Go to IISD's website

IISD Reporting Services - Linkages
bringing you the latest news, information and analysis from
international environment and sustainable development negotiations

 

 Sustainable Development

 2005 review

 Biodiversity and Wildlife

 Chemicals Management

 Climate and Atmosphere

 Forests, Deserts, Land

 Human Development

 Intergovernmental Orgs

 Trade and Investment

 Water, Wetlands, Coasts

 

LINKAGES UPDATE


 Recent Meetings

  Media Reports

  Comings and Goings

  Upcoming Meetings

  Key publications and
online resources

  Links to other resources
 

  Return to Linkages Site

  IISD.org

 

 

 

KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2008

 

Human Development Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY IN PACIFIC ISLAND COUNTRIES

(FAO, SPREP, and University of the South Pacific, December 2008)
This report, jointly published by the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and the University of the South Pacific, notes that climate change-related disasters are accentuating the constraints on development in the islands, which appear to be in a ‘constant mode of recovery.’ The report calls on Pacific island countries to review their agriculture, forestry, fisheries and drinking water development policies, in light of new information on climate change. The report.

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2009: RESHAPING ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
(World Bank, November 2008)
This report is the flagship publication by the World Bank. This issue emphasizes that economic growth will be unbalanced, but development still can be inclusive. The report argues that the most effective policies for promoting long-term growth are those that facilitate geographic concentration and economic integration, both within and across countries. It proposes spatial transformations along three dimensions: density and rapid urban growth and concentration; distance and migration for economic opportunities; and division and integration of economies in world markets. The report.

BEYOND THE VILLAGE: THE TRANSITION FROM RURAL INVESTMENTS TO NATIONAL PLANS TO REACH THE MDGs – SUSTAINING AND SCALING UP THE MILLENNIUM VILLAGES – SYNTHESIS REPORT
(ODI, November 2008)
This review of the Millennium Village Project (MVP) analyzes the prospects for scaling up this initiative. The MVP aims to show how investments at village level can speed African progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. The MVP covers approximately half a million people in 80 villages across major agro-ecological zones in ten African countries. The project prioritizes integrated village investments focused in agriculture and nutrition, health, education, infrastructure and water, sanitation and environment over investments in rural-urban linkages and institutional reforms. The review.

ARE THE MDGs PRIORITY IN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND AID PROGRAMMES? ONLY FEW ARE!
(International Poverty Centre Publications, November 2008)
This working paper, written by Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, argues that, contrary to popular belief, numerous Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and aid programmes do not adequately address the MDGs, which leads to weak ‘ownership’ by developing country governments. The paper addresses the issue of ownership by analyzing 22 developing countries’ PRSPs and the policy framework of 21 bilateral programmes. The working paper.

SAFE WATER AS THE KEY TO GLOBAL HEALTH
(UNU-INWEH, November 2008)
This policy brief, by the UN University’s International Network on Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH), highlights that the provision of clean water and improved sanitation are the interventions most likely to have a significant impact on global poverty. The brief draws attention to the connection between safe water and human well-being. The brief.

DEVELOPING COUNTRY PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROLE OF THE DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION FORUM: BUILDING STRATEGIC APPROACHES TO ENHANCING MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
(South Centre, October 2008)

This resource follows-up on a study on stakeholder perspectives on the Development Cooperation Forum (DCF) prepared by the South Centre on reshaping the international development cooperation architecture, and perspectives on a strategic development role for the DCF. The note provides developing country perspectives on the DCF on the basis of four country papers prepared by research partners based in Brazil, China, India, and South Africa. The resource.

POVERTY IN A CHANGING CLIMATE
(Institute of Development Studies, November 2008)

This Bulletin, published by the Institute of Development Studies, focuses on how climate change has become a mainstream development issue. The publication links adaptation with a variety of insights and approaches from poverty and vulnerability to confront the challenges of climate change. It reframes the adaptation debate and puts forward a pro-poor adaptation agenda that acknowledges the differentiated and multidimensional nature of poverty for effective and equitable adaptation measures, looking at gender dimensions, microfinance, access to assets, impact on the urban poor, and the economic case of adaptation. The bulletin.

ACHIEVING ‘GREEN GROWTH’ IN A CARBON CONSTRAINED WORLD
(ODI, October 2008)

This note, written by Jodie Keane and Gareth Potts, assesses the options available to developing countries, referred to as “carbon constrained” due to binding emissions targets set under the Kyoto Protocol and to high oil prices. The authors discuss how ‘green growth’, economic growth with reduced or neutral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, can be promoted under the emissions reductions mechanisms included in the Kyoto Protocol.
The note.

THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(ODI, October 2008)

This brief, written by Dirk Willem te Velde, asks whether developing countries will be isolated from the global economic downturn. The author indicates that developing countries dependent on exports to crisis affected countries such as the US and EU will be affected, dependent on remittances and on foreign aid. The author notes that lower growth might translate into higher poverty, more crime, weaker health systems and even more difficulties meeting the Millennium Development Goals. The brief.

BEYOND TENURE: RIGHTS-BASED APPROACHES TO PEOPLES AND FORESTS
(Rights and Resources Initiative, October 2008)

Written by Marcus Colchester, and based on a review of 17 years of work with forest peoples in Africa, Asia and Latin America, this paper explores the complexity of rights that need recognition if community-based livelihoods in forests are to be secured and well-being is to be improved. The paper.

GENDER IN AGRICULTURE SOURCEBOOK
(World Bank, FAO and IFAD, October 2008)
This sourcebook, by the World Bank, FAO and IFAD, contains 30 detailed case studies and over 300 highlighted projects sharing gender mainstreaming knowledge on a range of development interventions in agriculture, from rural infrastructure to education. The sourcebook highlights the role of women as agricultural producers and agents of food and nutritional security. The report also provides evidence that continued gender inequalities lead to higher levels of poverty and food insecurity. The sourcebook.

SUSTAINING NATURAL INFRASTRUCTURE
(UNDP, October 2008)
This first issue of MDG Insights, a joint publication of the MDG Network and the UNDG MDG Policy Network, highlights that national governments often fail to invest in maintaining natural ecosystems as infrastructure needed for a functioning economy and society. The issue describes good practices on ecosystem investment in Malaysia, Russia and Niger, which contributed to sustaining livelihoods and poverty reduction. Insights.

CAN WE ACCURATELY PROJECT MDG INDICATORS?
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, October 2008)
This One Pager, written by Rafael G. Osorio, underlines that, in order to track the Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs) achievements by individual countries, projections of MDG indicators are necessary. However, as the author points out, a lack of data has led many to use simple linear projections to estimate progress over time, which is not a realistic assumption. The One Pager.

DIRECTORY OF RESEARCH CENTRES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, October 2008)
As part of its effort to build South-South cooperation on applied research and training on poverty and human development, the UNDP International Poverty Centre, in partnership with the UN Volunteers’ Online Volunteering Service, has expanded its directory of partner institutions doing research on poverty and development to include additional 400 centres in 27 countries in the Asia and the Pacific region. The online directory already encompassed 27 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and 38 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
The directory.

MDG GOOD PRACTICE: SCALING UP
(UNDP, September 2008)
This booklet was prepared for the High-Level Event on the MDGs. It reviews projects and programmes that governments and their partners have developed in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The booklet provides ten key messages to scale up the implementation of the MDGs by 2015, from poverty reduction, education and health, and environmental sustainability to partnership for development. The booklet.

REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD: BUILDING RESILIENCE – A HUMAN RIGHTS FRAMEWORK FOR WORLD FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY
(UN Human Rights Council, September 2008)
The report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter, is the first report of the Rapporteur since his appointment in March 2008. The report (A/63/278) was produced in response to resolution S-7/1, adopted by the Human Rights Council on 22 May 2008, which requested the Special Rapporteur to invite comments from States and other relevant actors on the impact of the global food crisis on the protection of the right to food and the required remedies from a human rights perspective. The report.

THE NEW GLOBAL POVERTY ESTIMATES: DIGGING DEEPER INTO A HOLE
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, September 2008)

This One Pager, written by Sanjay G. Reddy, focuses on the impact of the ‘updated’ global poverty estimates released by the World Bank, which adjust the poverty line benchmark to $1.25 per day. The author cautions that the new poverty line is too low to cover the purchasing of basic necessities, and that an individual above the poverty line might not be able to afford the basic nutritional requirements. The One Pager.

ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA
(UNEP and UNCTAD, October 2008)
This report, published by the Capacity-building Task Force on Trade, Environment and Development, discusses the many factors related to food security and the impact of organic agriculture on food security in Africa. The report analyzes fifteen cases from East Africa, which suggest that organic farming can increase productivity and enable small scale farmers to be more self-sufficient. The report.

ANNUAL REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS 2008 – SHARED GLOBAL CHALLENGES
(World Bank, October 2008)
This report focuses on assessing the World Bank’s development effectiveness, with attention to the provision of global public goods – including the global trading system, biodiversity conservation – and the issue of combating global public ‘bads’ – such as climate change and transborder contagion. The report notes that project performance has improved over the medium term and that country programmes that house a majority of the world’s poor have achieved some results, but there is a need to do more on areas where national interest is not clear. The report.

MAKING REDD WORK FOR THE POOR

(Poverty and Environment Initiative, October 2008)
This Policy Brief, based on the report “Making REDD Work for the Poor,” by Peskett et al (2008), is a synthesis of the social dimensions of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. It presents ten required conditions that will ensure that the implementation of REDD mechanisms yields benefits for the rural poor in developing countries. The Policy Brief.

MDG ON REDUCING BIODIVERSITY LOSS AND THE CBD’s 2010 TARGET
(UNU, September 2008)
This report, written by Balakrishna Pisupati and Renata Rubian, focuses on the critical link between the MDGs, in particular MDG 7 on environmental sustainability, and the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) 2010 target and indicators. The authors argue that the adoption of the 2010 biodiversity target as part of the MDG framework, as target 7b, is a recognition of the role that biodiversity plays in ensuring the livelihoods of the poor. However, the selection of indicators for monitoring progress under MDG 7, such as the proportion of terrestrial and marine protected areas and species threatened, is still limited vis-à-vis the options under the 2010 biodiversity target. The authors argue that indicators should be more flexibly applied and tested according to national requirements. The report.

BALI ACTION PLAN: KEY ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATIONS – SUMMARY FOR POLICY MAKERS
(UNDP, September 2008)
This summary, published by UNDP, comprises a brief background to the Bali Action Plan and summarizes six thematic background documents on mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer and deployment, financing, LULUCF, and national policies. The summary.

INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO PROMOTING WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT
(UNDP, September 2008)
This publication, prepared for the High-Level Event on MDGs, focuses on: women’s economic opportunity; women’s legal status and rights; and women’s voice and participation in economic decision-making. It concludes with a set of ‘key ingredients’ for success in various areas of MDGs. The publication.

DOLLAR A DAY REVISITED
(World Bank, May 2008)
The dollar-a-day measure of poverty was first proposed in 1990. This paper, written by M. Ravallion, S. Chen, and P. Sangraula, presents the original authors’ first major update of this poverty measurement. It revisits the challenges of setting an international poverty line in the light of new data availabilities, and presents: a simple model of a socially subjective poverty line; a new compilation of national poverty lines across countries; an updated international poverty line of $1.25 a day; a comparison of new international poverty lines to past lines - both absolute and relative; and a discussion on how results change when poverty lines are adjusted to reflect the purchasing power of various groups. The paper.

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008
(UN, September 2008)
This report summarizes progress toward the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) across the UN regions. The assessment is based on data available as of June 2008 on all official MDG indicators, including new ones on decent work for all, universal access to reproductive health and treatment for HIV/AIDS, and to reduce biodiversity loss by 2010. The report.

PROGRESS OF THE WORLD’S WOMEN 2008/2009: WHO ANSWERS TO WOMEN? GENDER AND ACCOUNTABILITY
(UNIFEM, September 2008)
This report argues that realizing women’s rights and achieving the Millennium Development Goals depends on strengthening accountability for commitments to women and gender equality. The report finds  that women’s empowerment and gender equality are drivers for reducing poverty, building food security, reducing maternal mortality, safeguarding the environment, and enhancing the effectiveness of aid. The report.

ACHIEVING THE MDGs: THE FUNDAMENTALS
(ODI, September 2008)
This brief, written by Andrew Shepherd, highlights that targets related to water and sanitation and maternal health under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) framework are likely to be missed. The brief emphasizes the need for a renewed focus on the most vulnerable and excluded, including fragile states, and calls for a new MDG target on social protection, given the increased vulnerability of the poor, especially the bottom 20%, vis-à-vis global market shocks and climate change. The brief.

RISING FOOD PRICES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT, DECENT WORK AND POVERTY REDUCTION
(ILO, September 2008)

This working paper, published by the International Labour Organization (ILO), discusses the implications of the global food crisis on efforts to attain the Millennium Development Goals, in particular to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and achieve decent work for all. The paper analyzes the impact of food prices on the poor and offers policy recommendations. The
working paper.

GREEN JOBS: TOWARDS DECENT WORK IN A SUSTAINABLE, LOW-CARBON WORLD
(ILO, UNEP, ITUC and International Organisation of Employers, September 2008)

This report suggests that efforts to address climate change could create millions of new jobs, and finds that changing patterns of employment and investment resulting from efforts to reduce climate change and its effects are already generating new jobs in many sectors and economies, in developed and developing countries. Focusing on “green jobs” in agriculture, industry, services and administration, the report also highlights the risks inherent in climate change for the working poor and the vulnerable. The report.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA 2008
(UNCTAD, September 2008)
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), indicates that, despite of removal of trade barriers and two decades of trade liberalization, Africa’s market share has falled from 6% of world exports in 1980 to about 3% in 2007. The report notes that Africa’s inability to produce quantity and quality to meet the demands of the global market has been affected by the lack of: a well-trained workforce; investments in research and development skills; investments and banking services; and adequate infrastructure, such as reliable electricity and transportation. The report.

THE MDGs HUMANITARIAN-DEVELOPMENT DIVIDE
(ODI, September 2008)
This brief, written by James Darcy, questions how the inter­national humanitarian agenda relates to the broader development agenda and specifically to the MDG agenda. It argues that the MDG blueprint is inadequate to address the problem of the most vulnerable and impoverished countries in the world, which includes ‘fragile states’ affected by chronic insecurity, political instability and institutional weakness. It calls for greater focus on humanitarian issues and the need to further localize the MDGs to fragile state environment. The brief.

MDGs AND THE ENVIRONMENT: ARE ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTIONS ‘FIT FOR PURPOSE’?
(ODI, September 2008)
This brief, written by Neil Bird, focuses on the role of national government administration and international institutions in delivering environmental goals such as the one described under MDG 7. The author questions whether government institutions are fit for this purpose, and indicates that many environmental agencies lack clarity in their missions and mandates, and adequate funding. On international institutions, the author notes that the Global Environment Facility, the main financial mechanism of environmental treaties, is centered on project delivery modalities. He indicates the need for further action to secure environmental sustainability. The brief.

GENDER AND THE MDGs
(ODI, September 2008)
This paper, written by Nicola Jones, Rebecca Holmes and Jessica Espey, emphasizes that a broader gender approach going beyond MDGs 3 and 5 is necessary, while recognizing that gender dynamics of power, poverty and vulnerability impact all the MDGs. The authors look at the impact of gender on poverty and sustainable development, service access, care and care-giving, and voice and agency. The paper puts forward a set of proposals to promote gender sensitive social protection policies. The paper.

SANITATION AND THE MDGs: MAKING THE POLITICS WORK
(ODI, September 2008)
The brief, written by Peter Newborne, investigates why progress on the sanitation target is so slow, as reflected in the 2008 Joint Monitoring Programme Report. The author indicates that the world will not achieve the MDG sanitation target by 2015 and will miss the target by 700 million people. To put the MDG sanitation target back on track, renewed political will is needed to prioritize sanitation issues. The brief.

GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS: MONITORING AND ASSESSING IMPACT TO INFORM  POLICY RESPONSES
(IFPRI, 2008)
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has released an advance copy of this report, which seeks to support national decision makers and international development agencies in acquiring information and applying methods for understanding the likely effects of a global food crisis on their country, and acting to alleviate the risks and exploit the opportunities brought about by such crises. The report provides insight on the information and analytical tools that national-level decision makers need to assess the risks and opportunities posed to their country and citizens by a global food crisis, to determine how they might respond to those risks and opportunities, and to identify ways to monitor the impact of the food crisis and the effects of policy responses. The report.

BUILDING RESILIENCE: A HUMAN RIGHTS FRAMEWORK FOR WORLD FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY
(Human Rights Council, 2008)

This report follows the May 2008 request of the Human Rights Council for the Special Rapporteur to invite comments from States and other relevant actors on the impact of the global food crisis on the protection of the right to food and the required remedies from a human rights perspective. The report calls on the Human Rights Council to, among other actions: contribute to the discussion of a global partnership for agriculture and food, ensuring that it includes attention to human rights dimensions; encourage national strategies to realize the right to food; and encourage an international consensus on agrofuels that avoids negative impacts on food prices and ensures that their production respects the full range of human rights. The
report.

POLITICAL SCIENCE? STRENGTHENING SCIENCE–POLICY DIALOGUE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(ODI, August 2008)
This report, authored by Nicola Jones, Harry Jones and Cora Walsh for the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), examines the science–policy interface in developing countries through a survey of 600 respondents from researcher, policy-maker and intermediary organization communities from the North and South. The study identifies a need to tackle systemic barriers to institutionalizing evidence-informed policy processes in the field of science, technology and innovation for development, and identifies ways in which the quality of policy dialogues on science and technology could be strengthened to enhance their value for pro-poor sustainable development policy and practice. The report.

UNDP ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY
(UNDP, August 2008)
This report argues that environment and energy are central to the core UN Development Programme (UNDP) mission of poverty reduction, and makes recommendations about how to improve UNDP environmental programming. The report.

AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT NEEDS: STATE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF VARIOUS COMMITMENTS, CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARD
(UN Secretariat, July 2008)
This report takes stock of Africa’s development needs and identifies actions necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The report presents: Africa’s development needs and challenges within the present global, regional and national contexts; commitments made by African countries and the international community to address these challenges; and recommendations that could positively impact African countries’ development. The report.

UNDP ANNUAL REPORT 2008
(UNDP, July 2008)
The UN Development Programme’s 2008 report, entitled “Capacity Development - Empowering People and Institutions,” highlights UNDP’s achievements in helping countries to improve the lives of their citizens and strengthen national institutions.The report indicates that UNDP is working with its UN system partners to make a contribution through its dual role as manager of the Resident Coordinator system and development actor working to provide programme support and technical and policy advice to national partners. The report.

WHAT DO WE MEAN BY FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY?
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, July 2008)

This One pager, writte by by Marcelo Medeiros and Joana Costa,  
defines feminization of poverty as a change in poverty levels that is biased against women or female-headed households. The authors argue that this definition provides a simple but effective tool for conducting policy analysis. The One pager.

CLIMATE RESILIENT CITIES
(UN/ISDR, World Bank and GFDRR, June 2008)
This report, published jointly by the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, World Bank and Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, provides a tool for city governments in the East Asia Region to better understand how to plan for climate change impacts and impending natural disasters through sound urban planning to reduce vulnerabilities. The main focus of the tool is to identify vulnerable and at-risk-areas. The report.

MILLENNIUM VILLAGES HANDBOOK: A PRACTITIONER’S GUIDE TO THE MILLENNIUM VILLAGES APPROACH
(Earth Institute and Millennium Promise, June 2008)
This handbook, edited by Bronwen Konecky and Cheryl Palm, focuses on the steps required to set up Millennium Villages across impoverished rural areas in Africa. The idea is to scale up interventions to villages and districts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, based on implementing decentralized, multi-dimensional investment programs spanning agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure in rural communities. The handbook.

THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES REPORT 2008: GROWTH, POVERTY AND THE TERMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP
(UNCTAD, July 2008)

This report
addresses the issue of how LDCs can progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including poverty reduction targets, while the global economic outlook worsens. It argues that the development model LDCs have been pursuing is neither sustainable nor inclusive, and that aid will not work if it is linked to the wrong development model. The report.

WORLD RESOURCES 2008: ROOTS OF RESILIENCE – GROWING THE WEALTH OF THE POOR
(World Resources Institute, July 2008)

This report, produced collaboratively by UNDP, UNEP, the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute, looks at the overlap between ecosystems and poverty. The report argues that properly designed enterprises can create economic, social and environmental resilience that cushion the impacts of climate change, and help provide needed social stability. It suggests that efforts that foster resilience chart the first steps on the path out of poverty. The report.

WORLD ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SURVEY 2008: OVERCOMING ECONOMIC INSECURITY
(UNDESA, July 2008)
This annual report, produced by the UN Department of Economic and Scocial Affairs (UNDESA),  focuses on issues that impact economic security, including macroeconomic and financial shocks, natural disasters, conflict and poverty. The report notes that current global economic insecurity prevails despite strong growth in recent years and a decline in economic volatility. The report.

SAFETY NET: PROTECTED AREAS AND POVERTY REDUCTION
(WWF, 2008)
This report, written by N. Dudley, S. Mansourian, S. Stolton, and S. Suksuwan, looks at the role of protected areas in poverty reduction, focusing primarily on the poorest countries and on poor communities. Case studies are from Argentina, Finland, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Poland and Tanzania. The report concludes that: there is an evolution of approaches to integrating the needs of people and nature in protected areas; monitoring is critical; and good examples of effective protected area management combined with poverty reduction strategies need to be studied and replicated. The report.

FOCUS ON …A GREEN REVOLUTION FOR AFRICA
(New Agriculturist, July 2008)
This edition of New Agriculturist reviews different approaches with a potential for raising agricultural productivity in Africa. The articles highlight that achieving an African green revolution will be harder and more complex than the green revolution in Asia and a one-size-fits-all approach will not work. They stress that technology alone will also not provide the answers, and present a range of case studies of how innovative approaches can help to increase agricultural production. The issue.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A ROUGH GUIDE
(International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2008)
This report discusses human rights concerns raised by anthropogenic climate change and by the strategies devised to address it. It indicates areas where climate change will have direct and indirect human rights impacts, and where human rights principles might sharpen policy-making on climate change, including in the two core policy areas of adaptation and mitigation. The report also assesses the adequacy of human rights conceptions and processes to the larger justice concerns climate change raises. The report.

TARIFF HIKES WITH LOW INVESTMENT: THE STORY OF THE URBAN WATER SECTOR IN ZAMBIA
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, June 2008)
This one-pager, written by Hulya Dagdeviren and Degol Hailu, discusses why Zambia is unlikely to meet the MDG on water. Main bottlenecks include unaffordable tariffs, low investments in infrastructure, and failure of privatization schemes. The authors indicate that the proportion of the population in Zambia with access to safe drinking water declined from 72% in 1992 to 57% in 2002. The one pager.

DEATH AND TAXES: THE TRUE TOLL OF TAX DODGING 
(Christian Aid, May 2008)

This report outlines the links between sustainable wildlife trade, which is estimated at US$300 billion, and the Millennium Development Goals. The report argues that developing countries could collect the money needed to reach the MDGs if illegal, trade-related tax evasion were halted. The report proposes solutions to enhance the contribution of wildlife trade management to sustainable livelihoods to achieving the MDGs, including more attention to biodiversity governance to enhance land tenure and recognition of the link between consumer demand and unsustainable production. The report

HIGH-LEVEL TASK FORCE ON THE GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS: COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION
(UN Chief Executives Board, July 2008)

This framework sets out the joint position of the UN Secretary-General’s High-Level Task Force on actions to: address current threats and opportunities resulting from rising food prices; create policy changes to avoid future food crises; and contribute to country, regional and global food and nutritional security. The actions proposed seek to meet the immediate needs of vulnerable populations and to build long-term resilience to food and nutrition security. The
report.

INVESTING IN AGRICULTURE TO OVERCOME THE WORLD FOOD CRISIS AND REDUCE POVERTY AND HUNGER
(IFPRI, June 2008)
This International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) report, authored by Shenggen Fan and Mark W. Rosegrant, notes that investing in agriculture is key to reducing poverty and hunger in developing countries and is an essential element in addressing the current food price crisis. Yet, although numerous studies have attempted to estimate the costs involved in achieving MDG1, none includes agricultural growth requirements or quantifies the public resources needed to support that growth. The required growth and financial resources vary based on past progress in poverty reduction and the role of agriculture in the overall economy. IFPRI’s analyses address some of these gaps by simulating required total and incremental agricultural spending using two different approaches: (1) Public investment requirements based on alternative scenario simulations. (2) Public investment requirements based on growth-poverty elasticities. The report.

 

ACHIEVING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN AFRICA
(UN and the African Union, June 2008)

This report summarizes the recommendations of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Africa Steering Group. It calls for a “Green Revolution,” aid predictability, and an effort to “climate proof” efforts to meet the MDGs. The report.

 

creating value for all: strategies for Doing Business with the Poor

(UNDP, July 2008)

This report offers strategies and tools for companies to expand beyond traditional business practices and bring in the world’s poor as partners in growth and wealth creation. The report draws on case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of more inclusive business models for human progress and for wealth creation. The report.

Indigenous routes: a framework for understanding indigenous migration
(IOM, July 2008)
This paper examines the causes that lead to indigenous peoples’ migration, going beyond customary seasonal and cultural movements of particular groups, including moving to more economically developed centres to seek opportunities and displacement by force. The paper focuses on internal and international migration of indigenous peoples, transborder indigenous migration, migration effects on indigenous peoples and indigenous migrants’ lives. The paper.

Gender and natural resource management: livelihoods, mobility and interventions
(International Development Research Centre, 2008)

This book, edited by P. Resurreccion and R. Elmhirst, examines the gender dimensions of natural resource exploitation and management in Asia vis-à-vis decentralized governance, poverty reduction, and the mainstreaming of gender. Case studies are drawn from Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam. The book focuses on how gender and development approaches are seen in a changing global context. The book.

Do small farmers hold the answer to the global food crisis?
(Vía Campesina, 2008)

This article provides an account of how, over the last 25 years, global institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and more recently the World Trade Organization, have forced countries to decrease investment in food production and to reduce support for peasants and small farmers. The article notes that the same period has seen decreasing funding for agriculture by international aid donors. The article recommends that developing countries give priority in their budget to support the poorest consumers so that they have access to sufficient food; prioritize domestic food production and become less dependent on the world market; diversify production systems that are not exclusively focused on crops such as corn, soya, rice and wheat, but that integrate local foods. The article.

Climate change and the fate of the Amazon
(Royal Society, 2008)
This journal issue, edited by Yadvinder Malhi, Richard Betts and Timmons Roberts, is a compilation of twenty seven articles focusing on the interactions, impacts and effects of the changing climate on the Amazon region. The articles cover issues such as perspectives on ecosystems and social sciences, interactions between land use, forests and climate, biofuels and eco-social impacts, global warming, drought, deforestation and the precipitation index, paying the people for environmental services in Amazonia, environmental governance, and addressing human dimensions of environmental change. The journal issue.

China in Africa policy briefing: China's environmental footprint in Africa
(South African Institute of International Affairs, April 2008)
This policy brief, written by P. Bosshard, focuses on China’s economic presence and environmental footprint in Africa. The author discusses areas of concern including Chinese investments and infrastructure development in environmentally sensitive areas;
China’s domestic policies that tend to prioritize economic growth over the protection of the environment; Chinese investors, financiers and equipment suppliers that have not adopted international standards; and Western concerns over Chinese rapid economic growth, which add pressure on the world’s natural resources. The policy brief.

ASIA PACIFIC HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008: TACKLING CORRUPTION, TRANSFORMING LIVES

(UNDP, June 2008)

This Asia Pacific Human Development Report on corruption argues that low-level, pervasive corruption is a major burden on the region’s poor, and highlights ways in which communities fight the problem. The report also dedicates one chapter to the issue of corruption in natural resources, with an emphasis on illegal logging and how it impairs the livelihoods of the poor. The report.

 

INNOVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: LOCAL CASE STUDIES FROM AFRICA

(UNDESA, June 2008)

This report sheds light on how innovative solutions have arisen at the local level to address sustainable development challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. The report describes projects for the enhancement of agriculture and fisheries, water management, protection of ecosystems, health improvement, and sustainable tourism in various African countries. The report.

 

Food, Agriculture & Decent Work

(ILO and FAO, June 2008)

This website describes the joint work of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) with regard to decent employment, child labor, youth employment, cooperatives, small and medium enterprises, rural workers, safety and health, crisis management, crops, fisheries and forestry, and labor statistics. The website.

 

ADDRESSING THE GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS

(UNCTAD, June 2008)

This report, focusing on the global food crisis, investigates the role of trade, investment and commodity policies in ensuring sustainable food security and alleviating poverty. The report looks at the causes of the crisis and proposes long-term solutions. The report.

 

KICK THE HABIT: A UN Guide to Climate Neutrality

(UNEP, June 2008)

This guide, published by the United Nations Environment Programme, provides an overview of issues related to climate change, major actors, and strategies to mitigate climate change. The guide defines technical terms, and provides an integrated glossary of key climate change concepts. The guide.

Turning high prices into an opportunity: what is needed?
(WTO Watch Trade Observatory and IATP, April 2008)
This paper, written by A. L. Constantin, argues that high food prices are likely to remain high and volatile. The paper notes that is a development opportunity as it might increase incomes and reduce poverty. In the short term, however, import expenses are rising while inefficient agricultural sectors prevent poor countries from benefiting from high prices. The paper stresses that at the national level, the governments’ ability to support agricultural production has been significantly reduced through structural adjustment programmes and international trade agreements. The paper

Poverty and environment indicators
(University of Cambridge, March 2008)
This report aims to explain the development of poverty and environment indicators to enable to use indicators to mainstream environment into poverty reduction strategies. The document targets policy-makers working with poverty and environment issues in Africa. The report notes that human development can be promoted with moderate increases in countries’ ecological footprint and proposes a new methodology that enables the development of indicators to be relational, objective and multidimensional. The report.

CHALLENGES TO MANAGING ECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABLY FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION: SECURING WELL-BEING IN THE ANDES/AMAZON
(Iniciativa Amazônica, WWF, King’s College London, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, The Nature Conservancy, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, May 2008)
As part of the Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation Programme, this report is a “situation analysis” of ecosystem services and poverty in the Amazon basin and the eastern Andean slopes. It focuses on, inter alia, the benefits that local populations derive from using ecosystem services, and options to manage ecosystem provision in ways that also prevent or help to alleviate poverty. The report.

ENVIRONMENT & POVERTY TIMES
(UNEP GRID Arendal, May 2008)
This edition of Environment & Poverty Times, released during the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV), focuses on the links between environment and poverty reduction. Articles focus on, among other themes, the wealth buried in natural capital, rural communities as environmental stewards and the politics of natural resource use. The newsletter.

Commission on the Status of Women: Report ON THE FIFTY-SECOND SESSION

(UN ECOSOC, May 2008)

The report of the 52nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) includes the agreed conclusions on financing gender equality and the empowerment of women, and draft resolutions and decisions for adoption by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The report (E/2008/27-E/CN.6/2008/11).

 

UNAIDS policy brief on food security

(UNAIDS, WFP, and WHO, May 2008)

This policy brief on HIV, food security and nutrition - developed by the joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the World Health Organization (WHO) -  focuses on how food insecurity and poor nutrition can accelerate the progression of AIDS related illnesses. The policy brief concludes that people living with HIV have a reduced capacity to secure work and to provide adequate food for their families, exacerbating poverty. The brief provides policy guidance for governments, civil society and other partners on how to address food and nutrition concerns in the context of HIV. The short version and expanded version.

STRENGTHENING ENGAGEMENT WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS MACHINERY
(UNDP, May 2008)

This guide, written primarily for the non-human rights expert, provides guidance on how to strengthen engagement with the international human rights machinery, specifically with UN Treaty Bodies and UN Special Procedures. It is divided into two principal sections: UN Treaty Bodies and UN Special Procedures. Each section includes case studies illustrating best practices; practitioner checklists; specific suggestions for practitioners; and FAQs. The
web-based Guide.

Women – Energy - Climate Theme: Global Influence and Local Efforts
(International Network for Sustainable Energy, May 2008)

This newsletter focuses on women, climate change and energy, ranging from
underrepresentation of women in decision-making, to concerns about environmental risks and women’s interests in sustainable solutions and energy, to regulations used to increase gender balance in society, such as gender quotas for educational institutes and the work place. The newsletter. 

Biofuel and global biodiversity
(Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, April 2008)

This paper, written by D. Keeney and C. Nanninga, analyzes how biofuels are changing land-use patterns in many regions around the world. The paper suggests that the impacts of biofuels are more symptomatic of inappropriate agricultural production systems and policies, and recommends protecting native ecosystems and indigenous lands, making sustainability a priority for all biofuel production, and taking advantage of this opportunity to redesign the agricultural and energy sectors. The paper

Helping people build a better world? Barriers to more environmentally friendly energy production in China
(Fridtjof Nansen Institute, March 2008)
This report, written by Inga F. Buan, analyzes the changes in the Shell Group since the 1990s, when energy companies started their greening processes due to environmental legislation, civil society pressure and media scrutiny. The report suggests that the role of the state, short-term economic perspectives, and conflicts of interest are the main barriers to adopting more environmentally-friendly energy production in the case of Shell China. The report.

DOWNSIZING DEVELOPMENT: AN INTRODUCTION TO NANO-SCALE TECHNOLOGIES AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GLOBAL SOUTH
(NGLS/ETC Group, May 2008)

This new book considers the potential role of nano-scale technologies on development and the Millennium Development Goals. Commissioned by the UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS), the book considers the rapid growth of the nanotechnology market, which is expected to reach US$1 trillion in size by 2015. The book considers the absence of a regulatory environment and the need for serious research into the long-term impact of nanotechnologies, particularly for the developing world. The book was launched at a panel discussion held as UN headquarters on 14 May, in parallel with the 16th session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. The book.

Alternatives for Projecting MDG Indicators
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, April 2008)

This paper, written by
Rafael Guerreiro Osorio, introduces techniques to project the behavior of indicators to monitor the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. However, the author notes that scarcities of data and technical skills make this exercise difficult. The paper.

Stepping up the ladder: how business can help achieve the MDGs
(ODI, April 2008)
This brief, written by Simon Maxwell, argues that, in 2008, the private sector will be put on the spot to contribute toward poverty reduction and sustainable livelihoods. The author indicates four steps to engage business efforts to reach the MDGs: business engagement with communities; better corporate social responsibility policies; benefit the poor in the supply chain; and involve business in global public policy. The brief.

Mitigating climate change: what impact on the poor?
(ODI, April 2008)

This brief, written by Martin Prowse and Leo Peskett, argues that policies to mitigate the effects of climate change might have unintended negative effects on the poor in the short-term. Focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa, as the region that is lagging farthest behind in achieving MDG 1 on poverty reduction, the brief evaluates four mitigation strat­egies and their possible impacts on the poor: environmental labeling; green growth strate­gies; biofuel production and food prices; and forest protection. The brief.

Energy Security and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific
(UNESCAP, April 2008)
This report notes that energy security and sustainable development are high in the global agenda due to: the impact of volatile energy prices; high demand for energy security; and concerns over environmental sustainability and the global climate. The report notes that, in Asia and the Pacific, about 1.7 billion people still rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating, and almost 1 billion lack electricity. This leads to socio-economic costs, imposing a heavy burden on women’s time, with implications for the achievement of the MDGs. The report.

Measuring the impact of business on development
(ODI, April 2008)
This brief, written by Caroline Ashley, aims to understand how to measure the impact of business on development and the gain from the adoption of more inclusive business practices. The brief indicates that more work is needed to adequately quantify the impact on the poor from value chain and corporate investments. The brief.

Rising food prices: A global crisis

(ODI, April 2008)
This paper, written by Steve Wiggins and Stephanie Levy, examines the cause of rising food prices and expected trends. The authors note that, on the supply side, rising oil prices have led to increases in costs for fertilizers, machine operations and transport. Oil prices have also pushed for biofuels production, adding pressure on grain commodities. On the demand side, India’s and China’s growing consumption of meat and dairy products has led to increased feeding of grains to livestock. These pressures have had an impact on food security, particularly for the poor. The paper.

 

Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures 2008

(UNCTAD, April 2008)
This second report on facts and figures, launched by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), provides a synopsis of UNCTAD’s independent research in the areas of trade and development, and related issues in the fields of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. The report.

RISING FOOD PRICES: DRIVERS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT
(Chatham House, 2008)
This paper, authored by Alex Evans, suggests that a revolution in agriculture will be needed to meet a projected 50% increase in demand for food by 2030. The paper argues that immediate action on humanitarian assistance needs to be matched by a sustained effort to invest in shared awareness between policymakers of what needs to be done to achieve “the feeding of the ten billion.” The paper.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND URBAN CHILDREN: IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADAPTATION
(IIED, April 2008)

This paper discusses the probable impacts for children from the increasing risk of storms, flooding, landslides, heat waves, drought and water supply constraints that climate change is likely to bring to most urban centers in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It also explores the implications for adaptation, focusing on preparedness as well as responses to extreme events and to changes in weather patterns. The paper.

LAND REFORM AND RURAL TERRITORIES: EXPERIENCES FROM BRAZIL AND SOUTH AFRICA
(IIED, 2008)

This paper suggests a new approach to land reform and rural development to combat inequitable land distribution and rural poverty. “Rural territorial development” (RTD) is based on and encourages shared territorial identity (distinctive productive, historical, cultural and environmental features) among different stakeholders and social groupings. The paper.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REPORT FOR AFRICA
(UNECA, May 2008)
The report provides a Five-Year Review of the Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development Outcomes in Africa. It reflects on the relationship between poverty reduction and global security, and places the achievement of the MDGs as a priority for international efforts to reduce conflict and terrorism. The report advocates interlinkages between social, economic and political dynamics. The report.

A Future Within Reach 2008: Regional Partnerships for the Millennium Development Goals in Asia and the Pacific
(UNESCAP, April 2008)
The report, the third in a regional series in Asia and Pacific, assesses the prospects of reaching the Millennium Development Goals and targets, identifying potential gaps and how they can be addressed. It looks at the potential for ‘delivering as one’ through broader partnerships between the wide United Nations system, other international organizations, and national initiatives. The report.

Delivering as one: Asia-Pacific Regional MDG Road Map 2008-2015

(UNESCAP, April 2008)
The MDG Road Map, published by UNESCAP and in partnership with the wide UN system, aims to provide a framework for “delivering as one” with focus on regional partnerships. The report emphasizes the value added of national development strategies, lessons learned from countries’ successful experiences which can be studied and disseminated to assist countries in scaling up the achieving of MDGs. The report.

Implications of higher global food prices for poverty in low-income countries

(World Bank, April 2008)

The paper, written by Maros Ivanic and Will Martin, notes that results using household data on nine low-income countries show that short-run impacts of higher staple food prices on poverty differ considerably by commodity and by country. The paper indicates that poverty increases are more frequent than poverty reductions in low-income countries. The paper.

Gender and Equity Issues in Liquid Biofuels Production - Minimizing the Risks to Maximize the Opportunities
(FAO, April 2008)
The paper, written by A. Rossi and Y. Lambrou, discusses the potential gender-differentiated risks of large-scale liquid biofuels’ production in developing countries on food security, and provides policy strategies to address these risks. It also discusses the potential impacts of biofuels’ production on the resilience of rural communities and individuals to climate change. The paper

Capacity Development for MDG ATTAINMENT
(Africa 2000 Network, March 2008)
This issue of the Tumaini (The Hope) Newsletter focus on capacity development for MDG attainment. It highlights strategies and experiences in addressing capacity development needs of communities in the various countries where Africa 2000 Network is operational. The newsletter notes that ownership is one of the elements for success in the attainment of MDGs, coupled with the local population’s realization that MDGs are a relevant framework to their own contexts. The issue.

Hit or miss? Women’s rights and the Millennium Development Goals
(Action Aid, March 2008)
The report argues that promises made by the world’s governments to address poverty are failing to meet the Millennium Development Goals because the basic rights of women in developing countries are often neglected. The report.

UNDERFED, UNDERPAID AND OVERLOOKED: WOMEN, THE KEY TO FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH ASIA
(IIED, 2008)

This paper asserts that, without addressing the widespread discrimination faced by women in the Southeast Asia region, endemic pockets of hunger and malnutrition are unlikely to disappear. It identifies actions that could help women in their struggle to secure adequate food for their families. The paper.

REPORT ON THE FORTY-SIXTH SESSION - UN COMMISSION FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
(UN ECOSOC, April 2008)

This report on the forty-sixth session of the Commission for Social Development, held in February 2008, reviews participants’ deliberations on promoting full employment and decent work for all, and their review of relevant UN plans and programmes of action pertaining to the situation of social groups. The report.

INDIGENOUS AND TRADITIONAL PEOPLES AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(IUCN, March 2008)
This study seeks to better understand the potential impacts of climate change on the livelihoods and cultures of indigenous and traditional communities, and develops related recommendations, including: formulate policies that actively involve indigenous and traditional communities in the international, regional and local climate change discourse; recognize and actively promote indigenous adaptation strategies; and monitor the implications of mitigation efforts including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation in Developing countries (REDD) on indigenous and traditional peoples. The report.

GENERATING CARBON FINANCE THROUGH AVOIDED DEFORESTATION AND ITS POTENTIAL TO CREATE CLIMATIC, CONSERVATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS
(Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, February 2008
, Vol. 363, pp. 1917–1924)
In this article, Johannes Ebeling of EcoSecurities and Maï Yasué of the University of British Columbia consider recent proposals to compensate developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) as part of a future climate change mitigation agreement. The authors argue that, if credits for such actions were traded on the carbon market, “even moderate decreases in deforestation could generate billions of Euros annual for tropical forest conservation.” They consider the challenges in establishing a framework for rewarding reduced emissions from deforestation, including issues of “additionality” and going beyond business-as-usual, carbon leakage, and other governance-related issues. The article.

Mobilizing Talent for Global Developments
(UNU-WIDER, April 2008)

This study, written by Andrés Solimano, calls for a renewed perspective on the impact of brain drain in developing countries. The study indicates that talent mobility can bring benefits both to host and source countries by citing examples in the high-tech industry in Bolivia and India. However, the study cautions that the emigration of health practitioners from Africa, Caribbean and Asia will continue to hurt those countries.
The policy brief.

Accra 2008: The bumpy road to aid effectiveness in agriculture  
(ODI, April 2008)
This issue is part of the Overseas Development Institute’s (ODI) Natural Resource Perspective series. It is written by Lídia Cabral and focuses on the principles of the Paris Declaration to improve the effectiveness of aid. The author argues that, although the principles are sound, they are not adaptable to challenges faced by different development sectors such as agriculture. The paper sets out areas requiring focused attention in the run-up to Accra 2008. The brief.  

Community forestry in the Amazon: The unsolved challenge of forests and the poor
(ODI, April 2008)

This Overseas Development Institute (ODI) brief, written by Benno Pokorny and James Johnson, analyses community forestry experiences in
Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Brazil. The authors argue that considerable external resources are needed to overcome the technical, legal and financial barriers inherent in the current community forestry framework in order to combine forest conservation with rural development and poverty reduction. The brief

Export competitiveness and development in LDCs: policies, issues and priorities for least developed countries for action during and beyond UNCTAD XII

(UNCTAD, April 2008)
This UNCTAD report aims to assist least developed countries (LDCs) during the preparatory process for UNCTAD XII (20-25 April 2008, Accra, Ghana). The report agues that there is considerable scope for many LDCs to join the group of successful exporters, particularly in the field of traditional exports such as oil, copper, coffee, cocoa and groundnuts. The report.

GLOBAL MONITORING REPORT 2008: MDGS AND THE ENVIRONMENT – AGENDA FOR INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(IMF and World Bank, 2008)
This joint report prepared by the World Bank and IMF contains two main parts: monitoring the MDGs and a special focus on climate change. The report monitors both achievement of goals and policies, and it proposes a policy agenda to expedite progress toward the MDGs and to ensure their sustainability. It asserts that, for developing countries, the best way to reduce their vulnerability to the impact of climate change is to diversify their economies, strengthen infrastructure, and develop health systems. The report.

RECOGNIZING THE ACHIEVEMENTS, ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES AND GETTING BACK ON TRACK TO ACHIEVE THE MDGs BY 2015
(UNGA, April 2008)
This paper evaluates progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. It was prepared as a background paper for the UN General Assembly (UNGA) thematic debate on the MDGs, and indicates that rapid economic growth, particularly in Asia, has led to the creation of new jobs, but the widening gap between rich and the poor persists. The paper notes that the Agricultural Green Revolution in Asia and Latin America countries has led to declines in poverty and hunger, while increases in subsidized agricultural inputs such as land and fertilizers are needed in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper also notes that high food commodities prices create a challenge for developing countries, and it assesses the impact of climate change on hunger and poverty. The background paper.

Africa and the Monterrey Consensus: Tracking Performance and Progress
(UNECA and theAfrican Union, April 2008)
This Economic Report on Africa 2008, produced jointly by the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and the African Union, focuses on the implementation of the 2002 Monterrey Consensus. The report finds that, while some progress has been achieved on debt relief, mobilization of domestic and international resources needs to be boosted in order to achieve development goals. The report notes that inadequate public infrastructure, such as unreliable energy supply and transportation networks, continue to limit economic growth. The report.

Strengthening Efforts to Eradicate Poverty and Hunger - Dialogues at the Economic and Social Council

(UN ECOSOC, March 2008)

This book provides an overview of the key debates on poverty and hunger that took place during the 2007 ECOSOC High-level Segment, Annual Ministerial Review and Development Cooperation Forum. It draws five lessons from experiences in Bangladesh, Barbados, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Ethiopia and Ghana in implementing policies towards the MDGs. It concludes that national development strategies are not working at the pace required; the global partnership should be made more effective; the global economic environment should be pro-development and pro-poor; monitoring the implementation of commitments and accountability need to be strengthened; and emerging threats such as climate change and desertification should be addressed. The book.  

MDG REPORTS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES: A DESK REVIEW
(UNFPII, February 2008)

This desk review analyzes recent achievements and challenges of indigenous peoples by examining available data contained in the MDG Reports of Guyana, Kenya, Myanmar, Nepal, Russian Federation, South Africa, Suriname, Thailand, Vietnam and Zimbabwe. The study addresses whether indigenous peoples are taken into account in the context of the overall MDG reports, if there are any benchmarks generated, and if the participation of indigenous peoples in the process of developing interventions and programmes is taken into consideration. The report.

How to Develop a Pro-poor Land Policy - Process, Guide and Lessons
(UN-HABITAT, March 2008)

This report, published by the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), focuses on how to develop pro-poor land policies in order to correct disadvantages that the poor face. Based on experiences from Asia and Africa, the report advocates a participatory process involving all relevant stakeholders.
The report.

ASSURING DEVELOPMENT GAINS AND POVERTY REDUCTION FROM TRADE: LABOUR MOBILITY AND SKILLS TRADE DIMENSION

(UNCTAD, March 2008)

This study, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), examines the impact of global labor movement on trade, development and poverty reduction and asks how temporary labor mobility can be better managed to improve people’s lives and to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The study.

 

GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR WOMEN

(ILO, March 2008)

This report indicates more women are working than ever before. However, it also notes that women are more likely than men to get low-paid and vulnerable jobs, with no social protection and basic rights. The report highlights that the service sector has overtaken the agricultural sector as the primary employer of women. It concludes that women suffer more from unemployment than men, and women’s participation in the job market has not reduced gender gaps. The report.

MIGRATION AND REMITTANCES FACTBOOK 2008
(World Bank, March 2008)
This report indicates that India tops the list of recipient countries of migrant remittances at $27 billion last year, followed by China, Mexico, the Philippines and France, and finds that, in many countries, remittances provide a lifeline for the poor. The report.

UNTANGLING LINKS BETWEEN TRADE, POVERTY AND GENDER
(ODI, March 2008)
This briefing paper by the Overseas Development Insititue (ODI) focuses on the links between trade, growth and poverty reduction and how they affect gender dimensions. Based on experiences in Latin America, the paper shows that women need support in order to benefit from trade liberalization, so that they can benefit from the social and labor policies in a new economic environment. The paper.

PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING IN AFRICA: A TRAINING COMPANION

(UN-HABITAT, March 2008)

This training kit, published by the UN Human Settlements Programme, aims to build the capacity of local governments in using participatory budgeting as a good governance urban practice. The kit, issued in two volumes, provides users with information, tools, methodologies, case studies from Eastern and Southern Africa. The training kit, volume 1 and volume 2.

 

GREEN PASSPORT WEBSITE

(UNEP, March 2008)
The Green Passport Website, launched by UNEP, provides tips for environmentally responsible tourism. The site aims to raise tourists’ awareness of their potential to contribute to sustainable development by making responsible travel choices.
The website.

 

WORLD URBANIZATION PROSPECTS: THE 2007 REVISION

(UNDESA, February 2008)

This report, which is published by UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) every two years, provides estimates and projections of the urban and rural populations of all countries and major urban agglomerations for the period 1950-2025. The report illustrates the rapid urbanization in recent years, and indicates that in 2008, the urban population will equal the rural population. The report.

 

PUTTING YOUNG PEOPLE INTO NATIONAL POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES: A GUIDE TO STATISTICS ON YOUNG PEOPLE IN POVERTY
(UNFPA, February 2008)

This report, published by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), offers disaggregated data on the condition of young people. Given that young people comprise the largest group affected by poverty, the report builds a statistical profile by individual countries of young people in poverty. The report.

LATIN AMERICA’S MDG PROGRESS ON GENDER EQUALITY: POOR WOMEN STILL LAG BEHIND
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, February 2008)
This One Pager, authored by Eduardo Zepeda, notes that Latin America and the Caribbean have shown notable progress on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators for gender equality. However, the author indicates that when national averages are disaggregated, the picture is less impressive, particularly for poor women workers. The author notes that poor women workers are not making significant progress in securing decent wage employment in the non-agricultural sector. The One Pager.

ADAPTATION LEARNING MECHANISM
(UNDP, February 2008)
The UN Development Programme’s (UNDP) Adaptation Team has launched the Country Adaptation Profiles. The profiles are available for over 140 countries and provide two key services: linking climate change risks to national development priorities; and sharing up-to-date information on climate change adaptation, including ongoing efforts, science, and assessments. The country adaptation profiles.

SOME RECENT EXPERIENCE IN COMMUNITY VOICE CARD: AN INNOVATIVE TOOL TOWARDS ASSESSING SERVICE DELIVERY FOR MDGs
(Affiliated Network for Social Accountability, 2008)

This paper, written by Neela Mukherjee, provides an account of the use of community voice cards (CVC) since 2004 through the use of cross-country experiences applied in India (West Bengal), Nepal, Moldova and China. The paper describes the use of CVCs in assessing Millennium Development Goal (MDG) -related projects by collecting local stakeholders’ impressions, including discussions and interviews with persons working within MDG-related services and opinion leaders. The paper.

Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation

(WHO, January 2008)

This study, carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, estimates the cost of achieving the WHO’s water and sanitation target by 2014. From 2005 to 2014, an estimated US$ 70 billion (EUR 48.2 billion) needs to be spent annually on water and sanitation, of which US$ 18 billion (EUR 12.4 billion) would increase coverage to the currently unserved population and US$ 52 billion (EUR 35.8 billion) would maintain existing coverage. The study recommends that the preferences of service users should be considered in the planning of water and sanitation services. The study.

 

BIODIVERSITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND POVERTY: EXPLORING THE LINKS
(IIED, February 2007)
Authored by Hannah Reid and Krystyna Swiderska, this IIED Brief explores the links between biodiversity, climate change and poverty. It unpicks these strands to show that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. It suggests that, compared with activities such as forest conservation and afforestation, biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. The paper argues that this relative neglect must be addressed, and that “urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.” The paper.

 

PROTECTING FARMERS' RIGHTS IN THE GLOBAL IPR REGIME: CHALLENGES AND OPTIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(SAWTEE, 2007)

Authored by Regine Andersen, this policy brief addresses challenges with regard to implementation of farmers’ rights, including upholding and developing legal space for farmers; customary practices related to agro-biodiversity; and creating support mechanisms for farmers’ contributions to the global pool of genetic resources. The author suggests policy options that developing countries in particular have in protecting farmers’ rights in the context of a global intellectual property rights regime. The policy brief.

UNDG GUIDELINES ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ ISSUES
(UNDG, February 2008)
The UN Development Group (UNDG) Guidelines on Indigenous Peoples Issues entered into force on 1 February 2008. The guidelines aim to mainstream indigenous issues across programmatic areas of UN agencies, while providing a normative framework to operational work in the field. The next step is for UNDG to adopt a 5-7 year plan of action that will roll out these Guidelines and provide support on the ground. The guidelines.

Report of the international expert group meeting on indigenous languages
(UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, February 2008)

This report provides an overview of the issues discussed at the international expert group meeting on indigenous languages, held from 8-10 January 2008, at UN headquarters. Issues discussed include the importance of linguistic diversity, the connection between language rights and all other fundamental rights, a concern for the lack of urgency while the majority of all indigenous languages are threatened with extinction, and proposals for the revitalization, promotion and protection of indigenous languages.
The report (E/C.19/2008/3).

INFORMATION ECONOMY REPORT 2007-2008
(UNCTAD, February 2008)

The Information Economy Report 2007-2008, published by UNCTAD, analyses the role of information technology in knowledge creation and diffusion and focuses on the effect of ICT on trade, economic performance and development, and how these relate to developing countries’ e-strategies. The report.

Gender Equality, the New Aid Environment and Civil Society Organizations
(UKGender & Development Network (GADN), January 2008)

This report examines the new aid environment, and finds that civil society organizations focus on the fast changing aid structures, such as direct budget support, pooled funding schemes for supporting civil society and other forms of donor alignment and their possible implications for work on gender equality and women’s rights issues, in the Global North and South. The report.

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF PRO-POOR GROWTH
(ODI, January 2008)
This paper, written by Kate Bird, focuses on the political economy challenges to making growth policies pro-poor. The paper looks at governance requirements, institutions and barriers to adopting pro-poor policies. The paper.

SUPPORTING PRO-POOR GROWTH PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DONORS
(ODI, January 2008)

This paper, written by Eva Ludi with Kate Bird, discusses policies and programmes to strengthen the productive capacities of poor people. Given the importance of the agricultural sector for the livelihoods of the poor, the paper explores strategies that lead to pro-poor growth, while reducing the vulnerability and risks of the poor and diversifying their assets.
The paper.

GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS 2008

(ILO, January 2008)

This report by the International Labour Organization (ILO) analyses the impact of population and economic growth, economic effects of the credit crisis in industrialized countries, rising oil prices, and a projected slowdown in economic growth on labor markets. The report notes that economic turbulence due to credit market turmoil and rising oil prices could spur an increase in global unemployment by an estimated 5 million persons in 2008. The report.

IS FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION A FLOP? AN AFRICA ASSESSMENT
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, January 2008)
The authors of this
one-pager, John Serieux and Terry McKinley, evaluate the impact of financial liberalization on 19 sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1965-1985. They find that liberalization has led to only marginal improvements in a few areas. The authors note the need for deeper structural changes, beyond financial-sector policies, to boost domestic savings and investment in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper.

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF BRAZIL’S BOLSA FAMILIA: CASH TRANSFER PROGRAMMES IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, December 2007)

This paper reviews the targeting performance of Bolsa Família and its impact on inequality, poverty, consumption, education, health care and labor force participation.
The paper

STATUS OF RURAL POVERTY IN THE NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA
(FAO and IFAD, December 2007)

This report indicates that rural poverty in the near East and North Africa region has been decreasing much slower than urban poverty. Issues regarding water scarcity, degradation of natural resources, and limited access to physical and financial assets by the poor should still be address in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The report.

EROSION OF TRADE PREFERENCES IN THE POST-HONG KONG FRAMEWORK: FROM TRADE IS BETTER THAN AID TO AID FOR TRADE
(UNCTAD, 2007)
This study by UNCTAD looks at the erosion of trade preferences since the WTO’s Hong Kong Ministerial conference in 2005. It examines which products and countries have benefited the most from existing preferences granted by the US, Japan and the EU, and finds that the issue of erosion of trade preferences remains to be addressed to the benefit of many developing countries. The report.

KEY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN THE ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION 2008

(UNESCAP, 2007)

This report by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific highlights that developing countries in the Asia Pacific are projected to continue to grow at 8 percent. The report cautions against appreciating currencies vis-à-vis the weakening of the US market, and suggests that policymakers in the region make financial reforms a priority in the development agenda. The report.

 

PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE AND THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs)

(UNDESA, 2007)

This publication, by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), is based on the Expert Group Meeting on Engaged Governance: Citizen Participation in the Implementation of the Development Agenda including the MDGs, held in November 2006. The report evaluates the implementation of development targets such as the MDGs. The report advocates that, in order for the development agenda to succeed, it will be required to redefine the relationship between government and civil society, deepening citizens� participation and attaining good governance. The report.

 

Civic Engagement in Public Policies: A Toolkit

(UNDESA, 2007)

This toolkit, by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), provides guidance and step-by-step approaches on successful methodologies and techniques for effective social mobilization programmes in the public sector. It draws lessons from various cases around the world, describing strategies of participation relevant to policy-making and participatory budgeting. The toolkit.

Poverty reduction for profit? A critical examination of business opportunities at the bottom of the pyramid
(Oxford University, 2007)
In this paper, author J. L. Warnholz examines the hypothesis that selling to four billion poor people at the bottom of the economic pyramid will generate profits for big business and eliminate poverty, concluding that the hypothesis might not be sustainable, as selling to the poor will not eradicate poverty, and may affect small businesses and threaten local jobs and incomes. The paper.

The continued failure of the World Bank and IMF to fully assess the impact of their advice on poor people
(Oxfam International, 2007)

This paper, authored by E. Stuart, recommends that, before recommending a course of action, the World Bank and the IMF should conduct an analysis of its impacts on poor people through the use of the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA). The paper.

LIVEABLE CITIES: THE BENEFITS OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
(UNEP et al., December 2007)

This report, published by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), Cities Alliance and ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability, explores various options for sustainable urban development, emphasizing that environmental management can prove a strong marketing tool for attracting investors, in addition to helping address climate change and contributing to public health and poverty eradication. The report.

Poverty in Focus: Gender Equality
(UNDP International Poverty Centre, January 2008)

This issue of Poverty in Focus presents a dozen articles on recent research results and commentaries on the links between gender and poverty. The issue notes that
empowering women by improving their living conditions and enabling them to actively participate in the social and economic life of a country may be the key for long-term sustainable development. The issue.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE STATISTICS 2007
(WTO, 2007)
International Trade Statistics 2007, published by the World Trade Organization (WTO), provides statistics on trade in merchandise and commercial services. The report also provides disaggregated data by product, including agriculture, fuels and mining, iron and steel, and chemicals. The report.  

Asia's Much-Needed Low Carb Diet
(Far Eastern Economic Review, November 2007)

This article, written by Paul Steele and Sergio
Feld, examines whether Asian countries will emerge as leaders of the low-carbon revolution. The authors note that Asia could dominate the world�s politics and economics by shifting away from fossil fuels and toward a low-carbon emissions economy, which would create demand for new products and new technologies, and open new markets. The article.

Potential and challenges of payments for ecosystem services from tropical forests  
(Overseas Development Institute, December 2007)
This briefing, written by Michael Richards and Michael Jenkins, summarizes current potential and challenges facing the development of payments for ecosystem services as a means of promoting the sustainable management or conservation of tropical forests. The briefing.

Realising gender in agricultural policies: The fight for equality is not over
(Overseas Development Institute, December 2007)
This briefing, authored by Rebecca Holmes and Rachel Slater, addresses the barriers that women face in agriculture. The authors provide evidence that greater gender equality is likely to increase efficiency and productivity in the agricultural sector. The briefing.

Risk and responsibility in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
(Overseas Development Institute, December 2007)

This paper, written by Leo Peskett and Zoe Harkin, examines how reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) transaction mechanisms between buyers and sellers might be established. The paper also examines the implications that risk reduction mechanisms might have for different stakeholders in developing countries. The briefing.

URBAN ENVIRONMENTS, WEALTH AND HEALTH: SHIFTING BURDENS AND POSSIBLE RESPONSES IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME NATIONS
(IIED, 2007)
This paper, authored by Gordon McGranahan, examines urban health in low- and middle-income countries, in relation to persistent local environmental health burdens, most notably the water, sanitation and housing deficiencies prevalent in the poor neighborhoods of so many urban settlements, and emerging global environmental burdens in urban areas, especially those associated with climate change. The paper
.

If you would like to submit details of
recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
Diego Noguera, IISD

up to top