2005) This report by Sabrina Shaw and Risa Schwartz explores the role of precaution in the WTO Agreement. The paper examines the debate on the evolution of the precautionary principle in the context of the WTO and considers proposals to “enhance the incorporation of this principle in the rules of the multilateral trading system and to diminish tensions in this regard between the WTO and MEAs” (multilateral environmental agreements). The authors suggest that the WTO dispute settlement system “may not be the best way in which to resolve disputes in these important areas of policy making.” The report.

 

SHOW ME THE MONEY

(UNEP, 2006) The UN Environment Programme’s Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) and 14 of the world’s largest investment companies have prepared a report that confirms the growing importance of environmental, social and governance concerns to the global investment industry. The 47-page report draws on work by a group of leading financial institutions and considers the impact of qualitative and new risk issues on company value. Industries covered include the auto-industry, aerospace and defense, the media, and the food and beverage industries. The report.

TRADE ON HUMAN TERMS: THE ASIA-PACIFIC HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2006
(UNDP, 2006) The United Nations Development Programme has released the first Human Development Report in a new annual series that seeks to focus on critical development issues in the Asia-Pacific region. The report outlines an eight-point agenda that could be applied by national governments to make trade work more for the poor. Recommendations address such topics as investments to improve competitiveness, strategic trade policies, and agriculture and rural development, and strategies for combating “jobless growth.” The report.

GENDER AND TRADE: OVERVIEW REPORT (2006)
(Bridge: Development-Gender, 2006) This report demonstrates how trade generally benefits men more than women, lists gender-biased consequences of trade such as increased unemployment and greater human rights abuses, and recommends that the UN, non-governmental organizations and development agencies engage in gender analysis and develop ways to measure their own accountability. The report.

PODCAST: WORLD BANK ON GAS FLARING
(World Bank podcast, 20 June 2006) Each year about 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas are flared. Traditionally considered a safe and effective way of getting rid of excess natural gas that comes with oil production, gas flaring (i.e. burning natural gas) is now a great cause of concern for the large amount of greenhouse gas emissions it generates and the waste of valuable energy resources. The World Bank has prepared an online podcast on the topic.

THE VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT: GLENEAGLES G8 ONE YEAR ON
(Oxfam, 9 June 2006) This briefing note reviews the progress in the areas of debt, aid, conflict, trade, and climate change, one year after the 2005 G8 Summit at Gleneagles. On trade it suggests that there has been progress in ending export subsidies on farm products, but overall it notes that proposals currently on the table, far from promoting developing countries’ ability to tackle poverty through trade, are more likely to hinder their development. On climate change it highlights that the G8 in Gleneagles took steps to raise public awareness and commitment, but as global energy tensions rise there is a danger that the world’s fragile consensus will break down and be replaced by a more nationalistic and competitive pursuit of security of supply, in which the poorest countries will be marginalized. The policy briefing.

AMERICA’S FREE TRADE FOR ILLEGAL TIMBER – HOW US TRADE PACTS SPEED THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD’S FORESTS
(Environmental Inspection Agency, June 2006) This report documents what it states is a link between Free Trade Agreements and increased trade in illegal timber from Honduras and Singapore. The report.

TAXING CARBON TO FINANCE TAX REFORM
(WRI, June 2006) In this issue brief from the World Resources Institute and Duke Energy, the authors argue that a carbon tax in the US would reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also supporting federal tax reform efforts and sound energy policies. The report. In recent weeks, WRI has also been involved in publishing a service sector guide to greenhouse gas management, and an analytical tool on corporate climate investments.

WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS 2006
(World Bank, 2006) This World Bank publication offers data on over 800 indicators for some 150 economies and 14 country groups. It provides a current overview of the most recent information available as well as regional data and income group analysis in six thematic chapters: World View, People, Environment, Economy, States and Markets, and Global Links. The database.

TRACKING THE TREND TOWARDS MARKET CONCENTRATION: THE CASE OF THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT INDUSTRY
(UNCTAD, April 2006) This report by the UNCTAD Secretariat affirms that there has been a process of consolidation in the global agribusiness in recent years. It argues that the need to consolidate patent portfolios has created incentives for mergers and acquisitions between agricultural biotechnology and seed businesses. According to the report, the result has been a few major integrated companies, each controlling propriety lines of agricultural chemicals, seeds and biotech traits. Therefore, privatization and patenting of agricultural innovations have supplanted the traditional agricultural understandings on farmers’ rights. As a result, the assertion of proprietary lines on seed technologies and genetic contents has transformed farmers from “seed owners” to mere “licensees” of a patented product. The report.

WTO AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(IISD, May 2006) This chapter by Mark Halle in the publication, “The WTO and East Asian Regional Integration,” analyses the relationship between trade and sustainable development. The chapter argues that contrary to general opinion, the environment has made significant progress in the World Trade Organization (WTO). The chapter.

LITTLE GREEN DATA BOOK 2006
(World Bank, May 2006) This annual publication by the World Bank is a pocket-sized reference on key environmental data for over 200 countries. It includes key indicators on agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, energy, emission and pollution, and water and sanitation. This year’s edition highlights that carbon dioxide emissions worldwide have now topped 24 billion metric tons, an increase of 15 percent compared to 1992 levels. The book.

PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE INVESTMENT
(UNPRI, 2006) The Principles for sustainable investment were developed by leading institutional investors in a process overseen by the UN Environment Programme Finance Initiative and the UN Global Compact. They include six principles, each with a set of possible actions, to consider environmental, social and governance criteria, and provide a framework for achieving better long-term investment returns and more sustainable markets. The Principles.

TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT REVIEW, 2006
(UNCTAD, 2006) This UNCTAD review finds that stringent environmental, health, and safety standards for trade in goods are restricting the possibilities for the world’s poorer nations to export products to lucrative developed country markets. The study recommends that developing countries adopt a strategic, anticipatory approach to new requirements by: participating in the development and review of new environmental, health and safety requirements; quickly analyzing information and forging partnerships with domestic businesses to devise adjustment strategies; identifying market opportunities; and working with other governments and organizations to share experiences on best adjustment practice. The review.

GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES (GATS) AND WATER
(IATP, 2006) This article by S. Varghese argues that the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) poses a threat to the sustainable and equitable management of scarce water resources globally, and particularly in developing countries. It highlights that even though discussions on water within the GATS have focused on privatizing drinking water supply and opening the market to foreign investors, GATS rules can make it easier for transnational service providers to have unlimited access to water for energy production, agribusiness and manufacturing. It thus cautions WTO members to think about how foreign operations will impact their domestic water supplies, in terms of both quantity and quality, before making any new commitments. The article.

SUSTAINABILITY REVIEW 2005
(IDB, 2006) The Sustainability Review describes the Inter-American Development Bank’s (IDB) progress in promoting social and environmental sustainability in its member countries. It contains detailed information on new IDB policy initiatives and actions to address environmental and social issues. “Sustainability must be a fundamental guiding principle for the IDB,” said Bank President Luis Alberto Moreno at the event. “I’m happy to say that we’ve taken some important steps to that end.” The IDB president also emphasized the Bank’s commitment to increase investments in clean energy and efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. IDB Press release, 26 April 2006.
IDB Sustainability Report, 2005.

FIGHTING POVERTY: A BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY
(WBI, InWEnt, UN Global Compact, Insituto Ethos, 2006) This publication reports on the proceedings of of the 10th International Business Forum on “Business and the Millennium Development Goals: An Active Role for Globally Responsible Companies,” which took place from 11-13 September 2005 in New York. The report was launched during the World Bank Institute’s April 2006 meeting on “Business, NGOs and Development: Strategic Engagement to Meet the Millennium Development Goals.” The report.

GLOBAL MONITORING REPORT 2006
(World Bank, April 2006) The third annual Global Monitoring Report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) examines the progress achieved in meeting the MDGs. The report focuses on poverty and malnutrition, human development outcomes, commitments on aid, trade and debt relief, the performance of international financial institutions, and governance issues. It concludes that in spite of significant progress in some countries,
the world is still far from achieving the MDGs. In particular, it notes that many countries in Africa and South Asia are not on track to meet their goals. It highlights the need for a far greater effort to implement the vision of global action and mutual accountability to achieve the results envisaged at the Monterrey Summit on financing for development in 2002.

The report places special emphasis on the importance of good governance to strengthen accountability for resource use and for development outcomes. It argues that donors and international finance institutions should strengthen their own anticorruption controls (including through the debarment and cross-debarment of suppliers engaging in bribery and corruption). The report also calls for increased transparency and technical assistance and funding to encourage good governance, rather than fragmenting and depleting already weak country systems. The report

CLEAN ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT: TOWARDS AN INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK(World Bank, 2006) This paper discusses the issues underlying the development of an Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development in the context of the Gleneagles Communiqué on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development, which was agreed in July 2005. The paper.

SWISSCOM SUSTAINABILITY REPORT

(Swisscom, 2006) Swisscom, the largest telecom operator in Switzerland, has integrated a sustainability report into this 2005 Annual Report, bringing together the economic, social and environmental performance of the business in a single document based on Global Reporting Initiative reporting guidelines. The report.

 

BP SUSTAINABLITY REPORT

(BP, 2006) Global energy group BP’s Sustainability Report 2005 is entitled “Making energy more.” The report.

 

TRADE AND MARKET-RELATED INSTRUMENTS TO REINFORCE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT MEASURES TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE FISHING PRACTICES

(International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and High Seas Task Force, March 2006) This report identifies measures that can be applied to strengthen the linkages between trade policy, fisheries management, and sustainable development. The measures examined include policies and practices used to monitor and track seafood products from the time the fish are caught through to when it is sold to final consumers. Particular attention is given to measures that shape the incentives faced by illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) operators. More information.

ASSESSING WORLD BANK SUPPORT FOR TRADE, 1987-2004
(World Bank-IEG, 2006) A new assessment by the Banks Independent Evaluation Group finds that the ÚS$38 billion in Bank financing for trade programmes since 1987 helped poor countries open markets, but was not as effective as anticipated in boosting exports and growth, or alleviating poverty. The evaluation examines the relevance of the Bank’s trade-related assistance to promoting improved trade and economic outcomes. It also looks at the effectiveness and efficiency of Bank-supported interventions in achieving their stated objectives and makes recommendations for the Bank's future work in trade. The assessment.

IMPLEMENTING DFID’S CONDITIONALITY POLICY: A HOW-TO NOTE
(DFID, January 2006) This draft “how-to” note spells out the practical implications of the new policy by DFID to rethink conditionality in order to ensure aid: is used effectively for poverty reduction, strengthens countries’ ownership over their own development strategies; and is more predictable so that governments can rely on it when making their public expenditure plans. The note will be reviewed in mid-2006 in response to feedback from those using the note, and donor, multilateral and NGO partners. The note.

A GUIDE TO BIODIVERSITY FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR

(IFC, 2006) The International Finance Corporation, a part of the World Bank Group involved in financing private sector initiatives, has launched a Web-based guide to help companies operating in emerging markets understand, manage, and benefit from biodiversity. The guide.

 

THE EU'S RESPONSIBLITY AT THE WTO: ENVIRONMENT, GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

(Women in Development Europe, 2006) This publication, prepared by Women in Development Europe and Friend’s of the Earth Europe, aims to contribute to a constructive dialogue between civil society representatives from the North and the South and representatives from the EU that could contribute to an EU trade policy consistent with social and gender justice and environmental sustainability. The first part reports on the public hearing, entitled “The EU’s responsibility at the WTO: Environment, gender and development,” highlighting issues such as the commodification of natural resources under the WTO, the importance of people's food sovereignty, the gender dimension of the trade agenda, and biosafety. The second part consists of an analysis of the outcome of the Hong Kong Ministerial meeting from a feminist and environmentalist perspective. The publication.

 

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER EQUITY: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND POLICY

(UNRISD, 2006) This paper provides a summary of the empirical and policy-related literature on the multifaceted relationships between gender inequalities and foreign direct investment (FDI). The literature on gender and FDI is evaluated with reference to the broader literature on FDI and economic development, new research directions are identified, and the policy implications of managing FDI for development and gender equity are discussed. The paper.

 

OVERVIEW OF THE WTO BIOTECH DISPUTE AND THE INTERIM RULING

(ICTSD, March 2006) Written by Heike Baumüller, Knirie Søgaard and Yvonne Apea, this report provides an overview of the WTO case on biotechnology products filed by the US, Canada and Argentina against the EU, and an analysis of the findings in the recent interim ruling. It includes a table summarizing the parties’ main arguments. The report.

 

MACROECONOMIC CHALLENGES OF SCALING UP AID TO AFRICA: A Checklist for Practitioners

(IMF, March 2006) Edited by Sanjeev Gupta, Robert Powell, and Yongzheng Yang, this handbook provides a checklist of the macroeconomic challenges that low-income countries are likely to face if they begin to receive significantly higher official development assistance (ODA) than in the recent past, identifying five fundamental guidelines for preparing a scaling-up scenario to guide a country’s efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The handbook.

 

SHAPING THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE FINANCE: MOVING FROM PAPER PROMISES TO PERFORMANCE

(Bank Track /WWF 2006) This report analyzes the environmental and social performance of key finance institutions. It argues that if the financial industry is to be a reliable, effective and profitable catalyst for sustainable development, it must not only adopt strong and comprehensive policies, but must also introduce comprehensive risk management systems that ensure rigorous implementation of the policies. It concludes that policy development is currently too embryonic and information about implementation too guarded, to determine whether the banking industry has crossed the threshold into a promising new era of green finance – or merely refined the discredited old tools of “greenwash”. The report.

 

DEVELOPMENT OUTREACH – “EQUITY AND DEVELOPMENT” ISSUE

(World Bank Institute, February 2006) The latest online issue of “Development Outreach” from the World Bank Institute features a special focus on equity and development, with articles by renowned specialists expanding on the connection between equity and economic growth in all regions of the world, including an editorial which argues that greater equity is a key ingredient of long-term prosperity. The February 2006 issue.

 

WINNERS AND LOSERS: Impact of the Doha Round on Developing Countries

(Carnegie Endowment, 2006) This report by Sandra Polaski presents a new model to analyze the potential impacts of the negotiations and underlying economic interests of the WTO’s diverse members. The report uses novel tools such as modeling unemployment in developing countries and separating agricultural labor markets from urban unskilled labor markets. The aim is to produce a more accurate analysis of the impact of trade policies on both developing and developed countries. The report’s concludes that: any of the plausible trade scenarios will produce only modest gains for the world; agricultural trade is not a panacea for most poor countries; the poorest countries may actually lose from any agreement reached; and additional special measures will be needed to ensure that the least developed countries succeed. The report.

 

VALUING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

(bepress, 2006) This article, authored by Edward Barbier and Geoffrey Heal, appears in The Economists’ Voice 3:3, an online peer-reviewed journal. The article considers an emerging field aimed at valuing ecosystems, whose purpose is to help policy makers decide things such as how best to provide New York with clean water or the role that expanded wetlands might play in limiting storm damage in New Orleans. More information.

 

POVERTY REDUCTION AND GROWTH: VIRTUOUS AND VICIOUS CIRCLES

(World Bank, 2006) This publication by G.E. Perry, J.H. Lopez , W.F. Maloney , O. Arias and L. Serven addresses the existence of vicious circles in which low growth and high poverty reinforce each other. With case studies from Latin America and the Caribbean this volume analyses the ways and means to transform vicious circles into virtuous circles of high growth and poverty reduction. More information.

 

WORLD ECONOMIC SITUATION AND PROSPECTS (WESP) 2006

(UN, 2006) The report contains the UN’s annual analysis of current developments in the world economy and emerging policy issues including short-term global and regional economic trends, and major developments in international trade. This report predicts that the world economy will continue to grow at a rate of 3 percent, with the US remaining the main engine of global economic growth even as larger developing economics gain importance. The report.

 

RESOURCE BOOK ON TRIPS AND DEVELOPMENT

(ICTSD; UNCTAD 2005) This book presents a comprehensive yet practical guide to the Trade Related International Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement with the aim to clarify the TRIPS implications for developing and least-developed countries, especially highlighting the areas in which the TRIPS Agreement leaves some leeway to World Trade Organization (WTO) members for the pursuit of their own policy objectives, according to their respective levels of development and discussing the details of WTO dispute settlement procedures. The book.

 

SOUTH ASIAN YEARBOOK OF TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

(CENTAD, 2005) This publication is a collection of twelve research papers on different aspects of the debate surrounding trade and development issues in South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka). Papers relevant to sustainable development include: “TRIPS implementation and public health safeguards,” and “Emerging issues relating to conflicts between TRIPS and biodiversity: Development implications for South Asia.” The publication.

 

THE TYRANNY OF FREE TRADE: WASTED NATURAL WEALTH AND LOST LIVELIHOODS

(Friends of the Earth International, 2006) This publication highlights the impacts of current trade negotiations on biodiversity, forests, fisheries and food resources, and the consequent losses of livelihoods for poor communities around the world. It notes the need to take these impacts into account to prevent outcomes that will increase poverty and marginalization. The publication.

 

IISD COMMENTS ON OECD DRAFT POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR INVESTMENT

(IISD, 2006) In January 2006, the OECD published a draft Policy Framework for Investment, available on the OECD website for public comments. The International Institute for Sustainable Development has prepared comments focused on three “big picture” issues, as opposed to the multitude of details in the draft Framework. IISD’s comments focus on what it states are the “failed assumptions” that lie behind the text, the flawed toolbox chosen to address these assumptions, and the outmoded separation of governmental and business rights and responsibilities. The response concludes that the problems in each of these areas are similar to those that led to the lack of success of the OECD’s Multilateral Agreement on Investment negotiations in the mid-1990s, and are no less serious now for the design of a major OECD policy instrument on foreign investment, as they were then for a legal instrument. The paper.

 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRIPS AGREEMENT AND THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

(WTO Secretariat, February 2006) This document (IP/C/W/368/Rev.1) is an update to a 2002 paper. It reviews the ongoing debate and positions on the relationship between WTO and the CBD on intellectual property rights, reflecting upon the past eight years of discussion within the WTO. It is divided into three sections: general views on the relationship between the TRIPS agreement and the CBD; patentability of generic resources and the CBD; and the TRIPS agreement and prior informed consent/benefit-sharing. The document.

 

AN ANALYSIS OF TRADE RELATED INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND THEIR EFFECTS ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

(IFPRI, February 2006) Authored by Guillaume P. Gruère, this paper reviews current trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food and discusses their effects on developing countries. The author notes that there is a large heterogeneity in current import approval and marketing policies of GM food worldwide and that harmonization efforts at the international level are led by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the World Trade Organization. The author argues that, while internationally harmonized guidelines for safety approval have been finalized, there is no clear consensus on labeling regulations for GM food, and there is an increasing risk of conflicts among international agreements. The GM food regulations of two large importers, Japan and the EU are analyzed, and their differences and potential impact on international trade discussed. The main spillover effects of national and international regulations on developing countries� policy making are addressed and four policy arrangements are suggested, to enable developing countries to satisfy production, consumption, international trade, and risk management objectives while complying with their international obligations. The paper.

 

CATALYZING CHANGE: A SHORT HISTORY OF THE WBCSD

(WBCSD, 2006) This publication reviews the World Business Council for Sustainable Development�s past ten years, examining the people and points that inspired business leaders to engage in sustainable development. The report.

 

FROM CHALLENGE TO OPPORTUNITY: THE ROLE OF BUSINESS IN TOMORROW�S SOCIETY

(WBCSD, 2006) This WBCSD publication is signed by eight business leaders who are part of WBCSD�s �Tomorrow�s Leaders Group� and represent Adidas, BP, CLP, GrupoNueva, Procter & Gamble, Storebrand, Swiss Re and TNT. They argue that tomorrow�s leading companies will be those that address the world�s major challenges, including poverty, climate change, resource depletion globalization and demographic shifts, and suggest new business models that would improve the bottom line while tackling these issues. The report.

 

INVESTMENT PROVISIONS IN FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS AND INVESTMENT TREATIES: OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

(UNDP, December 2005) The United Nations Development Programme has published a discussion paper authored by Mark Halle and Luke Eric Peterson of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), publishers of Linkages Update. The paper analyses some of the potential development policy implications of international investment rules. The paper.

 

TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT REVIEW 2006

(UNCTAD, 2006) The review analyzes the impact of environmental requirements on access to markets by developing countries. It focuses on different sectors and products and provides conclusions to aid developing countries in coping more effectively with these requirements. Read the review.

 

THE A TO Z OF THE GEF

(GEF, 2005) A practical guide intended to help understand how the GEF operates, how to access its funds, and how to influence its policies, was developed by, and is targeted at, NGOs. It contains several sections explaining the structure, operation, history and programs of the GEF. The guide.

 

ASIAN ENVIRONMENT OUTLOOK 2005: MAKING PROFITS, PROTECTING OUR PLANET � CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

(ADB, 2005) This report focuses on private sector engagement for sustainable development. It highlights the private sector�s role in solving the unprecedented environmental strains facing the Asia-Pacific region and examines the emerging global pressures�and opportunities�for improved environmental performance. It provides insights and advice on how collaboration with the private sector may balance regulatory control with market instruments, help create new business opportunities, and achieve sustainable development. The report.

 

CHALLENGING PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT TRADE IN SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS: TOWARDS WIN-WIN-WIN FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

(IIED Sustainable Markets Discussion Paper Number 1, November 2005) This paper by Nicola Borregaard and Annie Dufey aims to challenge established preconceptions in the international trade debate related to sustainable products, eco-labelling, and production and process methods, with the objective of aiding the design of policies to support sustainable products in developing countries. The report.

 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND MULTILATERAL TRADE COOPERATION

(Palgrave Macmillan / World Bank, December 2005) This book, edited by B. Hoekman and S. Evenett, analyses how the current global trading system could be made more supportive of economic development, without eroding core WTO rules. More information.

 

WORLD ECONOMIC SITUATION AND PROSPECTS 2006

(ECOSOC, February 2006) This report was launched during the February 2006 organizational session of the UN Economic and Social Council by Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs Jose Antonio Ocampo. It is the UN�s annual analysis of current developments in the world economy and emerging policy issues. The report.

 

The roles of the IMF, the World Bank, and the WTO in liberalization and privatization of the water services sector

(CNES, 2005) Written by Nancy Alexander for the Citizens Network on Essential Services (CNES), this book considers the implications of policies favoring privatizing the water sector, particularly on the lowest income groups. It concludes that, without adequate regulation and government involvement, privatization can result in the loss of the �right to water.� The report.

 

TRADE, AID AND SECURITY � SIX KEY OBJECTIVES

(IISD, IUCN, 2006) IISD and IUCN-The World Conservation Union have released a series of six policy briefings explaining where policy makers should focus their attention if trade and aid policies are to support peace and security effectively. The briefings.

 

Corporate Responsibility - The connected world in 2006

(Ethical Corporation, January 2006) This short report published by Ethical Corporation considers what the major themes of 2006 might be in the area of corporate responsibility. It highlights government policy, engagement with civil society, innovation, transparency and increased accountability as key issues. The report.

 

ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE (SECOND EDITION)

(UNEP, IISD, 2005) This handbook, which was published by the UN Environment Programme and the International Institute for Sustainable Development (publishers of Linkages Update), is aimed at a wider audience interested in environment and trade issues, rather than just specialists. The publication explains how trade can affect the environment, both positively and negative, and how environmental concerns can �work through the trading system to foster or frustrate development in both rich and poor countries.� The report.


If you would like to submit details of
recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
Diego Noguera, IISD

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