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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2004

 

Sustainable Development Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2003; 2002

 

IMPLICATIONS OF A UNEO FOR THE GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM

(Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, December 2004) This “think piece” by Richard G. Tarasofsky and Alison L. Hoare of Chatham House/RIIA presents some of the implications for the international architecture of a new UN Environment Organization (UNEO) and evaluates whether such an organization would lead to an improvement in the status quo.

 

GEF AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES
(GEF, 2004) This GEF publication was produced with the aim of contributing to discussions at the International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action on Small Island Developing States (SIDS), held in Mauritius in January 2005. The publication, which is also available in French and Spanish, highlights the GEF’s work with SIDS on the GEF focal areas and outlines its priorities for SIDS over the next five years.  

 

SECRETARY-GENERAL’S ADVANCE, UNEDITED REPORTS AVAILABLE

(UN, December 2004) The advance, unedited reports prepared by the UN Secretary-General on the three thematic clusters to be discussed at the April 2005 session of the Commission on Sustainable Development have been released. The reports identify policy options and possible actions to expedite implementation on water, sanitation and human settlements.

 

The report on water suggests, inter alia, that: public utilities are in need of support for strengthened governance; tariff reform and better targeted subsidies are key areas for action; and a public consensus could be sought on how best to involve the private sector in water services. The report on sanitation highlights that: providing small-scale service providers easier access to credit and service contracts can contribute towards expanding coverage; the adoption of low-cost technology options allows expanded coverage to broad segments of society; and greater community involvement, particularly of women, in water and sanitation management can promote simple technology design for easy maintenance, facilitate cost recovery, and help ensure equitable access. Finally, the report on human settlements includes suggestions that governments consider acquiring low-cost land on the urban periphery to set aside for future development of housing affordable to low-income households. It also proposes that local authorities give preference to small local businesses in contracting for the provision of basic urban services. The Secretary-General’s Reports on: water, sanitation and human settlements.

 

HUMANITARIAN EARLY WARNING SERVICE WEBSITE LAUNCHED

A new website providing early warning service to support humanitarian preparedness has been launched. Developed by the World Food Programme, HEWSweb provides the latest forecasts, reports and alerts on drought, floods, tropical storms, locust infestation, El Nino, earthquakes and volcanic activity. A one-stop shop for early warning information, HEWSweb seeks to facilitate access to the latest early warnings by bringing together information from multiple specialized institutions. The resource will also soon provide a platform for sharing information on sociopolitical crises. HEWSweb is a partnership project developed by the Inter Agency Standing Committee, and is supported by a range of partners including the FAO, the World Food Programme, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP, OCHA, WHO, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), as well as a consortium of international NGOs. The website.

 

IGES LAUNCHES ENVIROSCOPE
The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) has launched a new website “IGES EnviroScope.” This online platform is developed as a resource on environmental strategy, policy and research, providing detailed and up-to-date information on current environmental and sustainability issues, policy measures in different countries and regions, as well as research output from IGES and other institutions. The platform.

 

AGRICULTURE, FOOD SECURITY, NUTRITION AND THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

(IFPRI 2004) In this essay from the forthcoming IFPRI Annual Report 2003-2004, authors Joachim von Braun, M. S. Swaminathan and Mark W. Rosegrant outline the linkages between agriculture, food and nutrition security, and each of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). They offer suggestions for how these linkages can be reinforced, including through investment in infrastructure such as roads and bridges, to meet the MDG to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty. They also note the need to overcome the obstacle of poor governance, including by “giving voice to poor citizens” and ensuring government accountability. The authors argue that a shift toward decentralization and devolution of decision-making has increased in the rural poor’s participation in decisions on rural development, and believe that “preventing or stopping violent conflict remains a necessary undertaking in many developing countries that hope to stabilize rural areas and improve the lives of their poor citizens.” The essay.

 

INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR TOURISM DESTINATIONS

(World Tourism Organization 2004) This guidebook was produced by the World Tourism Organization to help the managers of tourism companies and resorts/destinations, their partners and other stakeholders to make better decisions regarding tourism. The text’s five sections focus on the use of indicators as a central instrument for improved planning and management through: an introduction to the use of indicators; a description of indicator development procedures; and discussions of sustainability issues and indicators in tourism, applications for various destinations, such as coastal zones and mountain destinations, and applications of indicators in tourism planning and management. More information.

 

GREEN miniATLAS

(World Bank September 2004) The World Bank’s Green miniAtlas draws from the Bank’s Little Green Data Book to provide information on numerous environmental topics, such as agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, energy, emission and pollution, water and sanitation, and protected areas, offering a quick reference guide for monitoring environmental performance across over 200 countries. The miniAtlas.

 

WORLD DISASTERS REPORT 2004

(IFRC, 2004) The World Disaster Report, which was launched in mid-November 2004 by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, focuses on community resilience to disasters. The report considers how international aid organizations can help strengthen local resilience to crises ranging from “slow-onset” problems such as drought or HIV/AIDS to sudden “one-off disasters” like earthquakes. It argues that a more development-focused approach is needed that places communities at the heart of defining their needs and identifying appropriate solutions. The report also deals with such specific issues as the impact of heat waves on the developed world, capacity building in rural India, disaster resilience in the Philippines, and key risks in urban slums. More information.

 

TARGETING OF TRANSFERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: REVIEW OF LESSONS AND EXPERIENCE

(World Bank, 2004) This joint World Bank/International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) publication, authored by David Coady, Margaret Grosh and John Hoddinott, seeks to facilitate the efforts of policymakers and programme managers in developing countries, donor agencies and NGOs to effectively design antipoverty interventions that reach the poor. This 82-page text focuses on a quantitative analysis of 122 antipoverty interventions in 47 transition and developing countries to quantify expected outcomes from targeting methods and their determinants. The text includes a qualitative discussion of common targeting methods and how they work, what costs may be incurred from using each method, and what the appropriate circumstances are for implementing antipoverty programmes. The authors also review the costs and benefits of targeting and methods for assessing targeting performance, and offer a taxonomy of targeting methods. More.

 

SCIENCE AND POVERTY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

(IFPRI, October 2004) This report discusses the impacts of new agricultural technology on poverty. It was authored by Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Michelle Adato, Lawrence Haddad and Peter Hazell and is based on the results of a six-country, seven-case research project managed by IFPRI. The authors find that “measures of the direct impacts of new technologies on incomes and yields do not tell the whole story. Both economic and non-economic factors (such as sources of vulnerability, gender roles, and the source of the disseminated technology) play an extremely important role in determining whether the poor adopt or benefit from a technology.” The authors recommend that impact assessments should include a mix of disciplines and methods, and those designing new research programmes should understand all the social factors that will affect the adoption and impacts of technologies as well as poor people’s strategies for managing risk and the importance and role of agriculture in their livelihood strategies. The text.

 

ENVIRONMENT AND SECURITY: TRANSFORMING RISKS INTO COOPERATION – THE CASE OF THE SOUTHERN CAUCASUS

(IISD, 2004) Published by IISD, this report was prepared by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). It examines both the negative affect of conflict in the Southern Caucasus region – comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia – as well as the opportunities environmental issues present for cooperation and confidence building. The report uses maps and graphics to present the linkages between environmental stress, potential social tension and areas of particular vulnerability in the Southern Caucasus, as identified by stakeholders from the countries. It suggests addressing these linkages through: vulnerability assessment, early warning and monitoring of “at risk” areas; policy development and implementation; and institutional development, capacity building and advocacy. The report (in English and Russian).

 

RESEARCH: ICT INNOVATIONS FOR POVERTY REDUCTION

(UNESCO, 2004) This report provides a comparative analysis of nine South Asian projects that aim to combat poverty through information and communication technology. The report.

 

DESA NEWS

The latest edition of DESA news (volume 8, number 6, November-December 2004) is available online. This issue contains updates on the general debate of the 59th session of the UN General Assembly on topics such as globalization, MDGs, UN reform, environment, economic and social issues. It also includes updates on deliberations of the Second Committee concerning economic and financial issues, innovative sources of financing for development, review of operational activities, Barbados+10 review among others. The issue.

 

OECD IN FIGURES - 2004 EDITION

(OECD 2004) This statistical resource contains key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to trade and migration. It also includes comparable tables on science, public finances and the environment, and graphs providing snapshots on issues such as GDP, education spending, health funding, development aid and renewable energy. The resource.

 

LIVING PLANET REPORT 2004

(WWF, October 2004) This report is the fifth in a series of Living Planet publications, WWF’s periodic update on the state of the world’s ecosystems, which examines human pressures on the earth through two indicators – the Living Planet Index and the Ecological Footprint. The 2004 report underscores how current human consumption of the planet’s natural resources is far exceeding the earth’s regenerative capacities, indicating that we currently consume 20 percent more natural resources than the planet can produce, and highlighting that populations of terrestrial, freshwater and marine species fell by 30 to 50 percent in the last three decades. The report notes that humanity’s ecological footprint has increased 2.5 times since 1961, with our energy footprint increasing by almost 700 percent between 1961 and 2001. The report.

 

‘WE THE PEOPLES …’ A CALL TO ACTION FOR THE UN MILLENNIUM DECLARATION
(The North-South Institute (NSI) and the World Federation of United Nations Associations (WFUNA), September 2004) This third annual report on civil society engagement with the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was co-authored by John W. Foster (NSI) and Pera Wells (WFUNA). The report is based on an extensive survey directed to civil society organizations (270 organizations from over 82 countries), as well as MDG roundtables at the United Nations sponsored by WFUNA, contributions to website dialogues on the MDGs and printed materials from a variety of CSOs and official sources. Highlights from their findings include that: many CSOs have adopted an approach of critical engagement with the MDGs, adapting, extending, updating and localizing the goals to their situation; greater focus on advocacy and information campaigns is needed; the distribution of income and gains from development, between genders, among family units and social groups, with an eye to equity, is an increasing concern; and higher priority needs to be given to the impact of HIV/AIDS on poverty, education, hunger and human life itself. The findings highlight the strengths and weaknesses of UN efforts to involve civil society organizations at a country level and calls for a scaling-up of financial and political commitments towards the MDGs. The report.

 

STRIVING FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE IN AFRICA

(UNECA, 2004) This report provides a synopsis of the 2005 African Governance Report by the UN Economic Commissions for Africa (ECA), a forthcoming publication that will feature the results of the first major continent-wide study on governance in Africa. Prepared for the 4th African Development Forum held in mid-October in Addis Ababa, the “Striving for good governance in Africa” report presents a snapshot of the public perception of governance in various African countries, highlights capacity deficits, and seeks to foster the sharing of intraregional experience and knowledge concerning the challenges to good governance. Through a survey of 28 countries, the research indicates increasing good governance on the continent. Underscoring a need for the implementation of a “bold and innovative programme” to develop Africa’s governance capacity, the report identifies and outlines 10 priority areas for action toward building capable and accountable States. The report.

 

GUIDELINES FOR REDUCING FLOOD LOSSES

(UN, 2004) Paul J. Pilon edited this four-chapter inter-agency publication, led by UNDESA, which was launched on World Water Day 2004. The text is the result of three workshops and symposia held in response to the devastation arising from water-related natural disasters, particularly flooding. One objective of these events was to create comprehensive guidelines that could be used by governments, international organizations, non-governmental organizations and civil society to help avert losses from flooding and epidemics. The resulting guidelines address the needs of decision-makers and describe the range of mitigation options that need to be considered when endeavoring to reduce losses from flooding. The guidelines offer an introduction to the general issue area and various measures to mitigate the impacts associated with floods. The text.

 

LIMITS TO GROWTH: THE 30-YEAR UPDATE
(Chelsea Green Publishing, 2004) Donella Meadows, Jorgen Randers and Dennis Meadows bring data on “overshoot and global ecological collapse to the present moment” in this text. The authors first collaborated on the 1972 book titled The Limits to Growth, which used the World3 computer model to look into the future and “show the consequences of unchecked growth on a finite planet.” They penned Beyond the Limits twenty years later to show that “humanity was already overshooting Earth’s limits.” Their 30-year update describes the World3 computer model, types of growth, and the various kinds of overshoot likely to occur in the current century. More information.

 

ONLINE RESOURCE: UN REFORM – UN-CIVIL SOCIETY RELATIONS

(NGLS, October 2004) The UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS) launched this new section on its website to provide up-to-date information on UN reform, with an emphasis on UN-Civil Society Relations. The section reviews the UN General Assembly debate on the subject, with links to several Member States’ statements, and links to the Cardoso Panel’s report on UN-Civil Society relations, several NGO’s responses to the Cardoso Panel report, and background papers prepared for the Panel. The webpage.

 

LEARNING IN PARTNERSHIPS: IMPROVING LEARNING BETWEEN NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN NGOS
(British Overseas NGOs for Development, July 2004) This paper is designed to “demystify the ‘learning organisation’, enabling development practitioners to feel more confident about taking simple and practical steps towards becoming better learners, as organizations and in partnerships. This paper is useful for anyone working in development who wants to explore the dynamic of partnership relations and their influence on learning.” The first part of the paper focuses on learning opportunities and challenges presented by North-South NGO partnerships, covering issues such as how to design projects to explicitly facilitate learning, develop systems of measurement and accountability, and recognize and address power differentials. The second part of the paper addresses factors that facilitate and inhibit partnership working, including the importance of negotiating the purposes and principles of partnership and clearly defining expectations, rights and responsibilities. The paper concludes that “Action is necessary at all levels, with all stakeholders needing to share responsibility for making institutional and partnership environments more conducive to learning.” The paper.

 

SIDSnet PACIFIC ONLINE

SIDSnet Pacific is the global network for small island developing States in the Pacific region. This website, which updates and replaces the Pacific WSSD site, provides SIDS-specific information and resources in the lead up to the International Meeting on the 10-year review of the Barbados Programme of Action on the sustainable development of SIDS. The site.

 

FOOD SUBSIDIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: COSTS, BENEFITS, AND POLICY OPTIONS

(Published for IFPRI by Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988, September 2004) This 24-chapter book, edited by Per Pinstrup-Andersen, considers: food consumption and nutritional effects and macroeconomic and trade implications of consumer-oriented subsidies; the effectiveness of consumer-oriented food subsidies in reaching rationing and income transfer goals; the distribution of costs for explicit vs. implicit subsidies; political calculations for subsidizing food; and income-augmenting interventions and food self-sufficiency for enhancing food consumption among the poor. It presents results for country studies in Egypt, India, the Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Mexico, and Zambia. In his concluding chapter, Pinstrup-Andersen notes that “Based on the evidence presented in this book, it may be concluded that consumer food subsidies, if properly designed and implemented, may be very effective in reducing the insecurity of access to food at the household level by making fixed rations available at predetermined prices.” The design and implementation of the programme will determine whether this is achieved, however, with household targeting, based on incomes of households adjusted for size and composition, and private distribution among the factors credited with leading to more effective programmes. In conclusion, Pinstrup-Andersen notes that “the most important lesson learned from the research and policy experience presented in this book is that consumer food subsidies can be a powerful and cost-effective policy tool to reach certain social, economic, and political goals, or they can be harmful to growth and equity.” The key is how and when they are applied. The book.

 

THE IMPACT OF AIDS

(DESA, September 2004) Prepared by DESA’s Population Division, this report indicates that the AIDS epidemic will continue to have devastating consequences for decades to come for virtually every sector of society. The report documents the impacts of HIV/AIDS on: population size and growth and national mortality levels; families and households; agricultural sustainability; business; the health sector; education, and economic growth. The report.

 

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AFRICA

(UNDESA, May 2004) Stephen Karekezi, Jennifer Wangeci and Ezekiel Manyara of African Energy Policy Research Network authored this paper, which addresses energy consumption at the household level and in the agriculture and transport sectors in Africa. It also examines energy consumption at the subregional levels of North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa, and in South Africa, highlighting differences in consumption patterns and presenting the case for a differentiated approach to sustainable energy consumption options. The paper concludes with a range of policy options that could assist in the promotion of sustainable energy consumption in Africa and offers a chart that organizes the options according to subregional priorities. Actions that are priorities in all subregions include: efficient energy use at the household level; improved data collection on energy use in the agriculture sector; greater use of other renewable energy resources and technologies (excluding biomass) in the agriculture sector; regulatory measures in the transport sector; and energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper served as a background paper for the Regional Conference on Sustainable Consumption in Africa held in Morocco in May 2004, co-organized by DESA, UNEP and the Government of Morocco. The paper.

 

REALITY OF AID 2004 REPORT: FOCUS ON GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

(Reality of Aid, April 2004) This NGO report explores the theme of governance and human rights in development cooperation and illustrates how governance conditionality can be used as a tool to “open up markets and impose policies that entrench inequitable distribution of power and resources.” The report begins with a political overview and continues with chapters focusing on aid trends in different regions. It highlights: the risk that aid is being diverted from the overriding necessity of eliminating poverty for the many to the promoting security for the few; the continued domination of global political and economic mechanisms by OECD countries, especially G8 donors and very particularly, the United States; and the interpretation of governance and human rights by OECD donors to mean whatever they want them to mean. This publication was first launched in April 2004 and is now being made available online.

 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM DECLARATION

(UN, September 2004) This 2004 report finds progress in the implementation of the UN Millennium Declaration. Poverty reduction, access to primary education, and hunger are some of the areas that have seen improvements in developing countries around the world, particularly in Asia, northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and West Asia. However, the least developed countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not fared as well, with few of these countries seeing progress and some experiencing reversals in development trends. According to the report, the Millennium Development Goals, which were derived from the Millennium Declaration in a 2001 Secretary-General report, have transformed the face of global development cooperation and reshaped development strategies. The Secretary-General report. The UN has also produced a 2004 Status on the MDGs chart that illustrates the progress of different regions in reaching the MDGs.

 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REPORT OF THE PANEL OF EMINENT PERSONS ON UNITED NATIONS–CIVIL SOCIETY RELATIONS

(UN, 2004) This report was prepared in response to the report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society Relations, which was chaired by the former President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso and referred to as the Cardoso Panel. It “offers comments on some of the Panel’s recommendations from the perspective of the UN Secretariat and, in some cases, includes specific suggestions regarding their implementation, which the General Assembly may wish to take into account.” The report is structured around seven headings: Increasing the participation of NGOs in intergovernmental bodies; Establishing a trust fund to increase the participation of representatives of NGOs from developing countries; Improving accreditation; Improving the UN Secretariat’s dialogue with NGOs; Enhancing country-level engagement with NGOs; Exploring the enlargement of the Partnerships Office; and Managing the change process. In the report, Secretary-General Annan states, among others, that: he will create a single trust fund to provide financial support for travel and accommodation of representatives from accredited NGOs from developing countries to attend intergovernmental meetings; he is requesting DPI to consider how its work with NGOs could be better linked to the priorities of the intergovernmental organs so as to enhance its relevance and impact; and he will establish a trust fund to enhance the capacity of NGOs at the country level and to finance additional capacity in the office of the Resident Coordinator. The unedited, advance version. The report.

 

TEN DAYS IN JOHANNESBURG – A NEGOTIATION OF HOPE

(UNDP and South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2004) Written by Pamela Chasek and Richard Sherman and edited by Chris Spence, this book was compiled as a comprehensive reference guide to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg in 2002. The book documents key events leading up to the Summit, outlines its preparatory process, and analyzes important negotiations, activities and outcomes of the Summit. Each chapter includes a comprehensive account of what took place, including who said what, and when and where they said it. The chapters also include a photo history of what took place, and provide reference sections with sources of publicly available information, including official UN documents, government reports, statements, speeches and press releases, global state of implementation reports, UN agency responses, Major Groups’ papers and academic papers. More information is available at: http://www.struik.co.za/book.book.detail.action?id=1923

 

NGLS’ MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS INTERNET PORTAL
The UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS) has developed a Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Internet Portal. It offers information and links specific to each of the eight MDGs as well as introductory information on the MDGs, information and links regarding action by United Nations agencies and bodies, civil society groups and country-regional actors. A “tools” link provides links to
reports, critical analyses, statistics and articles produced by international organizations, academia and media outlets along with educational resources for the classroom. A “links and listservs” list directs the user to related sites maintained by civil society organizations, governments and international organizations. As of September 2004, the “calendar” section was still under construction. The portal.

 

FIRST8 MDG WEBSITE

Launched in September in the Netherlands, this website provides a visual tour of the Millennium Development Goals. It seeks to raise people’s awareness of their own responsibility and inspire them to take action in the struggle against poverty and the achievements of the MDGs. The first8 website.

 

ENDING HUNGER IN AFRICA: PROSPECTS FOR THE SMALL FARMER

(IFPRI, 2004) This new issue brief from the International Food Policy Research Institute examines the role of agriculture and smallholder farming in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. This publication looks at recent trends in poverty, malnutrition and growth; outlines challenges to boosting agricultural growth; and presents case studies of agricultural success in a number of Sub-Saharan countries. The issue brief can be accessed at http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/ib/ib16.pdf

 

AFRICA’S FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY SITUATION: WHERE ARE WE AND HOW DID WE GET HERE?
(IFPRI, August 2004) This five-chapter discussion paper by Todd Benson covers the current status and trends of food and nutrition security in Africa and necessary actions to address and advance food and nutrition security. Food and nutrition security represent fundamental challenges for Africa’s human welfare and economic growth. To respond to this challenge, this paper highlights a number of actions and objectives that national governments should lead or secure, including sustained and broad-based economic growth, opening national markets to international trade, paying due attention to agriculture, providing education, particularly for girls, and providing for direct nutrition interventions. The text highlights the important role that local level actors play in ensuring food and nutrition security and suggests that the central government should give broad direction to local efforts and facilitate those efforts through resource allocation, provision of needed expertise and institutional support. The paper also notes the important role of advocacy to inform policymakers at all levels of the critical role improved nutrition plays in development and poverty alleviation. The paper.

 

ENERGY SUBSIDIES: LESSONS LEARNED IN ASSESSING THEIR IMPACT AND DESIGNING POLICY REFORMS
(UNEP, reprinted September 2004) This report, which was first released in 2003, was commissioned by the Economics and Trade Branch (Division of Technology, Industry and Economics) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It builds on presentations and discussions held during a series of regional workshops on reforming energy subsidies, organized jointly by UNEP and the International Energy Agency in 2000 and 2001. The nine country and region case studies demonstrate that the economic costs of energy subsidies can be significant as they can place a heavy burden on government finances, weaken the foreign trade balance and stunt the potential of economies. The report notes that, whatever the precise design of reform policies, politicians need to communicate clearly to the general public the overall benefits of subsidy reform to the economy and to society as a whole, and consult with stakeholders in formulating reforms to counter political inertia and opposition. The report.

 

SEMINAR REPORT: PREPARATIONS FOR THE 13TH MEETING OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

(Norwegian Ministry of the Environment and SIWI, September 2004) This report details the proceedings of a half-day seminar that the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment and the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) convened during the August 2004 World Water Week in Stockholm. The seminar focused on “Preparations for the 13th Meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development” and took as its starting point the challenges identified by Ministers at CSD-12 (included in the Chair’s Summary Part II - High-level Segment of CSD-12). The report is divided into five sections: introduction; key issues to be addressed by CSD-13; water resources management, including IWRM; water and sanitation; and human settlements. Participants highlighted the need to bring to the attention of political leaders the importance of access to water and sanitation for domestic and productive use as an engine of growth. Water and sanitation (within human settlements) can contribute to poverty alleviation, improved health, gender equality and livelihoods. Participants felt that the broad participation of all stakeholders contributed to the success of CSD-12 and should continue at CSD-13. The report.

 

EXPLORING THE LINKS: HUMAN WELL-BEING, POVERTY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

(IISD, 2004) Exploring the Links sets out to: demonstrate how human well-being is dependent upon ecosystems and ecosystem services; identify barriers and drivers that prevent the poor from using these ecosystem services to improve their well-being, in essence perpetuating poverty; and identify policy response options to remove the barriers, re-design or even introduce new intervention strategies to allow the poor to improve their well-being through an ecosystem approach. The publication.

 

MANUAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: THE EU AND BRITAIN

(Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), August 2004) This Manual provides a comprehensive source of information on European Union environmental policy. It contains, inter alia, an introductory chapter on the making of EU environmental policy, and chapters covering issues such as water, waste, air, climate change, harmful substances, radioactivity, wildlife, impact assessment and planning, financial and economic instruments, and international conventions. Appendices provide a complete list of all legislation contained in the Manual, details of all relevant proposals currently being negotiated in the EU, an insight into what to expect from the Commission in the near future, and a list of web resources. New chapters address topics such as emissions trading, energy taxation, and GM issues, including traceability and labeling, food and feed, and transboundary movements. To view the Manual for free visit: http://www.mep-online.com before 20 October with the username: TEMP and password: ONLINE

 

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

(WIT press, 2004) The papers in this book seek to explore issues concerned with achieving environmental, social and economic sustainability of tourism, and are derived from an international conference on this topic. Papers are grouped under the following headings: tourism impact; tourism strategies; sustainable tourism; ecotourism; cultural tourism; coastal issues; tourism and protected areas; tourism, infrastructure, transport and hotels; surveys and analysis; IT in tourism. More information.

 

NATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES, APPROACHES AND INNOVATIONS IN STRATEGIC AND CO-ORDINATED ACTION BASED ON A 19-COUNTRY ANALYSIS
(IISD and GTZ, July 2004) Through a study of 19 developed and developing countries, this publication identifies key challenges concerning the strategic management aspects of national sustainable development strategies (NSSDs), including leadership, planning, implementation, monitoring and review, coordination, and participation. Based on a collaborative project between IISD, GTZ, CIDA and others, the report presents innovative approaches and tools observed in the 19 countries, creating a pragmatic toolbox for government sustainable development managers and policy-makers. Countries studied were Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Germany, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, Poland, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom as well as the European Union. Also featured throughout the publication are examples of strategic and coordinated actions related to national strategies for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The similarities identified in process and timing provide a basis for further investigation of the potential for cross-learning and coordination between NSSDs and national IWRM strategies. This publication can be downloaded from: http://www.iisd.org/measure/capacity/sdsip.asp

 

LIVING WITH RISK: A GLOBAL REVIEW OF DISASTER REDUCTION INITIATIVES
(UN/ISDR, July 2004) Prepared by the Inter-Agency Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR), this publication provides guidance and policy orientation on reducing risk and vulnerability to hazards. The review explores the ways in which the understanding of disaster management and risk has evolved over recent years, and elaborates on the institutional frameworks and policy context for disaster risk reduction. It further presents an extensive compilation of examples of what actions people are taking around the world in the areas of environmental management, land-use planning, safe building construction, financial and economic tools, and early warning systems to reduce their risk and vulnerability to hazards. The publication is available at: http://www.unisdr.org/eng/about_isdr/bd-lwr-2004-eng.htm

 

UNDERSTANDING URBAN POVERTY: WHAT THE POVERTY REDUCTION PAPERS TELL US
(International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 2004) This paper is part of a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries. In it, Diana Mitlin reviews 23 Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) to “consider how they define and measure urban poverty and thereby assess the extent to which they consider urban poverty.” She finds that many countries believe their poverty estimates do not fully capture the level of urban poverty. “Pockets of poverty” within urban areas may be increasing and inequality may be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Mitlin points to the reliance on income-based poverty lines to define who is poor as a reason for the difference in opinion regarding the scale and depth of urban poverty in the PRSPs. The single poverty line fails to take into account the higher monetary income required to avoid poverty in some areas, such as larger or more prosperous cities. To read the report visit: http://www.iied.org/docs/urban/urbpov_wp13.pdf

 

SIGNPOSTS 2004
(Worldwatch, July 2004) Signposts 2004 allows users to track trends, study data, and create presentations on a range of environmental and social topics. Available as a CD-ROM, this new edition contains 238 datasets on environmental and social trends - 138 updated from the previous 2003 version and 100 new datasets. The resource also includes a timeline of major environmental milestones, PowerPoint slides for instructional purposes, and the complete versions of Worldwatch’s flagship publications - State of the World 2001-2004, Vital Signs 2001-2003 and Good Stuff. More information is available at: http://www.worldwatch.org/pubs/signposts/

 

THE TROUBLE WITH THE MDGS: CONFRONTING EXPECTATIONS OF AID AND DEVELOPMENT SUCCESS
(Center for Global Development, 2004) Written by Michael A. Clemens, Charles J. Kenny, and Todd J. Moss, this working paper analyzes the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a larger development context. It cautions against the current development focus on the MDGs, stating that the unprecedented levels of development progress over recent decades are being obscured by concerns that the MDGs will not be achieved. The authors also warn that the MDGs, which for some countries are unrealistic, may create unnecessary pessimism by labeling development successes and wise government policies as failures if the goals are not met. Pointing to evidence that illustrate a weak relationship between volume of development aid and rate of development, the paper highlights the misconception that aid alone is sufficient for achieving the MDGs and underscores the importance of factors such as national capacity to productively utilize funds. The paper concludes by suggesting that the next round of international development goals should: be country-specific and flexible; take historical performance into account; focus more on intermediate targets than outcomes; and be considered benchmarks to spur action in cases where assistance is not working, rather than technically feasible goals. The paper is available at: http://www.cgdev.org/docs/cgd_wp040Rev2.pdf

PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN OPEN ECONOMIES
(ECLAC, June 2004) The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean has produced a book on the region’s experiences over the past two decades in pursuing economic liberalization and responding to globalization. The review highlights various achievements, while also exposing areas where the region is “lagging behind” or has “unfinished business.” It argues that the focus on “more market and less State” prevalent in many countries should give way to an emphasis on properly functioning markets and quality in governance. For more information, visit: http://www.eclac.cl/cgi-bin/getProd.asp?
xml=/publicaciones/xml/4/15134/P15134.xml&xsl=/tpl-i/p9f.xsl&base=/tpl-i/top-bottom.xslt

 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT: INDUSTRIALIZATION, ENVIRONMENT AND THE MDGS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
(UNIDO, July 2004) This report addresses the challenges faced by Sub-Saharan African countries in advancing efforts towards poverty reduction in the context of the internationally-agreed development goals, targets of the Millennium Declaration and national poverty reduction strategies. The report is divided into two parts, the first of which identifies the opportunities and policy options available for Sub-Saharan African countries to reduce poverty through structural change, productivity growth and diversification. The report also outlines policy approaches to industrial development that take advantage of environmentally sound and advanced technologies. The second part of the report contains the Industrial Development Scoreboard, which benchmarks a set of industrial performance and capability indicators. This report is part of the Industrial Development Report series, which aims to build on development policy experience, provide guidance to policy makers and assist both public and private stakeholders to formulate, implement and monitor national strategies for effective poverty reduction through sustained productivity enhancement. The report can be downloaded at: http://www.unido.org/doc/5156

 

ASSESSING REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA
(UNECA, May 2004) Prepared by the UN Economic Commission for Africa, this report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of Africa’s integration process, highlighting where efforts have succeeded or failed and illustrating the debilitating effects of the lack of convergence of macroeconomic policy and insufficient infrastructure. The publication is divided into two parts, the first of which looks at opportunities, challenges and the necessity of integration and recommends priority actions for accelerating integration. Part II provides an evaluation of integration efforts in the sectors of: trade; money and finance; transport, communications and energy; natural resources and production; and human resources and labor mobility. A chapter also focuses on cross-cutting issues such as peace and security, HIV/AIDS, gender and the private sector. The report is available at: http://www.uneca.org/aria/right.htm  

 

CIVIL SOCIETY DATABASE PROVIDES PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND EIA RESOURCES
Launched recently by the Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA) and the Calabash Project Team, the Calabash website provides resources that can be applied to public participation requirements in environmental impact assessments, poverty reduction and development planning. Information is grouped under three broad categories: SADC, Africa and International. Under each of these 3 headings, viewers can find information related to Public Participation Guidelines, EIA Guidelines, Case Studies, Training, International Conventions, Agreements and Protocols and Key Contacts. The site also presents a draft Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Evaluation tool, which seeks to assist in the analysis of how well environment has been integrated into PRSPs or other higher level planning processes. The website is located at: http://www.saiea.com/calabash/index.html

 

MILLENNIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT REPORTS AVAILABLE FOR COMMENTS
Three global reports on conditions and trends, scenarios and response options by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) are now available for the second round of expert and government review. Involving some 1,500 of the world’s leading experts, the MA is the largest scientific assessment ever made of the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being. The first review round was concluded in March 2004 with over 6,500 comments submitted by 35 governments and nearly 250 expert reviewers from 45 countries. Individuals are invited to participate in the second round of review of the reports. Comments are due on 23 August 2004. More information is available at: http://www.millenniumassessment.org

 

MINING AND METALS SECTOR SUPPLEMENT TO GRI’S SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING GUIDELINES AVAILABLE FOR COMMENTS
The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) convened in 2003 a multistakeholder working group with the purpose of developing a Mining and Metals Sector Supplement to the GRI 2002 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.  A draft of the Supplement is now available for public comment and suggestions on how to improve the document and, in particular, proposals on the specific wording of indicators are welcome. The deadline for submitting comments is 23 August 2004. GRI has also prepared an abridged version of the 2002 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines that integrates the draft Mining and Metals Supplement to facilitate ease of use for reviewers and practitioners and illustrate how the Supplement fits in the context of the GRI reporting framework.  Download the Supplement and public comment form, and the abridged integrated Guidelines.

 

AARHUS CLEARINGHOUSE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEMOCRACY
The Aarhus Clearinghouse for Environmental Democracy is an online resource that will be used to collect, disseminate, and exchange information on laws and practices relevant to the rights of public access to environmental information, public participation in environmental decision-making, and public access to justice on environmental matters. The clearinghouse supports the functioning of the Aarhus Convention’s compliance mechanism and provides the Convention’s compliance committee information on national implementing legislation and practices. It was developed for the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) by UNEP/GRID-Arendal with the support of the Government of Norway. Users can search for information based on “what” the goal is (i.e. access to information), “how” it is achieved (i.e. policy or procedures), “who” is doing it (i.e. governments or NGOs) and “where” in the world it is taking place. The Clearinghouse is located at: http://aarhusclearinghouse.unece.org/

 

MOBILITY 2030: MEETING THE CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABILITY
(World Business Council for Sustainable Development, July 2004) Mobility 2030 is the final report of the WBCSD’s Sustainable Mobility project, which began in early 2000 to develop a clearer understanding of how developed and developing societies can address the adverse effects of increasing levels of transport activity. Twelve international companies – eight automobile, two oil and two large suppliers – are behind the initiative, which was co-chaired by Jeroen van der Veer, Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies, Shoichiro Toyoda, Toyota, and Tom Gottschalk, General Motors. The report identifies seven sustainable mobility goals and establishes a set of indicators to help measure the effectiveness of the various options. The seven goals are: ensuring conventional emissions from transport are not a significant health concern anywhere; limiting greenhouse gas emissions from transport to sustainable levels; significantly reducing traffic-related deaths and serious injuries worldwide; reducing transport-related noise; mitigating traffic congestion; narrowing the divide in mobility opportunities that exists between and within different societies and regions of the world; and preserving and improving existing mobility opportunities. The report states that some mobility challenges will take up to 50 years to resolve, and action should start now. To access the report visit http://www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocDet&DocId=6094

 

PUTTING PARTNERSHIPS TO WORK: STRATEGIC ALLIANCES FOR DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN GOVERNMENT, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND CIVIL SOCIETY
(Greenleaf Books, June 2004) This book, edited by Michael Warner of the Overseas Development Institute, UK, and Rory Sullivan, Insight Investment, UK, is about partnerships between the private sector, government and civil society. It presents case studies in establishing and implementing such partnerships and seeks to demonstrate how partnerships work, focusing on the oil, gas and mining industries. The book is based on the work of the Secretariat of the Natural Resources Cluster (NRC) of Business Partners for Development (BPD), a research programme that ran from 1998 to 2002, which sought to enhance the role of oil, gas and mining corporations in international development and to offer guidance on how multistakeholder partnerships can be an effective means of reducing investment risks and of promoting community and regional development. The programme encompassed partnerships in Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Venezuela, and Zambia. The text’s conclusions relating to business issues faced by the industries include: maintaining community relations during periods of investment uncertainty; contributing to community development; securing the social license to operate; preventing and resolving disputes with communities and NGOs; creating local employment and managing retrenchment; contributing to long-term regional development; and managing the closure of projects. More information and the introduction can be accessed through http://www.greenleaf-publishing.com/catalogue/partners.htm.

 

SCIENTIFIC INTEGRITY IN POLICY MAKING: FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION'S ABUSE OF SCIENCE
(Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), July 2004) This report investigates several new incidents of abuse of science by the Bush administration that have occurred since February when the first UCS report was released in conjunction with a statement signed by 62 preeminent scientists that charged the Bush administration with rampant and unprecedented “manipulation of the process through which science enters into its decisions.” The new report illustrates cases where science has been censored, distorted, ignored or manipulated, including in the areas of mountaintop removal mining, endangered salmon, emergency contraception, NIH Drug Abuse Panel, and the President’s Council on Bioethics. According to UCS, concern in the scientific community continues to grow, with over 4000 scientists having signed onto the statement since the February report was released. Supporters include 48 Nobel laureates, 62 National Medal of Science recipients, and 127 members of the National Academy of Sciences, with representation from both Democratic and Republican political affiliations. The report is available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/global_environment/rsi/page.cfm?pageID=1449#Top

 

WE THE PEOPLES: CIVIL SOCIETY, THE UNITED NATIONS AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
(June 2004, UN General Assembly) This review of the relationship between the United Nations and civil society was prepared by the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations–Civil Society Relations appointed by Kofi Annan in February 2003 and chaired by Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former president of Brazil. The Panel stresses that “constructively engaging with civil society is a necessity for the United Nations, not an option.” Proposals include calls for: the General Assembly to include civil society organizations more regularly in its affairs and the use of public hearings, involving the full range of relevant constituencies, to review progress on agreed global goals; more systematic UN investment in convening and incubating multistakeholder partnerships; levelling the playing field between civil society organizations from the North and South; deepening the dialogue between the Security Council and civil society organizations; and joining all accreditation processes into a single mechanism under the authority of the General Assembly. The report can be viewed at: http://www.un-ngls.org/Final%20report%20-%20HLP.doc

Other links:

UN Press Briefing by Cardoso

http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs/2004/Cardoso062104.doc.htm

UN Wire story on release of the report, 22 June 2004

http://www.unwire.org/UNWire/20040622/449_25131.asp

 

UN GLOBAL COMPACT BOOKS (June 2004, Greenleaf Books)

Learning to Talk: Corporate Citizenship and the Development of the UN Global Compact: Edited by Malcolm McIntosh, Sandra Waddock and Georg Kell, with a foreword by Kofi Annan, this book reflects on the Global Compact’s aims and origins, offers some stories of engagement, and discusses how this initiative has become a reference point in the dialogue on global and corporate governance. The authors of the book’s 27 chapters range from academics to industry representatives, all seeking to take stock of some element of the Compact’s first few years. To order Learning to Talk or to view the ‘Foreword’ by Kofi Annan and the ‘Introduction’ by Malcolm McIntosh, Sandra Waddock and Georg Kell, visit: http://www.greenleaf-publishing.com/catalogue/lttalk.htm


Raising the Bar: Creating Value with the UN Global Compact: Edited by Claude Fussler, Aron Cramer, and Sebastian van der Vegt, this book provides a performance model grounded on the total quality management approach to assist businesses in putting the UN Global Compact into practice. Its 14 chapters collect and categorize corporate responsibility tools, good practice and case studies. To order Raising the Bar or to view chapters entitled ‘Why This Book Matters’ by Georg Kell, ‘The Global Compact: An Extraordinary Journey’ by John G. Ruggie and ‘The UN Global Compact: A Primer on the Principles’, visit:
http://www.greenleaf-publishing.com/catalogue/rtbar.htm

 

REALIZING THE PROMISE AND POTENTIAL OF AFRICAN AGRICULTURE: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA
(InterAcademy Council, June 2004) Launched recently at UN headquarters, this report underscores the need for comprehensive strategies across Africa to use science and technology in ways that boost agricultural production and ensure food security for all Africans. Prepared by the InterAcademy Council, this report was compiled in response to a request by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to identify how best to realize the promise and potential of agriculture in Africa. The report provides an overview of food security in Africa and a perspective of African agricultural production systems and productivity. It outlines potential science and technology options, and addresses the need to enhance impact-oriented research, knowledge and development institutions, and to create and retain a new generation of agricultural scientists. The report is available at: http://www.interacademycouncil.net/report.asp?id=6959

 

AFRICA NETWORKING: DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION, ICTS AND GOVERNANCE
(ECA and International Books, June 2004) This 272-page publication examines the relationship between good governance and development information, analyzing the potential benefits of improved technology in Africa’s development. It highlights the role that geo-information and ICT can play in effectively delivering services by governments and agencies. This publication seeks to contribute to preparations for the African Development Forum (ADF), which will be held from 11-15 October 2004 in Addis Ababa on the theme “Governance for a progressing Africa.” More information is available at: http://www.antenna.nl/~i-books/tit0528.html

 

GUNS OR GROWTH? ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF ARMS SALES ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(June 2004, Amnesty International, Oxfam, and IANSA) This report by Amnesty International, Oxfam and IANSA notes that “to protect the social and economic rights of people in developing countries, it is imperative that exporting governments apply an effective and systematic methodology to assess whether proposed arms transfers will affect sustainable development.” It goes on to suggest that three levels of analysis are necessary to develop an assessment methodology: arms sales of possible concern should be identified using triggers, such as “questions that consider the significance of the financial value of the transfer and/or arms deal, in combination with a consideration of the development situation of the importer country”; the development and human security status of importing countries should be mapped using indicators; and deeper context and deal-specific questions should be raised of arms procurement processes to make an arms-export judgment against key factors, including responsible governance, import rationale and importer capacity. The report can be accessed at: http://www.amnestyusa.org/arms_trade/gunsorgrowth.pdf