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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2009

 

Climate and Atmosphere Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

 

THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CHILE
(ECLAC, 2009)
The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) published a study on The Economics of Climate Change requested by the Government of Chile and prepared by a group of experts from the Catholic, Chile and Valparaíso universities, under the technical coordination of ECLAC. The document examines the main effects that climate change will have on the Chilean economy, particularly in agriculture, mining, energy, fishing and forestry. The study.

 

THE WAY FORWARD: RESEARCHING THE ENVIRONMENT AND MIGRATION NEXUS

(UNU-IEHS, 2009)

This brief, written by Marc Stal and Koko Warner and published by the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-IEHS), focuses on the links and implications of climate change and environmental degradation for migration and policy. It recommends that research should focus on providing best practice solutions as well as a set of options to manage the impacts of environmentally induced, in particular climate-related, migration. The brief.

WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK 2009 (WEO-2009)
(IEA, 2009)
The International Energy Agency (IEA) has released its annual flagship publication ahead of schedule this year to make it available to policy makers and negotiators in the run up to the 15th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP-15) to the UNFCCC, scheduled to be held in December in Copenhagen, Denmark. The 696-page document paints a broad picture of the global energy situation in 2009, evaluates the mixed blessing that global economic decline has provided for global energy hopes and needs, and focuses almost solely on the climate challenge as it relates to global energy trends. World Energy Outlook. Executive Summary.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GENDER JUSTICE
(Oxfam, 2009)
Edited by Geraldine Terry with Caroline Sweetman, this book considers how gender issues are entwined with people’s vulnerability to the effects of climate change, and how gender identities and roles may affect women’s and men’s perceptions of the changes. The book.

 

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION TRENDS AND PROJECTIONS IN EUROPE

(EEA, 2009)

This publication by the European Environment Agency examines historic and projected trends of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. It also assesses the current and projected progress of EU Member States, EU candidate countries and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and under EU commitments for 2020. The report.

OZONACTION SPECIAL ISSUE 2009
(UNEP, 2009)
This report is focused on building on the Montreal Protocol’s success and facing challenges ahead, and features articles from international experts highlighting their views on to be discussed during the 21st Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol and the 15th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The report.

REDUCED EMISSIONS AND ENHANCED ADAPTATION IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES
(World Bank, October 2009)
The World Bank published a note emphasizing the role of good agricultural practices and integrated natural resource management (NRM) in addressing both mitigation and adaptation to climate change in production landscapes. The note focuses on the role of good agricultural practices in protecting existing stocks of soil carbon in croplands, peatlands, and wetlands; replenishing soil and biomass carbon and improving productivity in degraded lands; and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crop and grazing land. The note.

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR ADAPTATION
(World Bank, August 2009)
This report by Jon Padgham identifies and summarizes potential climate change impacts on agriculture in the developing world, examines causes of vulnerability, and suggests where investments are needed to better climate-proof agriculture. It concludes, inter alia, that: diversification of rural livelihoods through agricultural microenterprise development can reduce exposure to climate risks; farmer access to credit and information are important for adaptation to climate change; and increased flooding poses the greatest potential risk from climate change on urban and periurban agriculture. It also highlights that using untreated wastewater for irrigation and food production comes with substantial health and environmental risks, which will only increase with climate change, thus better wastewater treatment facilities and risk minimization policies for wastewater use are key challenges for adaptation. The report.

BUILDING CLIMATE RESILIENCE IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR OF ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
(Asian Development Bank (ADB), October 2009)
This report highlights that agriculture will pose a significant development challenge for Asia in the present century and discusses how to build climate change resilience into the agriculture sector in Asia. It presents broad indicators of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity in the region; highlights the vulnerability of the agricultural sector as a livelihood source for many, and as a source of food security for all; and also exposes the large heterogeneity in farming systems across Central, East, Southeast, and South Asia and the Pacific Islands. It further presents the many facets of vulnerability to climate change across the region, including undernourishment, poverty and slowing productivity growth, all of which will be exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The study.

LOW-CARBON DEVELOPMENT FOR MEXICO
(World Bank, October 2009)
This study concludes that Mexico could reduce its carbon (CO2) emissions by at least 42 percent (or 477 million tons) per year by 2030 without sacrificing economic development. Significant opportunities for CO2 reduction are identified in the areas of transport, power generation, oil and gas, agriculture and forestry, and energy efficiency. Implementing these initiatives on a larger scale over the next 20 years, however, will require changes to the country’s financial, regulatory and institutional frameworks. The study.

UNDP CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER
(UNDP, October 2009)
This newsletter, published by the
UN Development Programme, highlights the support the organization is providing to 75 countries in the development of national, sub-national and community level capacities to adapt and build their resilience against climate change risks. So far, UNDP is supporting the implementation of projects and programs of over US$800 million, including grants and co-financing resources. The newsletter.

 

FOREST RESILIENCE, BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(CBD Secretariat, October 2009)
This synthesis report on the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems, produced at the request of the ninth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, strongly supports the conclusion that the capacity of forests to resist change, or recover following disturbance, is dependent on biodiversity at multiple scales. The findings are relevant for the further implementation of the CBD programme of work on forest biodiversity, as well as for efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The report.

 

WOMEN, GENDER EQUALITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

(UN WomenWatch, September 2009)

This factsheet, prepared by UN WomenWatch, focuses on gender perspectives of climate change. The factsheet features the work of the entire UN system on gender equality and climate change and provides comprehensive information for advocacy, research and programming for governments, NGOs, United Nations entities, global and regional bodies, academia, women’s groups and networks and interested individuals on the topic. The factsheet.

CLIMATE CHANGE CONNECTIONS
(UNFPA and WEDO, October 2009)
This resource kit, prepared by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO), focuses on gender and population and advocates that women are uniquely positioned as innovators, educators, caretakers, leaders and agents of change to address the risks of a changing climate. The resource kit provides policy guidance, finance, adaptation plans, advocacy tools and best practices on how increasing education opportunities for girls, economic opportunities for women, access to reproductive health and family planning can reduce vulnerability to climate change. The resource kit.

CHARTING A NEW LOW-CARBON ROUTE TO DEVELOPMENT
(UNDP, September 2009)
This primer on integrated climate change planning for regional governments seeks to advance the integration of climate change into development work, arguing that the full engagement of sub-national authorities is important to move the climate change and development agendas forward. It suggests that taking the necessary action to tackle climate change will meet with stronger public consensus and be more effective if it helps address local development issues, such as the provision of basic services, greater energy and food security, and employment. It addresses options that, when tailored to specific circumstances, could help balance the pursuit of both climate change mitigation and the investments needed to accelerate poverty reduction and development. The
primer.

UN-REDD PROGRAMME NEWSLETTER
(UN-REDD, September 2009)
The second issue of the UN-REDD Newsletter reports on recent events related to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) activities. The newsletter.

CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE COMPENDIUM 2009
(UNEP, 2009)
This report, compiled in association with scientists around the world, reviews some 400 major scientific contributions to our understanding of Earth Systems and climate change that have been released through peer-reviewed literature, or from research institutions, over the last three years. The compendium.

HANDBOOK ON ESSENTIAL USE NOMINATIONS
(UNEP, 2009)
This handbook was prepared by the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel and is intended to assist parties in the preparation of essential use nominations. This handbook augments and updates the 2005 Handbook. The handbook.

TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2009
(UNCTAD, 2009)
The Trade and Development Report 2009, by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) addresses both how to respond to the global economic crisis and the role of climate change mitigation in development. The report suggests innovation in support of climate change mitigation is not fundamentally different from other innovation activities, but since climate change mitigation is increasingly recognized as a public good, innovation also calls for direct government intervention. The report.

THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION
(OECD, September 2009)
The book by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concludes that a fully-fledged global carbon market would cost just one-tenth of a percent of average world annual GDP growth between 2012 and 2050 to achieve moderately ambitious climate targets. According to the OECD, such a market would result in a 4% reduction in GDP in 2050 compared to a scenario where no policy action is taken. Over the same period, world GDP growth is projected to grow by more than 250%. The study.

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT
(World Bank, September 2009)
The World Bank’s World Development Report 2010 focuses on Development and Climate Change. It suggests that developing countries can shift to lower-carbon paths while promoting development and reducing poverty, but only if financial and technical assistance from high-income countries is forthcoming. It also explores how public policy may help cope with new or worsened climate risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The report.

SHAPING CLIMATE-RESILIENT DEVELOPMENT
(GEF, September 2009)
The report by the Economics of Climate Adaptation Working Group provides a set of tools for decision makers to adopt a tailored approach for estimating adaptation costs based on local climate conditions, and for building more resilient economies. The methodology was tested in localities within eight different countries (China, United States, Guyana, Mali, United Kingdom, Samoa, India, and Tanzania), which together represent a wide range of climate hazards, economic impacts, and development stages. The report.

MAKING SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN FORESTS WORK FOR PEOPLE AND NATURE: POLICY APPROACHES IN A CHANGING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT
(IUFRO, CIFOR, ICRAF and METLA, August 2009)
This policy brief seeks to provide options on how countries in sub-Saharan Africa and their forests can respond strategically to global drivers of change, namely, climate change, payments for environmental services and emerging energy markets. The brief.

 

AUSTRALIA’S BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE: A STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE VULNERABILITY OF AUSTRALIA’S BIODIVERSITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(Australian Government Biodiversity and Climate Change Expert Advisory Group, 2009)
This assessment of the vulnerability of Australia’s biodiversity to climate change was begun in early 2007 in response to a request from the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council. Its key messages and policy directions address the need to reform biodiversity management; strengthen national commitments to conserve Australia’s biodiversity; invest in the life support system; build innovative and flexible governance systems; and meet the mitigation challenge. The report.

 

CLIMATE AND TRADE POLICIES IN A POST-2012 WORLD
(UNEP and ADAM project, 2009)
This publication is the result of a joint effort by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the ADAM project (“Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy”). The publication provides a collection of short articles by experts on the relationship between trade and climate change policies. The authors examine, for example, the potential use of climate-related border adjustment measures and liberalizing trade in climate-friendly technologies. The report.

NEGOTIATING ADAPTATION: INTERNATIONAL ISSUES OF EQUITY AND FINANCE
(UNEP, Stockholm Environment Institute, International Institute for Environment and Development 2009)
The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) has released this discussion paper, which was developed jointly with the Stockholm Environment Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development. It is the latest in the UNEP Copenhagen Discussion Series, which consists of working papers produced by UNEP and its partners in the lead up to the UNFCCC Climate Talks in Copenhagen in December 2009. The paper addresses: requirements for adaptation finance in developing countries; the presence of an adaptation funding deficit; and the need for systematic appraisal to develop adaptation targets. The report.

UNDP CLIMATE COMMUNITY WEBSITE
(UNDP, 2009)
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has launched a Climate Community web site. The site is a knowledge platform for information on climate change related issues, with a focus on analyses of international climate negotiations as well as the economic and policy implications of climate change. The website.

REPORT ON THE EIGHTH SESSION OF THE UN PERMANENT FORUM ON INDIGENOUS ISSUES
(UN ECOSOC, July 2009)
The report of the 8th session of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, which convened in New York, US, from 18-29 May 2009, has been issued. The report contains the recommendations of the Permanent Forum on the Arctic, which emphasizes that climate change and environmental degradation are a great threat to the traditional lifestyle and cultures of indigenous peoples. The recommendations also call upon the Arctic States to provide financial resources to indigenous peoples of the Arctic to enable them to adapt to climate change. The report.

ECONOMYWIDE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
(IFPRI, 2009)
This research paper by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) analyzes two possible climate change adaptation scenarios for sub-Saharan Africa. The first assumes a doubling of the irrigated area in sub-Saharan Africa by 2050, but keeps total crop area constant. The second assumes that both rainfed and irrigated crop yields increase by 25 percent for all sub-Saharan African countries. Due to the limited initial irrigated area in the region, an increase in agricultural productivity achieves better outcomes than an expansion of irrigated area, although the research suggests that both scenarios could help lower world food prices. The research paper.

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES: A BUFFER AGAINST PRODUCTION RISK IN THE FACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE?
(IFPRI, 2009)
This research paper by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) suggests that soil and water conservation investments perform differently in different rainfall areas and regions of Ethiopia, highlighting the importance of careful geographical targeting when promoting and scaling up soil and water conservation technologies. The research paper.

GUIDE TO THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM): GUIDE 2009
(UNCTAD and UNDP, 2009)
This expanded version of the Guide to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Brazil, presented by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), was commissioned by Brazil’s Ministry of Science and Technology and drawn up under the sponsorship of the UN Development Programme (UNDP). It provides information ton CDM project activities, details specific regulations governing the submission of CDM project activities in Brazil, and facilitates an understanding of the process to promote the development of CDM projects in the country. The guide is also available in Spanish and Portuguese. The guide.

 

UNFPA WEBSITE ON POPULATION DYNAMICS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

(UNFPA, June 2009)

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has launched a website for research and advocacy materials on the links between population dynamics and climate change. The website provides information on population dynamics including age structure, household size, distribution, and urbanization, gender, vulnerability and adaptation, migration or displacement, and reproductive health. The website.

CONVENIENT SOLUTIONS TO AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH: ECOSYSTEM-BASED APPROACHES TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(World Bank, 2009)
The World Bank’s Environment Department has published a report that sets out a compelling argument for including ecosystem
-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. Such ecosystem-based strategies can offer cost-effective, proven and sustainable solutions contributing to, and complementing, other national and regional adaptation strategies. The report notes three of the world’s greatest challenges over the coming decades will be biodiversity loss, climate change, and water shortages. It highlights that promoting further integration of ecosystem-based approaches into climate change responses and national adaptation strategies will require access to much greater sources of funding, including capitalizing on opportunities to protect natural ecosystems as part of major energy and infrastructure projects. The report.

TRADE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(WTO, UNEP, June 2009)
Th
is report by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and UN Environment Programme (UNEP) highlights that there is considerable scope and flexibility under WTO rules for addressing climate change at the national level, and that mitigation measures should be designed and implemented in a manner that ensures that trade and climate policies are mutually supportive. The report launched by the WTO and UNEP examines the science of climate change, its economic aspects, multilateral efforts to tackle climate change, and national climate change policies and their effect on trade. The report.

UNDERSTANDING AND RESPONDING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN DEVELOPING ASIA
(ADB, 2009) 
This report by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) outlines ongoing and planned interventions to help build low-carbon, climate resilient economies in Asia and the Pacific. To better align its investments and associated policy and institutional support with the priorities of its developing member countries relating to climate and development, each of ADB
s five regional departments has drafted a Climate Change Implementation Plan to serve as a guide for climate-related responses, both to mitigate greenhouse emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts. The report.

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: THE WORLD BANK GROUP AT WORK
(World Bank, June 2009)
This booklet provides an overview of the World Bank’s activities related to climate change, including sections on partnerships, strategy, finance and knowledge and capacity. The booklet.

 

MIGRATION, CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

(IOM, May 2009)

This policy paper, published by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), focuses on the connection between environmental changes and human settlement and population movement from a human mobility perspective. It identifies current and potential migrations caused by a shifting climate and indicates that about 200 million people worldwide could become climate migrants by 2050. It notes that conflict, human rights, gender, levels of development, public health and governance issues affect migratory patterns.  It also notes that migration should be recognized as a possible adaptation strategy to climate change. The policy paper.

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: THE WORLD BANK GROUP AT WORK
(World Bank, June 2009)
This 32-page booklet reviews World Bank activities related to climate change, including sections on partnerships, strategy, finance and knowledge and capacity. The publication.

ENERGÍA Y CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: OPORTUNIDADES PARA UNA POLÍTICA INTEGRADA EN AMÉRICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE
(CEPAL, 2009)
This online publication, which is available in Spanish only, was authored by Jean Acquatella. It assesses opportunities for integrated policy approaches towards energy security and climate change mitigation in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries during the 2010-2030 period. It notes that during the next decade, the LAC region will face a new international context for its energy policy characterized by two exogenous developments, namely: the implementation of a strengthened international climate mitigation regime in OECD countries (and other export markets); and continued energy security concerns due to international oil market volatility and the investment gap in energy infrastructure accumulated in most countries during the last decade. In order to address both challenges, an integrated approach towards energy policy during the 2010-2030 period is needed for the region. The report.

STATE AND TRENDS OF THE CARBON MARKET 2009
(World Bank, May 2009)
Despite the turmoil in the financial world, during 2008 the global carbon market doubled to US$126 billion, according to the World Bank’s report on State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2009. The report, based on data from the trading of European Union Allowances (EUAs) under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and from transactions completed under the Kyoto Protocol’s flexible mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI)) as well as data from voluntary markets, also finds that the value of transactions from CDM projects in developing countries declined by 12% to an estimated US$6.5 billion in 2008, with an average price of US$16.8. The report.

2009 GLOBAL ASSESSMENT REPORT ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

(UN/ISDR, May 2009)
This report, prepared by the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR), focuses on the disaster risk and poverty nexus in the context of global climate change. The report analyses the global risk and national levels of disaster and poverty data, and the role of vulnerable rural livelihoods, poor urban governance, declining ecosystems and global climate change in configuring disaster risk. It assesses progress in the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, identifies good practices for addressing the disaster risk and poverty nexus and presents some recommendations. The report.

THE ANATOMY OF A SILENT CRISIS
(Global Humanitarian Forum, May 2009)
This report was prepared by the Global Humanitarian Forum and led by former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. It aggregates the views of several organizations working on issues related to the impact of climate change on human society. It identifies specific threats of climate change to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and indicates that the cost of humanitarian relief is expected to grow exponentially in the next 20 years. The main indicators used to calculate the human impact of climate change are levels of malnutrition, diarrhea, and malaria infection. The report provides recommendations for consideration in the ongoing climate change negotiations. The report.

 

REPORT OF THE 11th SESSION OF THE COMMITTEE FOR DEVELOPMENT POLICY

(UN ECOSOC, May 2009)

This report (E/2009/33) of the 11th session of the Committee for Development Policy, held from 9-13 March 2009, addresses the following themes: international cooperation on global public health and the importance of tackling inequalities; the global financial turmoil and its impact on developing countries; climate change and development; and the triennial review of the list of the least developed countries. On climate change, the report notes that the financial crisis provides an opportunity for changing conventional patterns of investment and production, calling for every country to adopt carbon-saving technologies and fordeveloped countries to facilitate technology transfer and finance to developing countries for global mitigation. The report also called for the development of a climate impact vulnerability indicator at the national level to guide adaptation strategies. The report (E/2009/33).

CLIMATE IN PERIL: A POPULAR GUIDE TO THE LATEST IPCC REPORTS
(UNEP, May 2009)
This resource presents the substance of the Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in simplified language and structure. The guide, intended for lay readers, is a joint publication of UNEP GRID-Arendal and SMI Books, supported by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. It includes chapters on: robust findings and key uncertainties; present changes, causes and observed impacts; projected climate change and its impacts; adaptation and mitigation; mitigation options; adaptation options; the potential of international and regional cooperation; the limits of adaptation and mitigation; costs of impacts, mitigation and long-term stabilization targets; sustainable development, environmental protection and climate change; and long-term perspectives on key vulnerabilities, impacts and risks. The guide.

AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: AN AGENDA FOR NEGOTIATION IN COPENHAGEN
(IFPRI, 2009)
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has released a collection of policy briefs addressing technical and policy issues on agriculture and climate change that should be addressed as part of a new international agreement on climate change. The volume comprises 12 policy briefs covering issues such as: agricultural science and technology needs for mitigation and adaptation; mitigation through tree and soil management; the potential for soil carbon sequestration; mitigating emissions from livestock systems; monitoring, reporting and verification methodologies in agriculture, forestry and other land uses; and the role of international trade. The briefs are preceded by an overview piece summarizing the major issues that should be addressed in the Copenhagen climate change negotiations. The volume.

THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: A REGIONAL REVIEW
(ADB, May 2009)
This report by the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) notes that business-as-usual in Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam could cause combined damages equivalent to more than 6% of those countries' gross domestic products per year by the end of this century, dwarfing the costs of the current financial crisis. The Bank has also published its second Sustainability Report presenting information on the promotion of environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive growth, and minimizing its corporate environment footprint. The sustainability report. The Economics of Climate Change report.

DEVELOPING COUNTRY INTERESTS IN CLIMATE CHANGE ACTION AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR A POST-2012 CLIMATE CHANGE REGIME
(UNCTAD, April 2009)
The paper by Aaron Cosbey of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) focuses on the cross-cutting objective of advancing development goals throughout the Bali Action Plan in a sustainable way, making the case that there are strategic interests for developing countries in simultaneously addressing climate change and nationally-defined development priorities. The paper.

RESOURCE GUIDE ON GENDER AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(UNDP, May 2009)
This resource guide aims to inform practitioners and policy makers of the linkages between gender equality and climate change and their importance in relation to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It makes the case for why it is necessary to include women’s voices, needs and expertise in climate change policy and programming, and demonstrates how women’s contributions can strengthen the effectiveness of climate change measures.
The resource guide.

FINANCING REDD: HOW GOVERNMENT FUNDS CAN WORK WITH THE CARBON MARKET
(International Institute for Environment and Development, March 2009)
Written by Virgilio M. Viana, this briefing discusses using a dual approach to financing for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) – government funding and market-based instruments. The briefing.

ADAPTATION OF FORESTS AND PEOPLE TO CLIMATE CHANGE – A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT REPORT
(International Union of Forest Research Organizations, April 2009)
The Global Forest Expert Panel of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, led by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations, has released a report presenting current knowledge about the impacts of climate change on forests and people and options for adaptation. A key message to emerge from this assessment is that the carbon-regulating services of forests are at risk of being lost entirely unless current carbon emissions are reduced substantially; this would result in the release of huge quantities of carbon to the atmosphere, exacerbating climate change. The report.

COUNTRY STUDIES ON AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(World Bank, March 2009)
The country notes for Latin America and the Caribbean on climate change and agriculture identify specific climatic constraints and policy interventions related to the agricultural sector, highlighting the institutional make-up in the dialogue of climate change and agriculture. The country notes.

 

AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: AN AGENDA FOR NEGOTIATION IN COPENHAGEN
(IFPRI, 2009)
This brief, authored by Gerald Nelson, outlines three key messages related to the urgency of including agriculture in the ongoing UN Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations, which will culminate in Copenhagen in December 2009: climate change will affect agriculture, but it is uncertain where and how much; agriculture can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions; and cost-effective ways are needed to help poor farmers adapt to climate change.  The brief also prescribes specific negotiating outcomes for the December meetings. The brief.

 

GLOBAL GREEN NEW DEAL: POLICY BRIEF
(UNEP, March 2009)
This report aims to inform the debate at the G20 meeting to be held in London, UK, in early April 2009, and makes the case that investing about US$750 billion of stimulus monies in the green economy could aid recovery from the economic downturn, create jobs, address poverty, promote achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, and fight climate change. The report.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE WORLD BANK GROUP: EVALUATION OF WORLD BANK WIN-WIN ENERGY POLICY REFORMS
(World Bank Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), 2009)
This report finds, among other issues, that fuel pricing is a key policy affecting emissions and that important information for the design and management of emissions-related policies is missing. The report constitutes the first phase of a broader analysis of the Bank’s impact on combating climate change. It focuses on policies that combine gains at the country level with globally beneficial greenhouse gas reductions, namely the removal of energy subsidies and promotion of end- user energy efficiency. A response of the Management to the IEG’s findings is also included. The report.

 

UNDERSTANDING FARMERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY: THE CASE OF THE LIMPOPO BASIN, SOUTH AFRICA
(IFPRI, 2009)
This research paper, authored by Glwadys Aymone Gbetibouo, uses a “bottom-up” approach, seeking to gain insights from farmers themselves based on a farm household survey. The study examines how farmer perceptions correspond with climate data recorded at meteorological stations in the Limpopo River Basin and analyzes farmers’ adaptation responses to climate change and variability. The analysis shows that farmers’ perceptions of climate change are in line with the climatic data records. However, only approximately half of the farmers have adjusted their farming practices to account for the impacts of climate change. Lack of access to credit was cited by respondents as the main factor inhibiting adaptation. Household size, farming experience, wealth, access to credit, access to water, tenure rights, off-farm activities, and access to extension are the main factors that enhance adaptive capacity. The paper recommends that the government should design policies aimed at improving these factors. The paper.

 

A NEW CLIMATE FOR FORESTS: GEF ACTION ON SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT
(GEF, March 2009)
This publication reviews the GEF’s work on sustainable forest management and its current portfolio as well as potential roles of the GEF in the post-2012 climate regime. The report.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: A REVIEW
(ECLAC, March 2009)

This review, presented by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), highlights that Latin America and the Caribbean may suffer more impacts of climate change than other regions due to the island States in the region, low coastal areas and prevalence of hurricanes. It further emphasizes that, considering that greenhouse gas emissions in the region are relatively low (11.7% of global emissions in 2000), authorities’ attention must focus on adaptation. The review.

WATER SCARCITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE: GROWING RISKS FOR BUSINESSES AND INVESTORS
(Ceres and the Pacific Institute, February 2009)
This report details the growing business risks stemming from water scarcity and quality in eight key sectors: agriculture, beverage, electric power/energy, apparel, high-tech/IT, mining/metals, forest products, and biotechnology/pharmaceutical. The report concludes that climate change will exacerbate growing water risks, especially as the world population grows by 50 million people every year. Despite the looming challenges faced by the water sector, the report concludes that businesses and investors are largely unaware of water-related risks or how climate change will likely exacerbate them, and outlines recommended actions. The report.

A CLIMATE FOR CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON SOCIETY AND ECONOMY IN CROATIA
(UNDP, February 2009)

The UN Development Programme (UNDP) has published a Human Development Report for Croatia 2008 on climate change and its impacts on society and the economy. The report stresses that 25 percent of the Croatian economy could be directly impacted by climate change, including through changes to tourism agriculture, fisheries and water resources. The report.

TROPICAL FOREST UPDATE: CLIMATE CHANGING IN TROPICAL FORESTS
(ITTO, February 2008) 
The latest issue of the International Tropical Timber Organization’s newsletter focuses on climate change and tropical forests. It includes articles on the emerging market for land-use carbon credits, the UN Collaborative Programme on Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD), and carbon trading. The newsletter.

Freshwater Under Threat: South Asia
(UNEP and Asian Institute of Technology, 2009)
This report highlights, inter alia, the threat that climate change poses to the freshwater supply of hundreds of millions of people. It forecasts that, given the dependence on receding Himalayan glaciers, climate change is likely to eventually lead to severe water shortages in all of South Asia’s water basins, and calls for urgent policy attention. The report.

UNDERSTANDING FARMERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY: THE CASE OF THE LIMPOPO BASIN, SOUTH AFRICA
(IPPRI, 2009)
This brief, authored by Glwadys Aymone Gbetibouo, examines farmers’ perceptions of climate change and analyzes their adaptation responses. The brief recommends policy measures to facilitate adaptation, including access to affordable credit, investments in “smart” irrigation, and strengthening farm-level managerial capacity. The brief.

CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND MAIZE YIELD IN SOUTH AFRICA
(IPPRI, 2009)
This brief, authored by Wisdom Akpalu, Rashid M. Hassan and Claudia Ringler, explores direct impacts of climate variability on maize yields. The authors conclude that irrigation is a key factor in mitigating the impacts of decreased precipitation. The brief.

THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION ON FOOD PRODUCTION IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NILE BASIN, ETHIOPIA
(IPPRI, 2009)
This brief, authored by Mahmud Yesuf, Salvatore Di Falco, Temesgen Deressa, Claudia Ringler and Gunnar Kohlin, addresses the factors influencing adaptation and the implications of various adaptation strategies for farm productivity. The authors report that farmers’ decisions to adopt yield-enhancing adaptation strategies are influenced by, among other factors, available information on future climate change, seasonal rainfall, the agro-ecological setting, and several specific characteristics of households. They suggest improving farmers’ access to timely information about climate change, access to credit markets and farmer-to-farmer extension to encourage adoption of yield-related adaptation strategies. The brief.

GLOBAL CARBON MARKETS: ARE THERE OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA?
(IPPRI, 2009)
This brief, authored by Elizabeth Bryan, Wisdom Akpalu, Claudia Ringler and Mahmud Yesuf, examines Sub-Saharan Africa’s current involvement in carbon markets, potential for GHG emission reductions, constraints to further participation, and opportunities for expanding Sub-Saharan Africa’s market share. The authors argue that Clean Development Mechanism rules for determining baselines, monitoring carbon emissions and enforcing offsets should be simplified, and the range of eligible projects broadened to include avoided deforestation and soil carbon sequestration to facilitate the participation of Sub-Saharan African countries. The brief.

INVENTION AND TRANSFER OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ON A GLOBAL SCALE: A STUDY DRAWING ON PATENT DATA
(Mines ParisTech, CERNA, AFD, 2008)
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the geographic distribution of climate mitigation inventions since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. It uses statistics to suggest that the Kyoto Protocol has induced technological innovation in the recent period. This increase has taken place in Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but not in Australia and in the US. In contrast, there is no visible effect of the Kyoto Protocol on technology transfer: international technology flows have been increasing in the recent period, but the growth rate is the same as the average. The study.

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE WORLD BANK GROUP: TECHNICAL REPORT
(World Bank, 2009)
This technical report serves as a background for the Bank’s strategic framework for climate change, which was approved in 2008. The technical report covers in detail how the World Bank Group will support climate actions in country-led development processes, as well as how to mobilize additional concessional and innovative finance. It represents the culmination of a global multistakeholder consultation process that benefitted from feedback from thousands of development professionals, policy makers, academics, scientists, youth, indigenous peoples and the private sector representing a wide range of countries, views and perspectives. The
technical report. Executive Summary.

CLIMATE CHANGE CHALLENGES FOR EU DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION: EMERGING ISSUES
(European Development Cooperation 2020, January 2009)
This working paper, written by Leo Peskett et al., notes that the impacts of climate change on developing countries and the policy measures adopted by developed countries to mitigate climate change have posed new challenges for the development cooperation agenda. The paper reviews the main policy processes that have been developed within the EU to address climate change in the context of development cooperation. It looks at how to mainstream climate change into development co-operation in the EU; to ensure coordinated and coherent efforts between donors and development policy processes; and to bridge the large funding gap for climate change response in developing countries. The working paper.

TRAINING MANUAL FOR CUSTOMS OFFICERS: SAVING THE OZONE LAYER – PHASING OUT OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(UNEP, 2008) UNEP has launched the second edition of this manual, meant to enhance enforcement of national controls on ozone depleting substances. The manual.

GREEN CUSTOMS GUIDE TO MULTILATERAL ENVIORNMENTAL AGREEMENTS
(UNEP, 2008) This guide aims to orient customs officers and border protection officers to provisions of multilateral agreements that are relevant to their work. The guide.

HUMANITARIAN IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
(ReliefWeb, 2009)
ReliefWeb has launched a special focus page on the humanitarian implications of climate change. The page include key documents on the topic, research institutions and international organizations working on the issue, hazard specific analysis, thematic impact studies, geographic impacts studies, and events. The page.

CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND MAIZE YIELD IN SOUTH AFRICA: RESULTS FROM GME AND MELE METHODS
(IFPRI, December 2008)
This paper, authored by Wisdom Akpalu, Rashid M. Hassan and Claudia Ringler, investigates the impact of climate variability on maize yield in the Limpopo Basin of South Africa using the Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME) estimator and Maximum Entropy Leuven Estimator (MELE). It finds that increased precipitation, increased temperature, and irrigation have a positive impact on yield. Furthermore, results of the MELE show that the impact of precipitation on maize yield is stronger than that of temperature, meaning that the impact of climate variability on maize yield could be negative if the change increases temperature but reduces precipitation at the same rate and simultaneously. Moreover, the impact of irrigation on yield is positive but with a lower elasticity coefficient than that of precipitation, which supposes that irrigation may only partially mitigate the impact of reduced precipitation on yield. The paper.

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION IN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE
(World Bank, January 2008)
The World Bank has released a guide that provides guidance to policy-makers and development agencies on the linkages between the design of development programmes and the objectives of adapting to climate change and limiting emissions of greenhouse gases. The guide.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND TRANSPORT: PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT IN CHINA
(Asian Development Bank, 2009)
This paper, authored by Manmohan Parkash, evaluates the state of China�s transport sector in light of volatile fuel prices and increasing greenhouse emissions. It makes six key recommendations for promoting environmentally sustainable transportation in China, including to: implement administrative reforms; use economic instruments to promote sustainable transportation; and promote environmentally friendly transportation. In this regard, measures are proposed to optimize motor vehicle fuel consumption standards, establish fuel oil consumption standards for all new motor vehicles by 2010, and enforce the limits on fuel consumption by passenger cars. The fuel consumption of new motor vehicles should be reduced by 40�50% per 100 km by 2015. The paper.

INVENTION AND TRANSFER OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES ON A GLOBAL SCALE: A STUDY DRAWING ON PATENT DATA
(Mines ParisTech, CERNA, AFD, 2008)
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the geographic distribution of climate mitigation inventions since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. It uses statistics to suggest that the Kyoto Protocol has induced technological innovation in the recent period. Between 1998 and 2003, innovation in climate mitigation technologies has been growing at a faster rate than other technologies, with an average annual rate of nine percent. This increase has taken place in Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but not in Australia or the US. In contrast, there is no visible effect of the Kyoto Protocol on technology transfer: international technology flows have been increasing in the recent period, but the growth rate is the same as the average. The study.

THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION ON FOOD PRODUCTION IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NILE BASIN, ETHIOPIA
(IFPRI, 2008)
This paper, published by the International Food Policy Research Institute and written by Mahmud Yesuf, Salvatore Di Falco, Claudia Ringler and Gunnar Kohlin, presents an empirical analysis of the impact of climate change on food production in a typical low-income developing country. It estimates the determinants of adaptation to climate change and the implications of these strategies on farm productivity. The analysis relies on primary data from 1,000 farms producing cereal crops in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. IFPRI found that climate change and climate change adaptations have significant impacts on farm productivity. Extension services (both formal and farmer to farmer), as well as access to credit and information on future climate changes, affect adaptation positively and significantly. Farm households with larger access to social capital are more likely to adopt yield-related adaptation strategies. The paper.

 

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIOENERGY ON NUTRITION
(FAO and IFPRI, 2008)
This paper examines the consequences of climate change and rising bioenergy demand for sustainable development, food security and nutrition throughout the lifecycle. It also explores the implications of climate change and rising bioenergy demand for nutrition and analyzes potential strategies for cultivation of bioenergy crops that can contribute to poverty reduction, food security and sustainable natural resource management. The authors note that efforts to assure food security and good nutrition in the face of current climate change challenges must continue in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The report.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES OF THE UPPER BLUE NILE RIVER BASIN, ETHIOPIA
(International Water Management Institute Research Report 126, November 2008)
This report evaluates the impacts of climate change on the hydrological regime and water resources of the Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. It starts from the construction of the climate change scenarios based on the outcomes of several general circulation models, uses a simple hydrological model to convert theses scenarios into runoff, and examines the impacts by means of a set of indices. The report.


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