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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2004

 

Trade and Investment in Sustainable Development Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2003; 2002

 

BILATERAL INVESTMENT TREATIES AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY MAKING
(IISD 2004) Authored by Luke Peterson, this paper looks at the impacts of bilateral investment treaties on development-oriented policy making. It assesses the major elements of concern in various formulations of key obligations, and the types of desirable policies they might prevent. The paper.


IMPLICATIONS OF THE COTONOU AGREEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE ACP COUNTRIES AND BEYOND

(IISD 2004) Written by Konrad von Moltke, this paper assesses the Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA) – an agreement between the EU and a group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, most of them former colonies, which relies heavily on the benefits of trade liberalization, complemented by EU aid in various forms. The paper considers whether the CPA will promote sustainable development, and what needs to be done to ensure that it does. The paper.
 

A MODEL INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENT FOR THE PROMOTION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(IISD 2004) Written by Konrad von Moltke, this paper proposes a model for international investment agreements that explicitly aims to foster sustainable development as opposed to merely focusing on investor rights. The paper.


A CAPABILITIES APPROACH TO TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: USING SEN’S CONCEPTION OF DEVELOPMENT TO RE-EXAMINE THE DEBATES

(IISD 2004) Authored by Aaron Cosbey, this paper takes the thinking of Nobel laureate Amartya Sen and uses it to devise a comprehensive new definition of sustainable development. It then asks how trade and trade liberalization might contribute to sustainable development and surveys a web of potential impacts, drawing lessons for civil society, developing countries and the WTO negotiations from the analysis. The paper.

 

FOREIGN AID RESURGENT NEW SPIRIT OR OLD HANGOVER?

(UNU/WIDER July 2004) Prepared by P. Burnell, this paper explores the future of development aid. It takes note of the decline of aid in the 1990’s, and its sudden resurgence in recent years. Burnell notes that two factors – globalization and poverty, and heightened security concerns since 11 September 2001 – have led to the resurgence in development aid and highlight their uneasy relationship, recommending that aid should target pro-poor development rather than democratic reform. The paper.

 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: DEBT SUSTAINABILITY, OASIS OR MIRAGE?

(UNCTAD, 2004) This study examines debt sustainability in Africa and makes recommendation on how to deal with Africa’s debt overhang, including through adoption of new approaches or through a major revision and improvement of present debt relief policies. The report.

 

PARTNERSHIPS IN DEVELOPMENT: PROGRESS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY
(World Bank, 2004) Over the last decade, the World Bank has published eight Poverty Progress Reports focusing primarily on trends in income poverty and the Bank’s poverty reduction efforts. This new report shows how the World Bank Group is working to help countries move towards poverty reduction as embodied in the MDGs and the Monterrey Consensus, spotlighting Bank-supported policies and programmes. The six sections of the report: explore the challenge of reducing poverty as outlined in the MDGs; discusses the international response to poverty and outlines necessary priorities for poverty reduction; presents the World Bank’s to support country-led poverty reduction strategies; discusses the Bank’s analytical, technical, and financial assistance of poverty reduction strategies; discusses Bank partnerships with other donors to harmonize assistance for national poverty reduction efforts and to spur the provision of global public goods to address global issues; and summarizes the key priorities for quicker and more efficient poverty reduction. The report.
 

WORLD TRADE REPORT

(WTO, September 2004) The 2004 World Trade Report considers recent trends in world trade, as well as the impact of national policies on trade patterns. Published by the World Trade Organization, the report argues strongly for coherence in policy formulation, observing that inconsistent positions can hurt valuable trading opportunities. The report also includes essays examining topical trade issues, including the question of “non-reciprocal trade preferences” used by industrialized nations to assist countries in the developing world. A second essay considers the potential gains in the service sector from allowing the temporary cross-country movement of people with relevant skills, while another essay focuses on the thorny question of “geographical indications” – such as wines or spirits that are identified with a particular region – and how strongly such property rights should be protected. The report.

 

2003/2004 AFRICAN ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

(OECD, September 2004) Prepared by the OECD Development Centre and the African Development Bank, the African Economic Outlook provides an annual assessment of economic and social developments in African countries, based on data for the 22 most significant African economies. According to the publication, Africa has witnessed relatively good economic progress in the last year, despite slow global economic growth. However it notes that under current scenarios, Sub-Saharan Africa will likely not attain the most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and that half of the continent is behind on the hunger target and farther behind on the education and health targets. Only Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Mauritius are on track for achieving the poverty-related target. With its special focus on “Energy Supply and Poverty,” this edition of the report examines ways in which improvements in energy supply can contribute to poverty alleviation and achieving the MDGs. The report.

 

G-20 WEBSITE LAUNCHED

This website was launched on 20 August 2004 to mark the first anniversary of the creation of the G-20 group of developing countries. The site offers information on the group’s members and their work, including statistics, press releases, statements, proposals and links to other relevant websites. The G-20 was established prior to the 5th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) that was held in Cancún in September 2003, with a view to bringing together countries with an interest in eliminating trade distortions in agricultural products. The website.

 

WORLD INVESTMENT REPORT 2004

(UNCTAD, September 2004) This annual report considers the latest trends in foreign direct investment, both globally and regionally. The report, which was produced by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), points to changes in investment patterns at a regional level. The latest report looks in particular at changes in the service sector, including the recent trend towards shifting corporate services offshore – usually from the industrialized world to developing countries. Finally, the report also analyzes national and international policies on foreign direct investment, noting that sound national policies are important if the benefits of inward investment are to be maximized. The new report is scheduled for release on 22 September 2004. For more information, visit: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/WebFlyer.asp?intItemID=3235&lang=1

 

TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2004

(UNCTAD, September 2004) The latest annual UNCTAD Trade and Development Report considers recent trends in the world economy, and particularly the linkages between the international trading system and the international monetary system. It argues that the systems need to be genuinely multilateral on both counts if developing countries are to benefit fully from globalization. The report also considers other relevant issues, including the rising US deficit, expanding demand across much of Asia, and currency and exchange rate issues. For more information, visit: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/WebFlyer.asp?intItemID=3236&lang=1

 

IISD INVESTMENT REPORT NOW AVAILABLE IN SPANISH
The International Institute for Sustainable Development has just released the Spanish version of its recent report on investment agreements and sustainable development: Inversiones y desarrollo sustentable: Una guía referente a la utilización actual y al futuro potencial de los acuerdos internacionales sobre inversiones. The report catalogues some of the problems associated with current investment treaties, and considers what an international investment agreement would look like if it hewed to the broader goal of achieving sustainable development. The report can be viewed, ordered, or downloaded in English or Spanish at http://www.iisd.org/investment  

 

UNEP-FI AND GRI SEEK COMMENTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

The United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) are inviting contributions to the development of the GRI Financial Services Sector Supplement (Environmental Performance), in particular on a set of 15 draft indicators, designed to assist financial institutions worldwide to report on the environmental impacts associated with retail banking, commercial and corporate banking, asset management and insurance. A Working Group, which first convened in September 2003, will meet for a fourth time to review the feedback from this public consultation process in October 2004. The deadline for contributions is 20 September 2004. More information.

 

INVESTMENT TREATY ARBITRATION RESOURCE WEBSITE

A new website has recently been launched on investment treaty disputes. The site, which was created by Andrew Newcombe of the University of Victoria in Canada, provides information on arbitration decisions dealing with investment treaty disputes. The website is located: http://ita.law.uvic.ca/

 

PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN OPEN ECONOMIES
(ECLAC, June 2004) The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean has produced a book on the region’s experiences over the past two decades in pursuing economic liberalization and responding to globalization. The review highlights various achievements, while also exposing areas where the region is “lagging behind” or has “unfinished business.” It argues that the focus on “more market and less State” prevalent in many countries should give way to an emphasis on properly functioning markets and quality in governance. More information.

 

2003 ANNUAL REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BANK SUPPORT FOR POLICY REFORM
(World Bank, 2004) This review examines the effectiveness of the World Bank’s support to help borrower countries put in place policies that the Bank considers as necessary for enabling sustainable poverty reduction. Focusing primarily on the period from 1999 to 2003, the report finds, inter alia, that while support has paid off in most cases, the Bank has been less successful in countries where the environment for reform was uncertain or in countries where it had no or weak track records. The report indicates that good results come from different policies and institutions, supported by different combinations of instruments and tailored to country preferences and circumstances. It suggests that the Bank should primarily undertake large-scale lending in situations where policy reform is underway and that it may need to adapt its processes and instruments, particularly those concerning managing the risks associated with policy reform. The review.

 

LESSONS LEARNED ON TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: DISTILLING SIX YEARS OF RESEARCH FROM THE TRADE KNOWLEDGE NETWORK
(IISD, July 2004) This book synthesizes lessons learned from the first six years of the Trade Knowledge Network, a network of researchers in eight developing countries working on issues of trade and sustainable development. It provides an overview of issues from a Southern perspective, and can serve a primer on trade and sustainable development issues. The chapters address: the relationship and tension between environment and development; trade-related environmental standards; green opportunities; the need for strong domestic institutions for trade and environment to be mutually supportive; the Southern agenda on trade and environment; and the need for more research, capacity building. The publication can downloaded at: http://www.tradeknowledgenetwork.net/

 

AFRICAN ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 2003/2004
(AfDB/OECD, May 2004) The AEO is an annual assessment of economic and social developments in African countries. The report shows that despite progress on several fronts and general economic growth in several countries, many will still not be able to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This third edition report’s special focus on energy considers whether improvements in energy supply can help alleviate poverty, and concludes that Africa’s huge energy potential remains “vastly under exploited.” Based on data from the 22 most significant African economies, this publication serves as a reference for policy makers, donors and the private sector. The AEO is prepared by the OECD Development Centre and the African Development Bank. More information.

 

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK 2004
(Asian Development Bank, 2004) This annual publication analyzes the economic outlook and recent trends for 41 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. For 2003, the report found that the region remained economically robust in spite of anxieties over the Iraq conflict, oil price hikes, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. Looking ahead, the report forecasts intraregional trade and strong consumer demand to “define the outlook” for the region in 2004-2005. The publication also looks at trends in foreign direct investment. The report is available online at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2004/default.asp

 

INVESTING IN STABILITY: CONFLICT RISK, MARKETS AND THE BOTTOM-LINE
(UNEP Finance Initiative/IISD/German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, 2004) This paper is part of a project designed to “promote the business case for conflict prevention within the financial sector.” The report investigates various voluntary actions that financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies can take to avoid risks, while also supporting peace and development. The paper employs real case studies of both failures and successes. It suggests that UNEP’s Finance Initiative unit should consider launching a multistakeholder platform to encourage dialogue to help financial institutions engage on these issues. The report is available at: http://www.unepfi.net/conflict/Investing%20in%20Stability_unepfi_iisd.pdf

 

THE MATERIALITY OF SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ISSUES TO EQUITY PRICING
(UNEP FI, June 2004) Companies will suffer a decline in their share prices if they do not take environmental, social and corporate governance issues into consideration. This is one of the key messages arising from a report produced for the UNEP Finance Initiative Asset Management Working Group and launched at the Global Compact Leaders Summit held on 24 June at UN headquarters in New York. Compiled by a group of 12 fund managers representing US$1.6 trillion in managed assets, the report, which is based on 11 sector reports by brokerage house analysts, is the first to examine the financial impact of environmental, social and corporate considerations and criteria on portfolio management of mutual, pension and other institutional funds. The research covered a range of industry sectors, including aviation, clothing, electronics, oil and gas, insurance, pharmaceuticals and utilities. In its research, the project found that European brokerage houses were more willing and able to respond to demand for environmental, social and corporate governance research than their North American counterparts. The UNEPFI report, informational documents and the 11 complete brokerage house analyst reports are available at: http://www.unepfi.net/stocks/

 

INVESTMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A GUIDE TO THE USE AND POTENTIAL OF INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS
(IISD, 2004) This report offers an overview of the features, as well as some of the shortcomings, of international investment agreements. It argues that the agreements should be designed to promote sustainable development through foreign investment. The report is available at: http://www.iisd.org/publications/publication.asp?pno=627

 

HEALTHY FISHERIES, SUSTAINABLE TRADE: CRAFTING NEW RULES ON FISHING SUBSIDIES IN THE WTO
(WWF, June 2004) This new publication by WWF argues in favor of amending rules set down by the World Trade Organization to eliminate subsidies that cause overfishing. The new book proposes regulating subsidies programmes “on a fishery-by-fishery basis.” It also advocates an approach that takes into account the difficulties faced by developing countries, and supports the involvement of regional fisheries bodies. The book’s release occurs at a time when the WTO Negotiating Group on Rules is trying to tackle the issue of subsidies. More information. The book.

 

GLOBAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 2004
(UN DESA and Project LINK, April 2004) A project of UN DESA and Project LINK, a cooperative, non-governmental research initiative, this report provides an economic forecast of the world and of economies of developed and developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The report projects that the global economy will continue to expand throughout 2004 before slowing down in early 2005. The report is available at: http://www.un.org/esa/policy/link/presentations04/geoapr04.pdf

 

GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT FINANCE 2004
(World Bank, April 2004) This World Bank report highlights a strong cyclical recovery in global capital flows to developing countries and underscores the need to harness the gains from this cycle toward development objectives. While it notes that the external financing environment facing developing countries is improving, it also states that much of the developing world continues to face difficulty in accessing international capital markets and that ODA is far below the levels required to meet the MDGs. The report indicates that: most of the net private capital flows to developing countries, which has increased substantially from 2003, is concentrated in a few relatively more affluent countries; foreign direct investment has declined; the increase in ODA did not translate into new resources for most developing countries, but rather materialized in the form of debt relief, administrative costs to donor agencies and reconstruction aid; and that non-concessional lending has decreased. It highlights the significance of remittances as a source of capital for developing countries, noting that these are now the second most important financial flow to developing countries following FDI, and represent almost double the ODA flows. The report considers the role of trade finance in providing access to foreign capital, and role of global and domestic capital markets in meeting the infrastructural needs of developing countries. The report can be downloaded from: http://www.worldbank.org/prospects/gdf2004.

 

THE TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE – DOES IT ALL ADD UP?
(Earthscan/James and James, April 2004) Edited by Adrian Henriques and Julie Richardson, this book assesses the implications, benefits and limitations of the “triple bottom line” – the idea that businesses can simultaneously deliver economic, social and environmental benefits. It identifies different approaches to corporate sustainability, examines the conceptual and practical limits of the triple bottom line approach, outlines what can be achieved through regulation and legislation, and presents procedures for environmental accounting and social auditing. This book is available from Earthscan at: http://www.earthscan.co.uk/asp/bookdetails.asp?key=4058

 

DOING BUSINESS WITH THE POOR: A FIELD GUIDE
(WBCSD, March 2004) Prepared by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, this guide looks at how several companies are beginning to do business with the poor, breaking into the “untapped market of over four billion potential customers.” The publication is called a field guide as it is designed for CEOs to send managers to work in developing countries among poor populations. The guide advises companies to focus on core competencies when developing pro-poor business models, tap into local networks and knowledge, and partner with external resources that offer complementary expertise. WBCSD believes that its members and regional partners should be in the front lines of efforts to bring the poor into the market, in order to decrease poverty and increase prosperity for all. The guide is available at: http://www.wbcsd.org/web/publications/sl-field-guide.pdf

 

MAXIMISING MALTA�S COMPETITIVENESS POTENTIAL
(Islands and Small States Institute, University of Malta, April 2004) Written by Lino Briguglio, Gordon Cordina, Tendai Bare, and RoseMarie Endeley, this book is the product of a consultative and collaborative process aimed at developing a competitiveness strategy for Malta. The book is founded on the belief that small states such as Malta need to develop and sustain their economic competitiveness in order to achieve their long-term development aspirations. It serves as a case study in promoting constructive social dialogue on economic competitiveness, a key issue for small states, and provides a framework for the development of a national competitiveness strategy and a programme of follow-up mechanisms, with implementation, monitoring and advocacy measures. More information is available at:from the Islands and Small States Institute, Foundation for International Studies, St. Paul Street, Valletta, VLT07, Malta, Tel/Fax: +356-2124-8218, 2134-0335; email: islands@um.edu.mt   

 

GLOBAL FINANCIAL STABILITY REPORT: MARKET DEVELOPMENTS AND ISSUES
(IMF, April 2004) The Global Financial Stability Report from the International Monetary Fund provides the latest assessment of global financial markets and emerging market financing in a global context. The report examines the current conditions in global financial markets, focusing on issues of financial imbalances and structural concerns that might threaten financial market stability and sustained market access by emerging market borrowers. The latest edition of the Global Financial Stability Report, which is now published quarterly, includes chapters concentrating on developments in global financial markets, risk transfer and the insurance industry, and institutional investors in emerging markets. The report is available online at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/gfsr/2004/01/index.htm

 
UK BILATERAL INVESTMENT TREATY PROGRAMME AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(Royal Institute of International Affairs, February 2004) This paper by Luke Eric Peterson provides an analysis of bilateral trade treaties. In particular, Peterson assesses concerns that treaty rules may be used to claim compensation for damages resulting from government regulations on the environment, health or other areas that impact foreign investors. Peterson�s paper assesses known disputes under the UK�s Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements. He draws attention to a variety of procedural and substantive concerns that, he says, indicate that in the future, investment treaty arbitration could open up certain unexpected liabilities for host governments, both in the developing and developed world. The report is available online at: http://www.riia.org/pdf/research/sdp//BinvestFeb04.pdf

 

TRADE AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE WTO: AFTER CANCUN
(RIIA, February 2004) This briefing paper by Duncan Brack and Thomas Branczik for the Royal Institute for International Affairs looks at the linkages between trade and environmental issues. The authors consider how the ongoing growth in global trade can conflict with and, on occasion, support environmental regulation. The report also looks at some of the key areas where trade-environment tensions exist, explains countries� positions on trade-environment linkages, and assesses how these are influencing the debate. The report is available online at: http://www.riia.org/pdf/research/sdp//T&EFeb04.pdf

 

MANUAL FOR THE PREPARERS AND USERS OF ECO-EFFICIENCY INDICATORS
(UNCTAD, 2004) The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has published new guidelines on corporate environmental accounting. The guidelines, which seek to help standardize information prepared by companies on their environmental performance, cover issues such as water and energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste. The new guidelines have already been used by Ciba Specialty Chemicals, the first multinational corporation to base its reporting on UNCTAD�s model. The guidelines and further background information are available online at: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/webflyer.asp?docid=4432&intItemID=1634&lang=1

 

CLIMATE AND TRADE RULES � HARMONY OR CONFLICT?
(Swedish National Board of Trade and SEPA, 2004) This report from Sweden�s National Board of Trade and Environmental Protection Agency looks at the relationship between the rules set out under the World Trade Organization and those contained in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. The report focuses on various trade-related measures under the climate treaty, and how they relate to the WTO. The authors conclude that a �friendly coexistence� is possible between the two sets of rules, although technical regulations and rules relating to production standards may need to be addressed. The report also recommends action �at the national, institutional and international level to promote mutual supportiveness.� The report is the first in a series being prepared over the next year that will consider the relationship between the WTO and various multilateral environmental agreements. It is available online at: http://www.kommers.se/binaries/attachments/2501_Climate_and_Trade_Rules.pdf

 

INTERNATIONAL TRADE STATISTICS 2003
(World Trade Organization, 2004) This WTO report provides a detailed account of trade in both merchandise and commercial services by country, region and main product groups or service categories. Produced by the WTO�s Economic Research and Statistics Division, the report shows that a �weak trade recovery� in 2002 was followed by a near stagnation of trade flows in the first half of 2003. This far from robust trade picture reflects above all the weak economic growth in the OECD countries and in particular Western Europe. The report is available online at: http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2003_e/its03_toc_e.htm

 

WBCSD PRESS ROOM
The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) has recently created a press room, where journalists can find press releases, project briefs, bios and photos, FAQs, a speech library, logos and background information on the organization. The press room is located at: http://www.wbcsd.org/web/press.htm


If you would like to submit details of
recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
Diego Noguera, IISD

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