IISD Reporting Services -
KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
FORESTS, DESERTS, LAND
This page was updated on: 01/13/10
STRENGTHENING THE WEAKEST LINKS: STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS GLOBALLY
(Conservation International – Center for Conservation and Government, September 2004) In this study authored by Anita Akella and Jim Cannon, Conservation International’s Center for Conservation and Government examines four biodiversity hotspots—Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia and the Philippines—and presents the first quantitative evidence of how poor environmental enforcement is in nations that are wealthy in natural resources. The authors demonstrate the economic rewards for breaking environmental laws; for example, illegal loggers in the Atlantic forest in Brazil can make US$75 for each tree they harvest, but face a fine of only US$6.44. The traditional response to poor enforcement has been to hire and equip more park guards and raise fines. However, the authors conclude that this strategy is ineffective by itself because it does not address the entire enforcement chain—detection, arrest, prosecution, conviction and penalty. To improve enforcement, the whole system must be strengthened in an integrated way. According to Akella and Cannon, the steps that come after arrests often constitute the weakest link. The study argues that the laws need to be more realistic, fair, and fairly enforced. Families must have other sources of income, the public must be educated about why such measures are important, and steps must be taken to reduce the demand for illegal products. To request a free electronic copy of this article in a pdf file, please e-mail Ingrid Neubauer.
“DRYLANDSCOPE” SUSTAINABLE DRYLANDS MANAGEMENT WEBSITE
(2004) Drylandscope is a sustainable drylands management reference and networking website that offers users access to information through its eLibrary and forums on the following topics: soils, natural systems, managed systems, tools and equipment, hydrology, landscape level considerations, and livestock. The site contains a lengthy list of relevant web sources and resources, and invites users to submit additional content. The website.
REPORTS TO THE CCD COP/CRIC
(UNCCD, 2004) A number of new reports submitted to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification’s Conference of the Parties (COP) and the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC) are now available on the CCD’s website. The reports detail how affected and developed country Parties, UN organizations and other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations have carried out their commitments under the Convention, as called for in Article 26 of the Convention. The reports. http://www.unccd.int/cop/reports/menu.php
WEBSITE ON ILLEGAL LOGGING AND THE TRADE IN ILLEGAL TIMBER
(RIIA 2004) The
Sustainable Development Programme of the Royal Institute of
International Affairs (RIIA) in London, with funding from the UK
Department for International Development, has launched a new
website designed to act as a central point of information on all aspects
of the international debate on illegal logging and the trade in illegal
timber. The site links to news stories, documents from research
institutes, governments, international institutions and NGOs working on
the topic, and briefings on all aspects of national and international
efforts to stem illegal forest practices. The
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: A GUIDE TO DRAFTING SUSTAINABLE SOILS LEGISLATION
(IUCN-World Conservation Union 2004) This IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper, authored by Ian Hannam and Ben Boer, offers a resource for States as they endeavor to reform legislation and institutions to protect and manage soils. The 100+ page guide highlights the need for national soil policy, sets out the elements of a soil management plan, and proposes legal and institutional elements that specifically address the needs of disadvantaged people, particularly women. The Paper responds to the World Summit on Sustainable Development’s recognition of the importance of promoting programmes for the environmentally sound, effective and efficient use of soil fertility. It also responds to Resolution 2.59 from the 2nd IUCN World Conservation Congress, which called on IUCN to “prepare guidelines and explanatory material relating to principles and elements of national legislation and policy to assist States to manage their specific soil degradation and land degradation problems.” The paper.
DEADWOOD – LIVING FORESTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF VETERAN TREES AND DEADWOOD TO BIODIVERSITY
(WWF, October 2004) Written by Nigel Dudley, Equilibrium, and Daniel Vallauri, WWF France, this report outlines how deadwood keeps forests productive by providing organic matter and nutrients for trees, preventing soil erosion, and providing long-term storage for carbon, and cautions that deadwood is at a critically low level, mainly due to a lack of recognition for its importance and inappropriate forest management practices. The authors call on European governments, forest owners and industry to help conserve biodiversity by increasing the amount of deadwood in managed forests, by up to 20-30 cubic meters per hectare by 2030. They also call for an end to subsidies that require the removal of deadwood. The report. http://panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/forests/news/news.cfm?uNewsID=15890
GLOBAL FOREST INFORMATION SERVICE (GFIS)
This Internet gateway provides access to various types of information resources regarding forests and trees through partnership with information providers. The current version of GFIS allows users to locate forest related information through a single entry point and holds more than 120,000 metadata records contributed by 60 forestry institutions. Users can locate maps, datasets, web resources, journal articles, books and other resources. GFIS was launched at the XII World Forestry Congress held in Quebec, Canada in September 2003, and in May 2004 it was endorsed as a new joint Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) initiative. For more information or to initiate a search.
FINAL REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP TO DEVELOP A REGIONAL APPLIED RESEARCH PROGRAM IN THE CONGO BASIN
(ITTO, October 2004) The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) prepared this document, which is the final report of the implementation of the International Tropical Timber Council’s decision on “Promotion of sustainable forest management in the Congo Basin.” The decision called for a workshop to develop a regional applied research programme and to identify appropriate implementation approaches for this programme through existing entities, initiatives and networks. The report reviews regional research in the field of moist dense forest management in Central Africa, assesses forestry research capacity in Central Africa, and describes a pilot study on the social, environmental and economic sustainability of industrial concessions in the Congo Basin. The report.
ANNUAL REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF THE WORLD TIMBER SITUATION, 2003
(ITTO, August 2004) This review is produced by the Secretariat of the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). It compiles international statistics on global timber production and trade, with an emphasis on the tropics. It uses information submitted by ITTO member countries, through the Joint Forest Sector Questionnaire, as its primary data source. The review is divided into sections on market developments, production, trade and prices of primary products, secondary processed wood products, and country notes. The review.
(WWF, September 2004) The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) updated its ratings of EU governments’ commitments and actions to combat illegal logging and trade on 16 September 2004. This newest rating includes seven of the new EU member states, bringing the total to 19 EU countries examined in WWF’s effort to draw attention to EU governments’ actions against illegal logging and forest crime. While most countries are still failing to take effective action on illegal logging at a national level, the report indicates that 16 of 19 countries are ready to outlaw illegal logging Europe-wide and 15 governments are ready to tackle illegal logging in the new member states and candidate countries. Only the UK was rated as “satisfactory” on domestic measures to tackle illegal logging and related trade. Since the last evaluation in April, Germany has made “significant improvement” and the UK, Denmark and France have made “slight improvement.” The Government Barometer.
THE IAF AT THE CROSSROADS: TOUGH CHOICES AHEAD
(WWF Forests for Life Program, September 2004) Bill Mankin authored this discussion paper in preparation for the UN Forum on Forests’ Ad Hoc Expert Group on Consideration with a View to Recommending the Parameters of a Mandate for Developing a Legal Framework on All Types of Forests (AHEG-PARAM), which met in New York from 7-10 September 2004. Mankin reviews strengths and weaknesses of the existing International Arrangement on Forests (IAF), with successes including inter-sessional meetings and initiatives and the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) and failures including the UNFF’s mandate to facilitate the implementation of the IPF/IFF Proposals for Action, major group participation and reporting. He urges governments to be open-minded and creative as they explore options to revitalize the IAF and presents a number of ideas for their consideration, including: shifting an important part of the central Forum’s work to regional and country-led initiatives; holding sessions of the central Forum outside of New York and Geneva; facilitating broader and more substantive involvement by major groups; drawing key national-level actors into all parts of the IAF process; restructuring central Forum sessions so they convene once every two years, with negotiations taking place once every four years; facilitating more effective, creative and collaborative reporting; and exploring the establishment of an IAF financial mechanism or a more formal link with the GEF. The paper.
REPORT OF THE FOREST INVESTMENT FORUM
POLICY ADVICE ON OPTIONS FOR A LEGALLY BINDING INSTRUMENT FOR ALL FORESTS
(University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna and RIIA, May 2004) The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality commissioned this paper with the objective of assisting delegates to further develop their position in the ongoing intergovernmental discussions on a legally binding instrument for all types of forests. The paper’s three authors, Helga Pülzl, Ewald Rametsteiner and Richard Tarasofsky, were asked to offer a legal analysis of a specified number of types of legally binding instruments (LBI) (treaty, convention, framework convention, protocol, regime, agreement), analyze a range of specified existing legal instruments in terms of their history as well as their legal and institutional differences (CBD, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, UNFCCC, UNCCD, Ramsar Convention, CITES, ITTA, IPF/IFF/UNFF process, and WTO), and identify choices and options and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
The authors find that there is no intrinsic legal hierarchy between the types of LBI, but suggest that what is important are the details negotiated and agreed between governments. They find that there is no clear guidance on how an international instrument should be structured, indicating that negotiators have a wide latitude in developing institutions, contents and procedures as they feel appropriate. On the question of forests, the authors highlight three strategic choices that negotiations should make, ideally prior to decisions on a number of functional options that they also outline. The strategic choices encompass the instrument’s main aim, content and scope. The functional options concern the type of instrument to use, institutions and auxiliary bodies to choose as well as procedural mechanisms to agree on. The text.
THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION (UNCCD): A CARRYING PILLAR IN THE GLOBAL COMBAT AGAINST LAND DEGRADATION AND FOOD INSECURITY
(UNCCD, JULY 2004) This paper was prepared by members of the UNCCD Secretariat as background for the San Rossore meeting “Climate change: a new global vision,” which took place in Pisa, Italy in July 2004. The paper reviews linkages between land degradation and desertification and food insecurity, and identifies coping strategies and policy challenges. It describes the UNCCD’s approach to combating land degradation and mitigating the effects of drought, including food insecurity. Finally, it suggests the field of forests and forest ecosystems as an area in which the concerns of all three Rio Conventions can be addressed and proposes cooperation and fostering synergies through the development of projects in this field. The paper can be accessed at http://www.unccd.int/publicinfo/publications/docs/rossore-jul04.pdf
THREE PUBLICATIONS ON HARVESTED WOOD PRODUCTS
(July/August 2004) Three reports have recently been published on the complex issue of harvested wood products under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. The first, Harvested Wood Products – A Beginning Guide to Key Issues, was prepared by New Zealand climate change expert Murray Ward. The report is intended as a primer for those following the climate change negotiations who are not necessarily experts on carbon sinks and land use, land-use change and forestry issues. Ward seeks to put the issue in the broader policy context, and considers some possible approaches for accounting for harvested wood products beyond the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period. A second recent paper on the same subject has also been prepared in recent weeks. Approaches for inclusion of harvested wood products in future greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC, and their consistency with the overall UNFCCC inventory reporting framework, was prepared by K. Pingoud, B. Schlamadinger and several other experts from various institutions in Europe, North America, and Australia. A third paper, by Daniel L. Martino of Uruguayan environmental services company Carbosur, is entitled A Negative View of Dakar Approaches for Reporting and Accounting Carbon in Harvested Wood Products. All three reports were released ahead of a planned UNFCCC workshop on the subject taking place in Lillehammer, Norway from 30 August to 1 September.
Links to further information
Ward’s paper can be accessed via e-mail
Martino’s paper can be requested by e-mail
The report by Pingoud et al
UNFCCC Secretariat’s harvested wood products website
THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST: A REFERENCE GUIDE FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
(Daniel & Daniel, 2004) This reference guide provides among other things detailed data on the state of the forests in Russia’s Far Eastern region. The 486 page guide, which includes contributions from over 90 scientists, contains: maps and brief descriptions of the region’s protected areas and conservation hotspots; analyses of the forestry, fisheries, oil and gas, and mining sectors; and information on indigenous peoples, legal issues, major conservation issues, forest investment and trade, sustainable development. and much more. More information is available at: http://www.rfebook.com/
WHO CONSERVES THE WORLD’S
FORESTS? COMMUNITY-DRIVEN STRATEGIES TO PROTECT FORESTS AND RESPECT
Forest Trends released this paper during the 26-30 July 2004 negotiations of the renewal of the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA). The ITTA 1994 carries a reference encouraging member governments to consider the interests of local communities in developing their timber industry. However that reference had been dropped going into the July 2004 negotiations, and negotiations for the successor agreement are taking place against the backdrop of a policy shift that has seen a more than doubling of the amount of land under ownership or management of local communities over the last 15 years. The paper can be downloaded from: http://www.forest-trends.org/resources/pdf/Who%20Conserves%2007-23.pdf
VIEWS OF COUNTRIES AND
ORGANIZATIONS ON ISSUES BEFORE THE UNFF AD HOC EXPERT GROUP ON A LEGAL
PRESERVING OUR COMMON
GROUND: UNCCD 10 YEARS ON
MANAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA
WHO PAYS FOR AND WHO
BENEFITS FROM IMPROVED TIMBER HARVESTING PRACTICES IN THE TROPICS?
LESSONS LEARNED AND INFORMATION GAPS
UNCCD WEB SITE MAKEOVER
THE CONTRIBUTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES
TO THE FIGHT AGAINST DESERTIFICATION
ILLEGAL LOGGING, CONFLICT AND THE
BUSINESS SECTOR IN INDONESIA
HAMBURGER CONNECTION FUELS AMAZON
DESTRUCTION: CATTLE RANCHING AND DEFORESTATION IN BRAZIL'S AMAZON
REFORMING FOREST FISCAL
SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW OF COUNTRY APPROACHES AND EXPERIENCES
CERTIFICATION IN COMPLEX
SOCIO-POLITICAL SETTINGS: LOOKING FORWARD TO THE NEXT DECADE
ECONOMICS OF SEQUESTERING CARBON IN
THE U.S. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
COLLABORATIVE PARTNERSHIP ON FORESTS
AND NATIONAL FOREST PROGRAMME FACILITY ON-LINE FORUM
SMART ALLIANCE: HOW A GLOBAL
CORPORATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISTS TRANSFORMED A TARNISHED BRAND
WHAT YOU CAN DO TO STOP UNSUSTAINABLE
AND ILLEGAL HARVESTING
DROUGHT ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION PORTAL
Launched by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), this portal contains drought-related information, studies, news and resources for the southwest Asia region. The portal was initiated as part of a research project launched by IWMI on World Water Day, 22 March 2004, which aims to unite the scientific community and civil society organizations across India, Pakistan and Afghanistan and to find ways to mitigate the effects of the regionï¿½s recurrent droughts. The website is located at: http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/droughtassessment/index.asp
CONGO BASIN FOREST PARTNERSHIP
The Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP) recently launched a multilingual website to facilitate communication, cooperation and coordination among partners, as well as to respond to the publicï¿½s interest in the Congo Basinï¿½s forest and environment. The site includes a description of the partnership, a calendar of events, partnership news updates, contact information and links for partners and to other organizations active in economic development, forest management, and environment in the Congo Basin. The website is located at: http://www.cbfp.org
CLOUD FOREST AGENDA
FOREST CERTIFICATION WATCH: 2003 YEAR
would like to submit details of