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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

This page was updated on: 01/12/10


2004

Human Development Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2003; 200
2

 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON WORLD DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS

This report (E/CN.9/2005/8) provides an overview of world demographic trends, including trends in population size and growth, urbanization, population ageing, fertility and contraception, mortality and international migration. The report also addresses population policies, summarizing the concerns and responses of governments with respect to major population trends. The report highlights that world population reached 6.5 billion in 2005, that the 7 billion mark could be reached in 2012, and that world population could stabilize at about 9 billion people in the long-term. It notes the diversity in expected population growth among regions and countries, with population in African and Asian countries expected to increase greatly in the coming decades, and population in some developed countries to significantly decline. The report notes that half the world’s population is expected to live in urban areas by 2007, and that the proportion of elderly people is expected to continue rising throughout this century.

 

WORLD POPULATION MONITORING 2003: POPULATION, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT

(UNDESA Population Division, 2004) This report underscores the interlinkages between education and population, and their effect on national development. The report examines a range of topics, including: population trends; education and entry into reproductive life; the interrelationships between education and fertility; education, health and mortality; education and international migration; and monitoring progress in meeting international goals.

 

WORLD EMPLOYMENT REPORT 2004-05
(ILO, December 2004) Prepared by the International Labour Organisation, this report underscores the linkages between employment, productivity and poverty reduction, urging economic policies targeted at creating decent and productive employment opportunities and a fairer globalization for poverty reduction. The report presents global trends in employment, productivity and poverty, addresses the relationship between productivity and employment growth, and calls for greater focus on increasing productivity and earnings in the agriculture sector. The report also discusses the importance of employment stability for increasing productivity, and outlines policy recommendations to improve the integration of small-scale enterprises into the broader economy. The report.

 

WORLD POPULATION IN 2300

(DESA Population Division, November 2004) This report projects that the world’s population will stabilize at 9 billion in 2300 if fertility levels continue their decline. However if current rates remain steady, global population could reach 1.3 trillion people by 2300. These long-range population projections cover twice as long a period compared to previous UN forecasts, and provide projections for all countries in the world. The report.

 

REALITY OF AID 2004 REPORT: FOCUS ON GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

(Reality of Aid, April 2004) This NGO report explores the theme of governance and human rights in development cooperation and illustrates how governance conditionality can be used as a tool to “open up markets and impose policies that entrench inequitable distribution of power and resources.” The report begins with a political overview and continues with chapters focusing on aid trends in different regions. It highlights: the risk that aid is being diverted from the overriding necessity of eliminating poverty for the many to the promoting security for the few; the continued domination of global political and economic mechanisms by OECD countries, especially G8 donors and very particularly, the United States; and the interpretation of governance and human rights by OECD donors to mean whatever they want them to mean. This publication was first launched in April 2004 and is now being made available online.

 

STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2004/2005 – GLOBALIZATION AND URBAN CULTURE

(UN-HABITAT, September 2004) Launched at the second World Urban Forum in Barcelona, this flagship UN-HABITAT report charts the trends, progress and challenges faced in our rapidly urbanizing world. The report forecasts that 60 percent of the world’s population will be living in cities by 2030 and that almost of this growth will be absorbed by the world’s least developed regions. It tackles issues such as migration, multiculturalism, globalization and the feminization of poverty to name a few. First published in 2001, the SOWC report is now released every two years. The report.

 

STATE OF WORLD POPULATION 2004 REPORT: CAIRO CONSENSUS AT TEN: POPULATION, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND THE GLOBAL EFFORT TO END POVERTY

(UNFPA, September 2004) This UNFPA flagship report examines the progress that countries have made in implementing the agenda adopted at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The eleven chapters of this report address issues relating to: population and poverty; population and the environment; migration and urbanization; gender equality and women’s empowerment; reproductive health and family planning; maternal health; HIV/AIDS prevention; adolescents and youth; and reproductive health for communities in crisis. The final chapter discusses the role of partnership in promoting better reproductive health and efforts to achieve the goals of ICPD and the MDGs, and outlines priority actions. The report finds that while significant gains have been achieved since the Cairo Conference in the areas of protecting the rights of girls and women, integrating reproductive health services into primary healthcare, adopting national HIV/AIDS strategies and addressing gender issues, many challenges still remain, particularly regarding the significant gap between the rich and poor in access to health services. The report highlights how that lack of resources is impeding further progress, noting that donor response has not met the increasing reproductive health needs of developing countries. The report is available at: http://www.unfpa.org/swp/index.htm

 

GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR YOUTH 2004

(International Labour Organization, August 2004) This ILO report highlights labor market trends for youth, including trends in: the youth labor force, youth employment; youth unemployment; and discrimination within the youth unemployed population. The report indicates that about half of the world’s jobless are young people between the ages of 15 and 24, and underscores the significant role of tackling youth unemployment in contributing to the global economy and achieving the MDGs. The report if available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/global.htm

 

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2004: CULTURAL LIBERTY IN TODAY’S DIVERSE WORLD
(UNDP, July 2004) This year’s edition of the UNDP Human Development Report underscores the need to mainstream issues of culture into development thinking and practice and to foster multicultural policies that recognize and support ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity. The report urges multiethnic or religious countries to establish “asymmetric” federalist structures that would allow different groups to maintain their own identity and foster a sense of belonging to the nation. It challenges conventional beliefs surrounding diversity and unity, discrediting myths that trade-offs need to made between promoting cultural diversity and ensuring state unity, peace, other human development priorities, development or democracy. A section on globalization highlights the threat that globalization poses to diversity and traditional cultures, but also recognizes that it provides opportunities for disadvantaged groups to tap into global markets. The Human Development Indicators section provides country specific data for various development indicators, including: water, sanitation and nutritional status; public spending on health and education; literacy and enrolment rates; technology diffusion and creation; debt relief and trade; flows of aid, private capital and debt; energy and the environment; and gender- and labor-related data. This edition also includes special contributions by Shirin Ebadi, Nelson Mandela, Hamid Karzai, John Hume and Ole Henrik Magga. The report can be downloaded from: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2004/

 

2004 REPORT ON THE GLOBAL AIDS EPIDEMIC
(UNAIDS) This 235+ page report presents a global overview of the AIDS epidemic. It indicates that infection rate in 2003 was the highest ever, with an estimated 4.8 million people newly infected with HIV. Some 38 million people are now living with AIDS, with 25 million residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Half of all new HIV infections are now found in the 15 to 24 year-old age group, with over 6,000 youth contracting the virus every day. The report also looks at the impacts of AIDS on people and societies, and outlines means of scaling up HIV prevention, particularly for youth. It also focuses on treatment, care and support for people living with HIV, and addresses financing issues and national responses. Annexes contain country-specific HIV/AIDS estimates and data. The book can be downloaded at: http://www.unaids.org/bangkok2004/report.html

 

BATTLING HIV/AIDS: A DECISION-MAKER'S GUIDE TO THE PROCUREMENT OF MEDICINES AND RELATED SUPPLIES
(World Bank, July 2004) This publication provides a practical, step-by-step procurement guide to assist developing countries in expanding the access of AIDS patients to anti-retroviral medicines. The book opens with a chapter on the challenges in scaling up treatment of HIV/AIDS, and presents a guide to: intellectual property rights; managing the supply cycle; product selection, quantification and quality assurance; procurement; and pricing. The book is available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROCUREMENT
/Resources/Technical-Guide-Procure-HIV-AIDS-Meds.pdf

 

ASIA PACIFIC’S OPPORTUNITY: INVESTING TO AVERT AN HIV/AIDS CRISIS
(UNAIDS and ADB, July 2004) This publication argues that Asia Pacific countries are at a “make-or-break point with HIV/AIDS.” While infection is much lower than those of sub-Saharan Africa, the course of the epidemic in the region, which houses over half the world’s people, will determine the magnitude and toll of the HIV/AIDS pandemic over the next decade. This study stresses the need for Asia-Pacific leaders to tackle the massive shortfall in the finances needed to establish comprehensive prevention, care and treatment responses in every country, in order for them to succeed in controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The publication concludes with five actions that national governments must take to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic from spreading. The report is available at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Asia-Pacific/APO-HIV.pdf

 

HIV/AIDS AND WORK: GLOBAL ESTIMATES, IMPACT AND RESPONSE
(ILO, July 2004) This report presents global projections of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world’s workforce. Its finding show that about 36.5 million people of working age have HIV and approximately 28 million workers will be lost to the world’s labor force by next year since the beginning of the epidemic. It underscores the twofold impact of HIV/AIDS on workers both on those infected who will have to drop out of the workforce and on others who will need to shoulder the economic burden and the burden of care of those who are dying of the epidemic. The study also addresses the macroeconomic and social impacts of the epidemic and outlines policy implications and responses to the epidemic in world of work. The report can be viewed at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/publ/global_est/index.htm

 

CHILDREN ON THE BRINK 2004: A JOINT REPORT OF NEW ORPHAN ESTIMATES AND A FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION
(UNAIDS, UNICEF and USAID, July 2004) This publication presents the most up-to-date statistics on historical, current and projected number of children under 18 who have been orphaned by AIDS. The report also outlines key strategies for a framework for the protection, care and support of orphans and vulnerable children confronted with HIV/AIDS. According to the report, the number of AIDS orphans increased from 11.5 million to 15 million in the period 2001-2003, with the majority of orphans from Africa. The numbers for Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean have decreased by about 10% since 1990. The publication can be downloaded at: http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_22212.html

 

SCALING UP TREATMENT FOR THE GLOBAL HIV PANDEMIC
(National Academies Press, 2004) This publication presents the challenges and opportunities of scaling up treatment of HIV. The study notes that some six million individuals currently need antiretroviral therapy, but only 400,000 people in developing nations have access to treatment. Chapters further address lessons learned, principles of scale-up, managing scaling-up of anti-retroviral therapy, and recommendations for the way forward, including through partnerships, technology transfer, and the mobilization of a Peace Corps-like “HIV/AIDS corps” of technical specialists. The publication can be downloaded at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309092647/html/

 

ANALYSIS OF AID IN SUPPORT OF HIV/AIDS CONTROL, 2000-2002
(OECD DAC and UNAIDS, June 2004) This report presents the results of a review of data on aid allocations to HIV/AIDS control by donor and recipient countries. Key findings illustrate that DAC members’ total official development assistance (ODA) commitments for HIV/AIDS control in 2000-2002 were $US 2.2 billion per year. The main recipient region was Sub-Saharan Africa and the top three recipient countries were Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. The United States was the largest bilateral donor, followed by the United Kingdom. Larger donors were found to be the main funders of treatment programmes, which require substantial funding and long-term commitments, while smaller donors focused more on HIV prevention, but also supported home-based care and social mitigation activities. The report is available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/60/32159448.pdf

 

MULTIFUNCTIONAL LANDSCAPES: VOLUMES I, II & III
(WIT Press, 2003) This three volume set contain papers originally presented at a conference on multifunctional landscapes held in Roskilde, Denmark in 2000 that have since been peer-reviewed and revised. Volume I: Theory, Values and History stresses the importance of establishing a new framework for understanding and interpreting landscapes and their various functions and values in space and time. Volume II: Monitoring, Diversity and Management focuses on the discussion and research recommendations relating to three different aspects of future landscape research concerning planning and management. Volume III - Continuity and Change contains an overview of case studies carried out throughout Europe, with a focus on the interactions between land use practices and the biotic and abiotic environment. More information is available at: http://www.witpressusa.com/acatalog/9364.html

 

GLOBAL - CITY FUTURES - ONLINE SURVEY
Readers interested in the future and quality of “urban” human habitation on Earth are invited to participate in a global online survey to express their “preferred city vision.” The purpose of this survey is to research humanity’s preferred vision for human habitation on the Earth in 2100. Information will be collected until the end of August 2004 and the research will be completed by December 2004. More information is available at: http://www.maroochy.qld.gov.au/global_cities_survey.cfm

 

GUIDELINES ON DEVELOPING CONSUMER INFORMATION ON PROPER USE OF TRADITIONAL, COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES
(WHO, January 2004) Prepared by the World Health Organization, these technical guidelines seek to assist Member States in developing context-specific and reliable consumer information concerning the proper use of traditional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine. WHO recognizes the long-term goal of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks in the use of such medicines by empowering consumers to make informed choices and become active participants in healthcare. WHO also underscores that efforts to promote the proper use of such medicines through consumer education/training must also be supported by other measures such as: the establishment of national laws and regulations to control herbal medicines products; efforts to ensure the qualified practice of traditional and alternative therapies; and, where appropriate, measures to control information about such approaches used in advertisements. As follow-up to the development of these guidelines, WHO plans to organize a series of inter-regional, regional and national workshops for national health authorities and relevant NGOs on developing consumer information regarding the proper use of alternative and traditional medicines, and on organizing education/training programmes at a national level. The guidelines can be found at: http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/Consumer.pdf

 

INVESTING IN PEOPLE: NATIONAL PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTING THE ICPD PROGRAMME OF ACTION 1994-2004
(UNFPA, June 2004) This publication reflects the findings of a global survey of steps undertaken by 169 countries to implement the Programme of Action that was produced at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), including measures related to population and development, gender equality, women’s empowerment, reproductive rights and health and HIV/AIDS. Seventy-nine percent of reporting countries indicated that they had adopted multiple measures to integrate population concerns into development strategies and half of the countries reported taking strong action to address the issue of population and environment. The report finds that over 90 percent of countries have integrated family planning and safe motherhood into their primary healthcare systems, and that almost all countries reported that they have adopted measures to protect the rights of women and girls. A lack of financial resources was identified as the greatest impediment to progress with the survey indicating that current financial commitments by donor countries are inadequate to meeting the Cairo commitments. Several donor countries reported that they are using the MDGs as a basis for the development of programmes and policies that promote the ICPD agenda. The report is available at: http://www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/284_filename_globalsurvey.pdf

 

WSIS 2003 SOUVENIR BOOK: CONNECTING THE WORLD - HELPING THE WORLD COMMUNICATE
(ITU, 2004) The International Telecommunication Union has published a commemorative book on the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) that took place in Geneva in December 2003. The publication contains: statements from the opening session of the Summit; WSIS documents, including the Declaration of Principles and the Plan of Action endorsed by 175 countries; a concise background of the WSIS process; and a picture gallery of the Summit and its preparatory process. An electronic version is available at: http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/promotional/wsis-book.pdf

 

TOWARDS A FAIR DEAL FOR MIGRANT WORKERS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
(ILO, May 2004) Prepared in advance of the International Labour Conference, this report calls for a multilateral approach to address the issue of migration, urging delegates to the annual labor conference to consider the adoption of a comprehensive action programme to improve the conditions of migrant workers and to promote more orderly forms of migration. Currently almost half of all migrants and refugees or about 86 million adults are economically active, employed or engaged in remunerative activity, and the number of migrants in search of jobs and human security is expected to rise rapidly in the next few decades due to the failure of globalization to provide employment and economic opportunities. The report highlights that the economic effects of immigration on receiving countries are primarily beneficial and that migrants provide significant flows of remittances to their countries of origin, amounting to the second largest source of external funding for developing countries according to the World Bank. The report also notes that many migrants are subjected to poor working conditions, with rampant abuse and exploitation, denial of human rights, discrimination and xenophobia. The issue of migration is receiving high-level attention, with the recent World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization report prioritizing the issue, and the 2006 UN General Assembly High-level Dialogue focusing on migration and development. The report is available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc92/pdf/rep-vi.pdf

 

WORKING FROM WITHIN: CULTURALLY SENSITIVE APPROACHES IN UNFPA PROGRAMMING
(UNFPA, May 2004) Prepared by the UN Population Fund, this brief report presents strategies, approaches and partnerships in culturally sensitive initiatives with local individuals and organizations in nine countries. Drawing from experiences in Brazil, Cambodia, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Malawi, Uganda and Yemen, the report finds that fostering local alliances provides aid workers with a greater likelihood of succeeding in their development efforts, particularly with regards to culturally sensitive issues such as gender equality, HIV/AIDS, female circumcision, violence against women, maternal health and family planning. The nine case studies presented are taken from a longer report entitled, “Culture Matters: Working with Communities and Faith-based Organizations.” More information is available at: http://www.unfpa.org/publications/index.cfm?ID=173%20

 

CITIES TRANSFORMED: DEMOGRAPHIC AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD
(Earthscan, April 2004) Edited by Holly Reed, Barney Cohen, Mark Montgomery and Richard Stren, this book brings together works from 16 scholars on urban population and development. It analyzes the changes taking place in cities and their implications and impacts, particularly in light of recent trends toward decentralization, where programmes in poverty alleviation, health, education and public services are increasingly being devolved to municipal and regional governments. The book identifies a “new class of policymakers” emerging to take up the growing responsibilities, and explores the changing the nature of urban management and governance, focusing on population dynamics, social and economic differentiation, fertility and reproductive health, mortality and morbidity, labor force and urban governance. The book is available at: http://www.earthscan.co.uk/asp/bookdetails.asp?key=4057

 

WORLD URBANIZATION PROSPECTS: THE 2003 REVISION 

(UN DESA Population Division, 2004) Prepared by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affair’s Population Division, this report presents estimates and projections of urban and rural populations for major areas, regions and countries for the period 1950-2030. The report notes that most of the projected population growth over the next 30 years will take place in urban areas, particularly in smaller urban settlements (those with less than 500,000 inhabitants) of less developed regions. The world�s urban population is projected to exceed its rural population for the first time in the near future. Currently, 48 percent of the world lives in urban areas; this proportion is expected to surpass that of rural populations for the first time in history by 2007, and reach 61 percent in 2030. The world�s rural population is projected to decrease slightly from 3.3 billion in 2003 to 3.2 billion in 2030, while the world�s urban population, currently estimated at 3 billion, is expected to increase to 4 billion in 2017 and 5 billion by 2030. The report is available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2003/2003WUPHighlights.pdf

 

GLOBAL POPULATION PROFILE: 2002

(US Census Bureau, 2004) The report, prepared by the United States Census Bureau, presents a summary of the current key trends in global population. The report considers four themes: global population growth, global population composition, contraceptive prevalence in the developing world, and the AIDS pandemic in the 21st century. On population growth, it highlights the current decline in population growth, noting that this is due to declining fertility. On composition, it projects among other things that over the next 25 years the elderly population will grow in both in numbers and proportion. On contraceptives, the report notes that the levels and trends of contraceptive use, especially in developing countries, have important implications for global population change and reproductive health. It states that over 100 million women in developing countries would like to space or limit their pregnancies but are not using contraception and represent an �unmet need� for family planning. On the AIDS pandemic, the report highlights the impact of HIV in the developing world, which is causing negative population growth from AIDS mortality in some countries. It also highlights success stories in stemming the AIDS epidemic through education programmes. The report is available at: http://www.census.gov//ipc/www/wp02.html

 

INNOCENTI DIGEST 11: ENSURING THE RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS CHILDREN
(UNICEF IRC, February 2004) Produced by UNICEF�s Innocenti Research Centre, this report reveals that indigenous children are among the most marginalized groups in the global community. The report states that indigenous children face greater threats to survival, including higher mortality rates and lower rates of school enrolment, than other children, and greater risk of human trafficking, sexual or labor exploitation, loss of land and lower self-esteem due to difficulty in integrating into the dominant culture. UNICEF estimates a global population of 300 million indigenous adults and children, most of whom live in Asia and Latin America. The rights of children are protected under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), and States are responsible for promoting and protecting these rights. The report recommends that practical initiatives focus on the following four areas: health and nutrition, education, protection and support, birth registration and participation in decision-making. The publication is available in English and Spanish at: http://www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/

 

FAIR GLOBALIZATION: CREATING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL
(ILO, February 2004) A product of two year�s work by the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization, this report states that globalization can and must change and identifies the establishment of a �fair and inclusive globalization� as a global priority. While recognizing the many potential benefits of globalization, the report also highlights the �deep-seated and persistent imbalances� in the way the global economy operates, and cautions against the direction in which globalization is currently taking. Stating that global governance is currently in crisis, the report proposes a series of measures to improve governance and accountability at national and international levels. The report is organized into four sections that address: globalization for people; globalization and its impact; governance of globalization; and mobilizing action for change. An independent body co-chaired by the Presidents of Finland and Tanzania, the Commission was initiated to respond to the needs of people as they cope with the changes brought about by globalization. The report together with more information is available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/wcsdg/index.htm

 

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