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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
This page was updated on: 12/09/10
Latest New Publications and Resources
The paper states that using market-based mechanisms can help ease the funding burden and steer investors towards low-carbon development. It says market mechanisms, combined with increased public funding to research and development, and investments in “immature” renewable technologies, are needed to give impetus and lower risk for private investors. [The report]
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), highlights the vulnerability of LDCs to climate impacts. For example, the report indicates that the LDC small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs in Asia are particularly vulnerable to the impact of storms and are also the least able to cope with the social and economic fallout from climate-related incidents. Although the LDCs as a group contribute relatively little to global warming — accounting for less than 1 per cent of the world’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions — the report notes that they will be disproportionately affected by changing climatic conditions. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in LDCs (e.g. droughts, extreme temperature and floods) have been increasing, with five times as many such incidents occurring from 2000-2010 as from 1970-1979. The number of people in LDCs affected by these extreme events has almost doubled, rising from 100 million from 1970-1979 to 193 million from 2000-2010. During the latter period, economic losses in LDCs resulting from natural disasters amounted to an estimated US$14.1 billion. [The report]
(World Bank, 2010)
This World Bank report underlines that, by 2015, solar portable lights could provide access to clean and safe lighting to an estimated 65 million Africans who are currently either un-electrified or under-electrified. Solar Lighting development potential is attributed to three factors: a significant improvement in the quality and performance of solar portable lights in the past five years; a decline in retail price; and product features that have been adapted to meet consumer needs. [The report]
(GEF STAP, 2010)
This Global Environment Facility Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (GEF STAP) advisory document on summarizing the evidence base for eco-certification initiatives in generating global, national, regional and local environmental benefits. The paper highlights that the evidence base provides, at best, weak evidence for the hypothesis that certification has positive socioeconomic or environmental impacts. It thus recommends that GEF investments in certification should be made in projects deliberately designed to evaluate the environmental impacts of the certification program. Such design should not just monitor the status and trends of environmental indicators, but also allow credible inferences on whether the program is contributing to changes in the status and trends of the indicators. [The document]
(World Bank, United Nations, 2010)
The report by the United Nations and World Bank, stresses the need for prevention to reduce countries' vulnerability to natural hazards in order to enable their sustainable and cost-effective development. It outlines a number of measures to prevent death and destruction from natural hazards such as earthquakes, hurricanes and flooding and estimates annual global losses from natural disasters could triple to US$185 billion by the end of this century, without calculating the impact of climate change. One area in which the report calls for more spending is early warning systems, particularly weather forecasting. It also urges governments to ensure that new infrastructure does not introduce new risk, including by locating infrastructure out of harm’s way. [The report]
(AU, UNOSAA, OECD, October 2010)
This study, prepared by the African Union (AU), the UN Office of the Special Advisor on Africa (UN-OSAA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), highlights that the global financial and economic crises exposed African economies’ dependence on too few export commodities and how they can diversify their economies. The study notes that climate change negotiations are opening up new opportunities for greening African economy growth, such as the Clean Development Mechanism to provide emission reduction credits to private companies. [The report]
(UNCTAD, October 2010)
This study analyses the development implications of the agricultural provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreements between the European Union and 36 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries by quantifying the immediate monetary costs for non-signatory ACP countries; quantifying the immediate monetary benefits for signatory countries and analyzing the options for increased supply; analyzing the agricultural liberalization commitments of each region; analyzing how the actionable and non-actionable provision of agreements affect ACP agricultural production, trade and development. [The report]
(CBD, GEF, UNDP)
The report, based on case studies from the portfolio of projects financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) through the UN Development Programme (UNDP) addresses eight key themes that are shaping protected areas management in the 21st Century, namely: enabling policy environments; management planning; protected area assessment and restoration; governance and participation; capacity and sustainable finance; protected area networks and ecological gap assessments; and connectivity corridors and transboundary protected areas. For each of the eight themes, the report presents a snapshot of the current status of implementation, a set of emerging best practices, and one or more case studies that illustrate innovative and successful approaches. [The report]
(Asian Development Bank, 2010)
The report, product of a two-year collaborative study by the ADB, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the World Bank, highlights the impact of climate change on Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City and Manila under a range of climate change scenarios through 2050. The report finds that costs from major flooding events on infrastructure and the economy could run into the billions of dollars, with urban poor populations likely to be the hardest hit. It concludes that all three cities need to take targeted, city-specific and cutting edge approaches to meet these challenges. [The report]
(GEF, Small Grants Programme, 2010)
This catalogue of biodiversity-based products from SGP’s Latin American & Caribbean portfolio demonstrates the linkage between the sustainable use of biodiversity, community empowerment and poverty reduction. It incorporates high quality photography and offers possibilities for supporting marginalized communities in forming alliances with funders, retailers, researchers, governments and NGOs in order to improve their livelihoods and conserve biodiversity. [The catalogue]
(The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), October 2010)
Compiling and summarizing two years of work carried out by over 500 researchers, the TEEB synthesis report calls for wider recognition of nature's contribution to human livelihoods, health, security, and culture by decision makers. It documents the multi-trillion dollar annual contribution of the natural world to the global economy, and formulates recommendations for policies and mechanisms that can help better account for, and protect, this contribution. The report approaches the challenge of bringing biodiversity to the political fore by focusing on making nature’s values visible, and approaches this in three steps: recognizing ecosystems’ value so as to understand what is at stake; demonstrating natural value in economic terms to support decision making; and capturing value by introducing mechanisms to incorporate this value into decision making at all political and non-political levels. [The report]
This report by Jean-Joseph Bellamy and Kevin Hill synthesizes the results of the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA) programme, launched in January 2000, to deepen knowledge on countries’ foundational capacities to meet global environmental objectives. The programme focused on assessing the key individual, organizational and systemic capacities needed to sustain achievements that satisfy the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), collectively known as the Rio Conventions, and other multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The exercise also sought to develop an understanding of the key drivers of, and barriers to, sustained environmental protection and conservation, with particular reference to meeting and sustaining objectives codified within the Rio Conventions. [The report]
This paper by Aaron Cosbey, Soledad Aguilar, Melanie Ashton and Stefano Ponte looks for paths to progress in the WTO’s stalled negotiations on environmental goods and services – a set of talks that is frequently cited as trade policy's natural contribution to climate change objectives. It surveys the experience of a number of multilateral environmental agreements – the Rotterdam Convention (Prior Informed Consent or PIC), the Stockholm Convention (Persistent Organic Pollutants or POPs) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora – and ecolabels (looking at coffee, fisheries and the Energy Star label) for lessons that could be of aid in WTO negotiations. [The paper]
(WIPO, September 2010)
This Lex database, developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization, provides a one-stop search facility for national laws and treaties relating to intellectual property. It features information to facilitate the analysis and interpretation of laws and treaties, and provides access to reference material on the global Intellectual Property System. [WIPO Lex]
(IISD's Global Subsidies Initiative, August 2010)
This paper is published as part of the series Untold Billions: Fossil-fuel subsidies, their impacts and the path to reform. This study helps increase the body of knowledge about the data sources that hold information on subsidies to fossil-fuel producers, by reviewing available data in a series of countries, diverse in terms of their level of data transparency, governance systems, energy markets and stages of economic development. Using a detailed matrix setting out the main subsidy policies, the type of fuel, and their main data sources, pilot studies have been completed for China, Germany, Indonesia and the United States. It was found that fossil-fuel producers are supported by a multitude of policies, ranging from direct payments to preferential access to government-owned lands. While direct payments were relatively easy to identify in government budget reporting, data was not always provided at a sufficient level of disaggregation to allow proper attribution to beneficiaries. Pilot studies also found that information on these support measures was held by a variety of government ministries and non-governmental organizations. [The report]
This report by Jean-Joseph Bellamy and Kevin Hill synthesizes the results of the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA) programme, launched in January 2000, to deepen knowledge on countries’ foundational capacities to meet global environmental objectives. The programme focused on assessing the key individual, organizational and systemic capacities needed to sustain achievements that satisfy the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), collectively known as the Rio Conventions, and other multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The exercise also sought to develop an understanding of the key drivers of, and barriers to, sustained environmental protection and conservation, with particular reference to meeting and sustaining objectives codified within the Rio Conventions. [The report]
(IFC, September 2010)
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) published a report by Asian Tigers Capital Partners that highlights that involvement by the private sector is critical for Bangladesh to prepare for both the challenges and opportunities of climate change. While much of this report underlines the benefit and importance of private sector engagement in the battle against climate change, it also highlights that corporate climate change is perceived by the private sector as irrelevant or at best an extension of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and proposes measures to change this perception. [The report]
(WTO, September 2010)
This report, by the World Trade Organization, examines the characteristics of trade in natural resources, the policy choices available to governments, the effects of international trade on the sustainability of natural resources, the environmental impact of resources trade, the so-called natural resources curse, resource price volatility, and the role of international cooperation, particularly of the WTO, in the proper management of trade in this sector. [The report]
(IISD's Global Subsidies Initiative, July 2010)
The report provides a starting point for a debate on the use of irrigation subsidies in Spain, quantified using the GSI’s Method for quantifying irrigation subsidies. The report found subsidies to irrigated agriculture are in the range of €900 to €1120 million per year. More than half of those subsidies finance the modernization and rehabilitation of water distribution infrastructures in irrigated districts to allow for water savings. The study also found the Spanish Government should consider establishing legislation requiring water authorities to publicly provide information on water costs, revenues and subsidies in a more organized and usable manner. This would include establishing the minimum level of information to be provided, the adequate level of disaggregation, the methodology used to develop it, and the formats in which information would be presented. It also highlights the need to develop sound replicable methods for measuring and quantifying subsidies. [The report]
This paper by Rene Vossenaar analyzes the identification of single-use environmental goods linked with climate-related technologies, looking at their trade flows, tariffs and non-tariff barriers. Its purpose is to clarify some of the environmental, trade and developmental implications of the WTO negotiations on environmental goods and services, in particular for developing countries. [The paper]
(ADB, September 2010)
This paper outlines the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) priority areas for investments and action on climate change. The publication describes five priorities, namely: expanding the use of clean energy; encouraging sustainable transport and urban development; managing land use and forests for carbon sequestration; promoting climate-resilient development; and strengthening related policies and institutions. These priorities will be pursued through the following three modalities: mobilizing innovative financing; generating and disseminating knowledge; and fostering partnerships. [The paper “Focused Action”]
(World Bank, August 2010)
This resource was prepared to support countries in assessing their vulnerabilities and adaptation options in the energy sector. HEAT uses a bottom-up, stakeholder-based, qualitative/semi-quantitative risk-assessment approach to discuss and identify risks, adaptation measures, and their costs and benefits. [HEAT web site]
(World Bank, August 2010)
The World Bank has released this report on the energy outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia region, which underlines that the challenge for these countries is to secure additional energy supplies quickly and at minimum cost, while limiting the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed measures include: undertaking of major energy efficiency measures on the supply and consumption sides, including reducing the large amounts of flared and vented gas; and minimizing the carbon footprint of the new capacity to be added. [The report]
(World Bank, August 2010)
This Synthesis Report highlights that eliminating poverty is central to both development and adaptation, since poverty exacerbates vulnerability to weather variability as well as climate change. The study argues that investments should start with low-regret options, with measures that tackle the weather risks that countries already face, such as increased investment in water storage in drought-prone basins or protection against storms and flooding in coastal zones and/or urban areas. The study was funded by the Governments of the UK, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the World Bank. [The synthesis report of the study]
(UNEP, July 2010)
Released by The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) research consortium at the first Global Business of Biodiversity Symposium, held on 13 July 2010, in London, UK, this third TEEB report highlights the business case for biodiversity and ecosystem services by illustrating the importance and immense value of natural services provided to, and affected by, a wide range of industries. The report contains chapters on: business, biodiversity and ecosystem services; business impacts and dependence on biodiversity and ecosystem services; measuring and reporting biodiversity and ecosystem impacts and dependence; scaling down biodiversity and ecosystem risks to business; increasing biodiversity business opportunities; business, biodiversity and sustainable development; and biodiversity and business growth. [The resource]
(UNDESA, June 2010)
The report indicates that many of the global crises in recent years – such as the food, fuel and financial crises – are to a large extent due to major systemic failures in the global economy and weaknesses in the mechanisms for global governance. The report suggests that a sustainable rebalancing of the global economy requires closer coordination across the trading system, the new regime for international financial regulation, the global reserve system and the mechanisms for mobilizing and channeling development finance and climate funding. The report recommends that the international community consider establishing a global economic coordination mechanism that goes well beyond the Group of 20 (G20). [The report]
(World Bank, 2010)
This study finds that Brazil could reduce its gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 37% between 2010 and 2030, while maintaining the development goals set out by the government for that period, and without negatively affecting growth or jobs. The study identifies areas with the greatest mitigation potential, including changes in land use (such as agriculture and deforestation), energy, transportation and waste management. The study also highlights that reaching a low-carbon scenario would require additional investments of around US$400 billion over 20 years. The report.
(World Bank, 2010)
The World Bank’s Issue Brief #1 is part of a series of policy briefs on the topics of Climate, Finance and Development, and addresses how to track, monitor and report on various types of financial flows. It also explores ways to track additionality in official development assistance (ODA) flows. The briefs.
(World Bank, 2010)
Issue Brief #2 showcases how public finance can catalyze climate action, for example through combining resources and instruments to maximize synergies between climate and development, and finding opportunities to expand the scope for market mechanisms. The briefs.
(Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2010)
The ADB has launched a new Clean Air Portal, which is the point of entry for data and information on air quality, climate change co-benefits, energy and transport. The Portal's Knowledgebase allows users to search and upload articles, policies, organizations, projects and programmes, training courses, photos and videos, as well as to tag content thematically and geographically. Members can also participate in online communities of practice such as Air Quality and Co-benefits, Sustainable Transport, and Green Freights. The portal.
(World Bank, 2010)
This report, by Alexandre Kossoy and Philippe Ambrosi, World Bank Environment Department, indicates that the value of the global carbon market grew six percent, to US$144 billion, in 2009 despite being its most challenging year to date.
The Report indicates that, on the supply side, the reduction in access to capital made it difficult for many greenhouse gas emissions reduction project developers to lock in financing, causing project origination to grind to a halt. In addition, the global economic crisis also is reported to have negatively impacted the demand side because, as industrial output plummeted, the demand for carbon assets fell.
The Report analyzes data from the trading of European Union Allowances (EUAs) and secondary Kyoto offsets under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). It also evaluates transactions under the Kyoto markets: Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), Emission Reduction Units (ERUs), and Assigned Amount Units (AAUs), as well as data from voluntary markets. The report.
This report, published by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), focuses on the risks faced by farmers in agriculture from natural catastrophe to market and production risks that make their incomes unstable and unpredictable from year to year and that will steadily increase with the effects of climate change. The report notes that, although risks are inherent in agriculture, they can be managed. The problem arises when farmers and rural communities cannot afford the financial services offered by private insurers to manage the risks associated with agriculture. In some cases, particularly with small-holder farmers, outside help is necessary to guarantee insurance coverage. The report.
(UNDESA, May 2010)
This report notes that, although the world economy continued to improve in the first half of 2010, the pace of the recovery has not been sufficient to close the global output gap left by the financial crisis. In addition, the report indicates that the recovery has been uneven across countries. While growth prospects for a few developing countries are encouraging, economic activity is not encouraging in developed economies and even less encouraging in most of the developing world. The report highlights that macroeconomic stimulus is critical for recovery, to boost productivity and employment growth. The report.
(World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and UNEP Finance Initiative (UNEP FI), March 2010)
This report is based on a series of UNEP FI-WBCSD workshops held in 2008 and 2009. These workshops provided a platform for companies and investors to collectively address barriers within capital market valuation processes that inhibit the proper disclosure and assessment of corporate environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance—underpinning the materiality of ESG factors to long-term, sustainable business value and to the performance of investment portfolios. The resource.
This study by the World Bank notes that, although Africa’s medium- and long-term development challenges remain large and complex, the progress underway is remarkable and undeniable. Progress is spurred by strong leadership, good governance, improved business climate, innovation, market-based solutions, engaged citizenry, and an increasing reliance on home-grown solutions. The study includes country cases from: Mali on linking farmers to markets through innovations in the value chain for mango exports; Kenya on irrigation pumps and adapting technology to development challenges; and Rwanda on the success of gorillas tourism and others. The success stories.
This report, issued by the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), is the key annual reference for statistics and analysis on the latest trends in international aid. The report notes that, with only five years left to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the challenges due to the economic, food and climate change crises are mounting. The report stresses how aid should be delivered more effectively and how it can contribute to a cleaner growth process in developing countries. The report.
(World Bank, April 2010)
The World Bank's brief on "Multiple Solutions to Address the Climate Change Challenge" highlights the fiscal year 2009 efforts channeled US$9.3 billion in financing for climate-affected sectors. The brief notes that: new Country Assistance Strategies substantively address climate-related issues; low-carbon growth country studies have been undertaken for Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland and South Africa; the Latin America and Caribbean Region has developed an portfolio of approximately 180 activities with adaptation and mitigation co-benefits totaling over US$7 billion; and commitments for the fiscal year 2009 to climate-affected sectors (such as agriculture, flood protection, water supply and health), have more than tripled the average annual engagement in those sectors across the preceding three fiscal years. In addition, new renewable energy and energy efficiency financing reached US$1.3 billion, more than doubling the previous fiscal year's investment. The report.
(World Bank, 2010)
In order to mark the International Year of Biodiversity in 2010, this annual review focuses on the importance of biodiversity conservation in sustaining livelihoods and reducing poverty. It includes viewpoints on the importance of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, protected areas, marine biodiversity, and invasive species and poverty. Feature articles address biodiversity funding at the World Bank, ecosystem-based solutions to climate change, and making wind power safer for biodiversity. The publication reviews projects such as the Global Tiger Initiative, the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, and a World Bank-GEF-IUCN project seeking to leverage funds from private companies that use animals and plants in their logos to support species conservation efforts. It also includes regional reviews and developments on funding for biodiversity through REDD +, as well as voluntary standards. The publication.
The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)has published the 100th issue of CEPAL Review. This issue includes an article titled "The economy of climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean: some stylized facts" ("La economía del cambio climático en América Latina y el Caribe: algunos hechos estilizados" in Spanish), authored by Joseluis Samaniego and Luis Miguel Galindo, Director and expert, respectively, of ECLAC's Sustainable Development and Human Settlements Division. The authors analyze climate change evidence in Latin America, explain the methodology used to estimate economic impacts of climate change, identify these impacts in the region, and project impacts on specific sectors such as energy. The article.
(ICTSD, December 2009)
This paper, by Diarmuid Torney and Moustapha Kamal Gueye, seeks to provide trade negotiators and policy-makers with an overview of the current state of play of domestic climate change measures being implemented or considered in selected OECD countries – Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, and the US – that may have trade and development implications for developing countries. This paper focuses on five key issues as they relate to the trade and development concerns of developing countries: border measures, renewables, standards and labels, fiscal stimulus packages and Kyoto Protocol measures. The paper.
(World Bank, 2010)
This book presents ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as an essential pillar in national climate change strategies. It starts with an introduction to ecosystem-based mitigation and adaptation, then describes the role of natural ecosystems in mitigation through carbon stocks, sinks and reservoirs, and addresses how to reduce vulnerability through ecosystem-based adaptation. The book concludes by evaluating how to implement ecosystem-based approaches to climate change within the World Bank Group. The book.
(PLoS Biology, March 2010)
This study by scientists from 13 different organizations and research institutions states that forest protection offers one of the most effective and immediate strategies to combat climate change. The paper makes specific recommendations for incorporating protected areas into overall strategies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation and degradation (REDD). The paper.
(OECD, February 2010)
This paper offers an empirical assessment of the linkages between microfinance-supported activities and adaptation to climate change. Specifically, the lending portfolios of the 22 leading microfinance institutions in two climate vulnerable countries – Bangladesh and Nepal – are analyzed to assess the synergies and potential conflicts between microfinance and adaptation. The paper identifies areas of opportunity where microfinance could be harnessed to play a greater role in fostering adaptation, as well as its limitations in this context. It also explores the relationship between the top-down macro-financing for adaptation through international financial mechanisms and bottom-up activities that can be implemented through microfinance. The working paper.
This study reviews progress in Latin America and the Caribbean in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It highlights that, despite the growth in protected areas and success in eliminating ozone depleting substances (ODS), high deforestation rates, which are double world averages, and sustained increase of carbon dioxide emissions in the region are impeding compliance with the seventh MDG on environmental sustainability. The report.
(UNCTAD, February 2010)
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), focuses on the over 140 low-income and least developed countries, which account for less than 10% of energy-related GHG emissions of all developing countries. The report explores opportunities for low carbon growth, energy efficiency, and renewable energy technologies. It notes that no reduction of emissions from agriculture was included in the Kyoto Protocol or the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme. It describes how market-based instruments can help reduce the impact of emissions from the agricultural sector. The report.
(UNDP, December 2009)
This report, by the UNDP Regional Centre for Asia and Pacific, looks into the lessons learned from the past economic crises, the impact of the current crisis and policy responses in 14 countries in Asia Pacific. The analysis takes into consideration the rising threat of climate change and the recent experience of natural disasters in the region. The report.
THE ECONOMY OF CLIMATE
CHANGE IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. SYNTHESIS 2009
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