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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2008

 

Climate and Atmosphere Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOOD SECURITY IN PACIFIC ISLAND COUNTRIES

(FAO, SPREP, and University of the South Pacific, December 2008)
This report, jointly published by the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and the University of the South Pacific, notes that climate change-related disasters are accentuating the constraints on development in the islands, which appear to be in a ‘constant mode of recovery.’ The report calls on Pacific island countries to review their agriculture, forestry, fisheries and drinking water development policies, in light of new information on climate change. The report.

 

UNEP CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY
(UN Environment Programme, 2008)
This publication lays out the UNEP strategy for its programme of work for 2010-2011. The priorities detailed in the strategy include: adapting by building resilience; facilitating a transition towards low carbon societies; improving understanding of climate change science; and communication and raising public awareness. The strategy.

UNEP AND PARTNERS UNITED TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE
(UN Environment Programme, 2008)
This publication details the ways in which UNEP has and plans to work with governments, civil society and the private sector to combat climate change. The publication.

OUR PLANET
(UNEP, 2008)
The latest issue of UNEP’s magazine for sustainable development, marking the climate meeting in Poznan, Poland, is devoted to the nexus of employment, energy generation and development. Our Planet: Renewable Energy - Generating power, jobs and development

Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilise Investment in Climate Change Mitigation
(UNEP, 2008)
UNEP’s Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, under its Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative, commissioned this report, which assesses how public monies can leverage commercial financing. The report.

Carbon and Biodiversity Demonstration Atlas
(UNEP, 2008)
This atlas highlights areas where high carbon content and high biodiversity overlap, demonstrating that reducing emissions from deforestation can combat climate change and biodiversity loss. The atlas.

The Kyoto Protocol, The Clean Development Mechanism, and the Building and Construction Sector

(UNEP, 2008)
This report suggests that the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which governs the main international carbon market, should be revised to tap into the power of the building and construction industry. The report.

 

Atmospheric Brown Clouds: REGIONAL ASSESSMENT REPORT WITH FOCUS ON ASIA

(UN Environment Programme, 2008)
This report shows that, in addition to affecting agriculture and human health, Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs) – a layer of soot and manmade particles – can both aggravate, via the absorption of sunlight, and counteract, via the reflection of sunlight and effects on cloud formation, climate change due to greenhouse gases. The report.

POVERTY IN A CHANGING CLIMATE
(Institute of Development Studies, November 2008)
This Bulletin, published by the Institute of Development Studies, focuses on how climate change has become a mainstream development issue. The publication links adaptation with a variety of insights and approaches from poverty and vulnerability to confront the challenges of climate change. It reframes the adaptation debate and puts forward a pro-poor adaptation agenda that acknowledges the differentiated and multidimensional nature of poverty for effective and equitable adaptation measures, looking at gender dimensions, microfinance, access to assets, impact on the urban poor, and the economic case of adaptation. The bulletin.

ACHIEVING ‘GREEN GROWTH’ IN A CARBON CONSTRAINED WORLD
(ODI, October 2008)
This note, written by Jodie Keane and Gareth Potts, assesses the options available to developing countries, referred to as “carbon constrained” due to binding emissions targets set under the Kyoto Protocol and to high oil prices. The authors discuss how ‘green growth’, economic growth with reduced or neutral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, can be promoted under the emissions reductions mechanisms included in the Kyoto Protocol.
The note.

TROPICAL FORESTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(ITTO, October 2008)
This report summarizes the deliberations of the International Expert Meeting on Addressing Climate Change through Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests, which met for three days in Yokohama, Japan, in May/June 2008. The meeting endorsed the potential role of sustainable forest management in the tropics in both mitigating climate change and helping communities adapt to it. The report.

THE BALI ACTION PLAN: KEY ISSUES IN THE CLIMATE NEGOTIATIONS
(UNDP, September 2008)
This publication, which was authored by Chad Carpenter of UNDP’s Environment and Energy Group, is designed to assist policy makers in understanding the complex issues under discussion in the negotiating process. The publication considers the four main “building blocks” that have been the main focus on UN climate change negotiations since the Bali conference in late 2007. These building blocks are mitigation, adaptation, technology and finance. The publication also considers the issue of land use, land-use change and forestry. These issues will play a critical role in a future international framework, and will be the focus of the upcoming negotiations taking place in Poznan, Poland, in December 2008, and beyond. The publication.

CLIMATE CHANGE: FINANCING GLOBAL FORESTS
(Office of Climate Change, UK, October 2008)
Prepared by Johan Eliasch for the UK Government, this review provides a comprehensive analysis of international financing to reduce forest loss and its associated impacts on climate change. The review.

ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME – A THREAT TO OUR FUTURE
(Environmental Investigation Agency, October 2008)

Organized environmental crime poses a growing threat, yet remains a low priority for the enforcement community. Environmental crime includes illegal trade in wildlife, smuggling of ozone-depleting and global-warming substances, illicit trade in hazardous waste, illegal fishing, illegal logging and the associated trade in stolen timber. This report shows the scale and impacts of environmental crime and calls for strong political will to tackle it as a matter of urgency. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE – CAN SOIL MAKE A DIFFERENCE?
(EC, October 2008)

The report is now available for the European Commission-sponsored meeting of the same name. The meeting, which convened on 12 June 2008, in Brussels, Belgium, heard statements from Luc Gnacadja, Executive Secretary of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification, and
Stavros Dimas, Commissioner for the Environment, European Commission, among others. Speakers’ overall message was that soil is part of the climate change problem, but can – and must – also be part of the solution. The extent to which soil-emitted greenhouse gases and the processes leading to these emissions can be reduced requires further work, but efforts to adopt sound soil management practices and maintain carbon in soil can help to offset fossil fuel emissions. The Conference website.

ON PRODUCTS CONTAINING OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES: A GUIDE TO CUSTOMS OFFICERS AND INSPECTORS IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES
(Nordic Ozone Group, 2008)

This guidebook seeks to inform the work of customs officers in Nordic countries and to facilitate the cooperation of such officers in the region. It highlights the importance of controlling ozone depleting substances, as well as the relevant regulations The guidebook.

WORLD RESOURCES REPORT 2008: ROOTS OF RESILIENCE  
(WRI, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank, 2008)

The 2008 edition of the World Resources Report argues that properly designed enterprises can create economic, social, and environmental resilience that cushion the impacts of climate change, and help provide needed social stability. It further states that increased resilience should be part of the response to the risks of climate change, noting that efforts that foster resilience chart the first steps on the path out of poverty. The Report is a joint effort produced by the World Resources Institute (WRI), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank. The report.

BALI ACTION PLAN: KEY ISSUES IN THE NEGOTIATIONS – SUMMARY FOR POLICY MAKERS
(UNDP, September 2008)
This summary, published by UNDP, comprises a brief background to the Bali Action Plan and summarizes six thematic background documents on mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer and deployment, financing, LULUCF, and national policies. The summary.

GREEN JOBS: TOWARDS DECENT WORK IN A SUSTAINABLE, LOW-CARBON WORLD
(ILO, UNEP, ITUC and International Organisation of Employers, September 2008)
This report suggests that efforts to address climate change could create millions of new jobs, and finds that changing patterns of employment and investment resulting from efforts to reduce climate change and its effects are already generating new jobs in many sectors and economies, in developed and developing countries. Focusing on “green jobs” in agriculture, industry, services and administration, the report also highlights the risks inherent in climate change for the working poor and the vulnerable. The report.

PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR CLIMATE-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEMS AND RESOURCES
(USEPA, 2008)
This report is a contribution to the US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and was developed by the Global Change Research Program in the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development. It is one of 21 synthesis and assessment products commissioned by the CCSP. This report has been peer-reviewed and seeks to provide the best-available science to date on management adaptations for ecosystems and resources. The
report.

CLEAN ENERGY INVESTMENT
(IISD, August 2008)
These reports are the product of a project that looked at investment for clean energy infrastructure and technologies. Given the massive flows of investment (both foreign and domestic) necessary to address climate change and foster development in developing countries, the project focused on barriers and opportunities for making those flows materialize. It looked at domestic barriers and opportunities (supported by three country studies), and at the potential of international investment law to foster or frustrate clean energy investment. A synthesis report and policy makers’ summary pull together the project’s results, with some concluding thoughts about the direction and deficiencies of existing efforts at clean energy investment and technology transfer. The reports.

TRADE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(IISD, August 2008)
In June 2008, IISD collaborated with the Government of Denmark, the German Marshall Fund and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development to convene a major seminar on trade and climate change in Copenhagen. The event's background papers have been revised and finalized, and constitute excellent brief surveys of the key issues in each of the six areas covered: Liberalization of Trade in Environmental Goods for Climate Change Mitigation; Border Carbon Adjustment; Embodied Carbon in Traded Goods; Climate Change, Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights; Clean Energy Investment, and; Standards, Labelling and Certification. The reports.

REFORMING ENERGY SUBSIDIES: OPPORTUNITIES TO CONTRIBUTE THE CLIMATE CHANGE AGENDA
(UNEP-DTIE, 2008)
The UN Environment Programme’s (UNEP) Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE)  produced  this booklet to raise awareness of energy subsidies and their impact. The publication highlights the negative results that have been linked to energy subsidies, including increased consumption and waste, burdened governments, and reduced investments in renewable energy, and calls for action to facilitate energy subsidy reform. The booklet.

UNDP ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY
(UNDP, August 2008)
This report argues that environment and energy are central to the core UN Development Programme (UNDP) mission of poverty reduction, and makes recommendations about how to improve UNDP environmental programming. The report.

CLIMATE RESILIANT CITIES
(UN/ISDR, World Bank and GFDRR, June 2008)
This report, published jointly by the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, World Bank and Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, provides a tool for city governments in the East Asia Region to better understand how to plan for climate change impacts and impending natural disasters through sound urban planning to reduce vulnerabilities. The main focus of the tool is to identify vulnerable and at-risk-areas. The report.

OPPORTUNITIES TO ACHIEVE POVERTY REDUCTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE BENEFITS THROUGH LOW CARBON ENERGY ACCESS PROGRAMMES: A REVIEW OF THE PORTFOLIO OF THE ASHDEN AWARDS FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, FOR THE DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
(Ashden Awards, 2008)
The UK Department for International Development (DFID) commissioned this study of international winners of the Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy. The study seeks to inform DFID and international development partners of opportunities to scale up low carbon energy access programmes in order to contribute to climate change mitigation, poverty reduction and progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. The report.

BROWSING ON FENCES: PASTORAL LAND RIGHTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LIVELIHOODS AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(IIED, May 2008)
This paper developed from an articulated process to address the rights to land of pastoral groups, within a holistic perspective and accounting for changes brought about by climate change. It brings together the inputs of over 120 participants in a web-based forum organized in 2006 and managed by the International Land Coalition on pastoral land rights. Further materials and lessons have been drawn from a number of projects and experiences all around the world, in order to provide a comprehensive update about the rights of nomadic and pastoralist groups and natural resources. Elements for discussion were contributed by another web-based forum organized by the World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism in 2007, focusing on climate change, adaptation and pastoralism, which received contributions from over 80 participants belonging to or working with pastoral groups in different regions of the world. The paper.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A ROUGH GUIDE
(International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2008)
This report discusses human rights concerns raised by anthropogenic climate change and by the strategies devised to address it. It indicates areas where climate change will have direct and indirect human rights impacts, and where human rights principles might sharpen policy-making on climate change, including in the two core policy areas of adaptation and mitigation. The report also assesses the adequacy of human rights conceptions and processes to the larger justice concerns climate change raises. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER

(IPCC, June 2008)
The sixth in the IPCC Technical Paper series addresses issues of freshwater and climate change. The paper notes “abundant evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the potential to be strongly impacted by climate change, with wide ranging consequences for human societies and ecosystems.” It also notes projections for increased flooding and drought, increased water pollution, and the need for integrated adaptation strategies on both the demand and supply sides. The paper was developed by an interdisciplinary team of authors from the three IPCC working groups, and has been subject to expert and government review, although it has not been considered by the IPCC for its approval. The paper.

 

FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE: THE ANSWER IS BIODIVERSITY
(Greenpeace, June 2008)
This report suggests that a review of recent scientific literature underlines that the most effective strategy to adapt agriculture to climate change is to increase biodiversity. A mix of different crops and varieties in one field is a proven and highly reliable farming method to increase resilience to erratic weather changes. The report further notes that the best way to increase stress tolerance in single varieties are modern breeding technologies that do not entail genetic engineering, such as marker assisted selection. The report.

BREAKING THE CLIMATE DEADLOCK:  A GLOBAL DEAL FOR OUR LOW CARBON FUTURE
(Tony Blair/Climate Group, June 2008)
This new report from former British Prime Minister Tony Blair and The Climate Group assesses the outcomes required in December 2009 at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, urging the “maximum that is politically realistic and achievable at this time.” In the short-term, the report urges the Hokkaido G8 Summit in July 2008 to agree on a long-term emissions target of at least a 50 percent reduction in emissions by 2050, and identify the core elements that should form a part of the Copenhagen agreement. The report considers a range of relevant issues, including the role of the carbon markets, financing, sectoral action, adaptation, the role of forests, technology and “developing world contributions.” The
report.

CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC: RE-UNITING CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(IGES, June 2008)
This paper proposes climate strategies that fully take into account the needs of developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. It looks at the impact of climate change in the Asia-Pacific region and current policies from various aspects such as international framework, market mechanisms, forestry, biofuels, waste, water and business, and sets out policy recommendations that integrate climate change policies and sustainable development and shows the way for new development towards the realisation of a low-carbon society. The paper.

GLOBAL TRENDS IN SUSTAINABLE ENERGY INVESTMENT 2008
(UNEP, July 2008)
This analysis by the UN Environment Programme shows a surge in renewable energy investments in 2007, driven by oil prices and concerns about both climate change and energy security. The report also highlights the increasing proportion of investment in China, India and Brazil. The
report (requires free registration).

DESTRUCTION OF OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES
(USEPA, July 2008)

This draft report by the United States Enivornmental Protection Agency (USEPA) analyzes the destruction of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in the US. In particular, the report examines the technologies and regulations relating to ODS, recommendations of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) and the ability of facilities to meet them. The report.

KEY ELEMENTS OF A GLOBAL DEAL ON CLIMATE CHANGE
(LSE, 2008)
Nicholas Stern, of the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), proposes key elements of a global climate policy that seek to satisfy three basic principles: effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Among the specific proposals outlined in this paper are calls for: developed countries, at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) COP15 meetings in 2009, to commit to cutting emissions by 80-90% from 1990 levels by 2050 together with credible interim targets; developing countries to commit to enhanced energy efficiency policies, cheaper technologies and reduced deforestation, and by 2020 developing countries, subject to developed country performance, to take on appropriate and binding national targets; working towards an international cap-and-trade system; integrating forests into global carbon trading in the medium to long term; globally coordinated standards, coordinated public funding and targeted concessional finance to increase technology diffusion and adoption; and integrating adaptation assistance into development spending to deliver development goals in a climate-resilient manner. The paper also suggests undertaking further work in the following areas to take this programme forward: targets, the role of developing countries in mitigation and trade; international emissions trading-cap-and-trade; deforestation; technology; and adaptation. The paper.

CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED WATER STRESS AND ITS IMPACTS ON NATURAL AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS
(Ecologic, IEEP and SYKE, 2008)
This study explores which ecosystems will be most impacted and analyzes how the effects of climate change act as causes of additional emissions, thereby reinforcing global warming in a positive feedback loop. The paper was prepared for the European Parliament by Ecologic jointly with the Institute for European Environmental Policies (IEEP) and the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). The study also highlights existing policy and management approaches, identifies gaps in the regime and concludes with sector-specific policy recommendations. The study.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURE
(Stockholm Environment Institute, 2008)
The Stockholm Environment Institute has published a policy brief and report on how climate science could be better used for supporting adaption in African agriculture. The policy brief. The full report.

WOMEN – ENERGY - CLIMATE THEME: GLOBAL INFLUENCE AND LOCAL EFFORTS
(International Network for Sustainable Energy, May 2008) This newsletter focuses on women, climate change and energy, ranging from underrepresentation of women in decision-making, to concerns about environmental risks and women’s interests in sustainable solutions and energy, to regulations used to increase gender balance in society, such as gender quotas for educational institutes and the work place. The newsletter.

Helping people build a better world? Barriers to more environmentally friendly energy production in China
(Fridtjof Nansen Institute, March 2008)
This report, written by Inga F. Buan, analyzes the changes in the Shell Group since the 1990s, when energy companies started their greening processes due to environmental legislation, civil society pressure and media scrutiny. The report suggests that the role of the state, short-term economic perspectives, and conflicts of interest are the main barriers to adopting more environmentally-friendly energy production in the case of Shell China. The report.

PLANTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: WHICH FUTURE?
(Botanic Gardens Conservation International, 2008)
Written by Belinda Hawkins, Suzanne Sharrock and Kay Havens, this report seeks to demonstrate the linkages between plant diversity and climate change and why it is crucially important to care for the world’s natural plant diversity. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND SECURITY: CHALLENGES FOR GERMAN DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
(GTZ, 2008)
This publication, authored by Alexander Carius, Dennis Tänzler, Achim Maas - Adelphi Consult, was commissioned and published by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). It reviews the security implications of climate change, and then applies the findings to selected sectors, including water, food and rural development, infrastructure, energy and transport, urbanisation and governance, as well as to specific regions, including MENA, Africa, Asia and Pacific and Latin America. The publication concludes with recommendations on strategy, policy and practice for German and international development cooperation. The paper.

DOWNSIZING DEVELOPMENT: AN INTRODUCTION TO NANO-SCALE TECHNOLOGIES AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GLOBAL SOUTH
(NGLS/ETC Group, May 2008)

This new book considers the potential role of nano-scale technologies on development and the Millennium Development Goals. Commissioned by the UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS), the book considers the rapid growth of the nanotechnology market, which is expected to reach US$1 trillion in size by 2015. The book considers the absence of a regulatory environment and the need for serious research into the long-term impact of nanotechnologies, particularly for the developing world. The book was launched at a panel discussion held as UN headquarters on 14 May, in parallel with the 16th session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. The book.

Mitigating climate change: what impact on the poor?
(ODI, April 2008)

This brief, written by Martin Prowse and Leo Peskett, argues that policies to mitigate the effects of climate change might have unintended negative effects on the poor in the short-term. Focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa, as the region that is lagging farthest behind in achieving MDG 1 on poverty reduction, the brief evaluates four mitigation strat­egies and their possible impacts on the poor: environmental labeling; green growth strate­gies; biofuel production and food prices; and forest protection. The brief.

Energy Security and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific
(UNESCAP, April 2008)
This report notes that energy security and sustainable development are high in the global agenda due to: the impact of volatile energy prices; high demand for energy security; and concerns over environmental sustainability and the global climate. The report notes that, in Asia and the Pacific, about 1.7 billion people still rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating, and almost 1 billion lack electricity. This leads to socio-economic costs, imposing a heavy burden on women’s time, with implications for the achievement of the MDGs. The report.

A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR THE POLAR REGIONS
(IIED, April 2008)

This brief looks at issues such as pollution from opening up of marine transport routes, exploitation of natural resources, and the risks of marine acidification, the migration of commercial fish species and coastal erosion. It describes how a coherent strategy for sustainable development is needed and could be achieved through adapting the framework and methodologies of National Sustainable Development Strategies (NSDSs). The brief.

THE MULTILATERAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT CONTEXT FOR BIOFUELS
(IIED, December 2007)
This paper looks at the multilateral trade and investment context for biofuels, particularly the agricultural crops that are being converted into liquid fuel on a commercial scale – ethanol and biodiesel. It summarizes some of the factors driving the rapid expansion in biofuel production and use, analyzes trade and investment issues for biofuels and issues on developing standards, and offers proposals for how governments, particularly small and medium-sized economies, might develop appropriate trade and investment rules to support a fair and sustainable biofuels sector. The
paper.

BRING ON THE RIGHT BIOFUELS
(IHT, 23 April 2008)

In this opinion piece published in the International Herald Tribune and New York Times, Roger Cohen considers the current heated debate over biofuels. He argues that biofuels – which until recently were hailed by some as the “answer to everything” and are now dismissed by critics as “the worst thing since the Black Death” – can be a part of the solution. He dispels as a myth the claim that growth in biofuel production is the main cause of recent global food price rises, and argues that the solution lies in supporting the right kind of biofuel, such as sugar-based ethanol, rather than corn ethanol. The
article.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND URBAN CHILDREN: IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADAPTATION
(IIED, April 2008)

This paper discusses the probable impacts for children from the increasing risk of storms, flooding, landslides, heat waves, drought and water supply constraints that climate change is likely to bring to most urban centers in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It also explores the implications for adaptation, focusing on preparedness as well as responses to extreme events and to changes in weather patterns. The paper.

StatuS of Caribbean Coral reefS After bleaChing And hurriCaneS in 2005
(Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and partners, 2008) This report documents the devastating impact that the hottest summer and the most active hurricane season ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere had on the coral reefs of the Caribbean and Atlantic Basins. The report predicts that coral bleaching will be occur more frequently by 2030 and is likely to be an annual event by 2100, and acknowledges that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations must be maintained below double the pre-industrial levels if coral reefs are going to survive in something resembling their current form. The report.

Climate change-induced water stress and its impacts on natural and managed ecosystems
(European Parliament, 2008)

 This study explores which ecosystems will be most impacted and analyses how the effects of climate change act as causes of additional emissions, thereby reinforcing global warming in a positive feedback loop. The paper was prepared for the European Parliament by Ecologic jointly with the Institute for European Environmental Policies and the Finnish Environment Institute. The study.

INDIGENOUS AND TRADITIONAL PEOPLES AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(IUCN, March 2008)
This study seeks to better understand the potential impacts of climate change on the livelihoods and cultures of indigenous and traditional communities, and develops related recommendations, including: formulate policies that actively involve indigenous and traditional communities in the international, regional and local climate change discourse; recognize and actively promote indigenous adaptation strategies; and monitor the implications of mitigation efforts including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation in Developing countries (REDD) on indigenous and traditional peoples. The report.

ADAPTNET
(Nautilus Institute at RMIT University, Australia)

AdaptNet is a free weekly newsletter that provides links to the five best climate change papers that the service finds for that week. AdaptNet. To subscribe. Archives in English, Vietnamese and Bahasa Indonesian.

Adaptation to Climate Change in Marine Turtles
(WWF, 2008)

This website aims to provide a platform for the public, educators, conservationists and scientists to share information and projects to try to gain a better picture of how climate change will affect turtles and what might be done to combat the impacts. By 2010, the project hopes to understand the current state of knowledge about the impacts of climate change on marine turtles and their habitats with a global network of marine turtle and climate specialists, and make management recommendations for their conservation. The website is an initiative of WWF through a grant from the MacArthur Foundation and support from Hewlett Packard. It hosts free downloads, information and scientific research. The website.

FRAMEWORK FOR A POST-KYOTO CLIMATE CHANGE AGREEMENT
(Sustainable Development Law and Policy, Volume VII, Issue II, 2008)
In this article, former Global Environment Facility (GEF) Chair Mohamed El-Ashry considers the elements of a global climate change agreement for the post-2012 period. He suggests the need for a long-term target on greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and argues that a future deal will need to be perceived to be equitable by developing countries. He urges building the trust between North and South and “no more broken promises” in efforts to secure agreement. El-Ashry’s article is the first of 12 in the latest issue of the Sustainable Development Law and Policy journal. Other articles consider such issues as the Clean Development Mechanism, trade law, conservation, carbon sequestration, the carbon market, and a carbon tax. The journal.

GENERATING CARBON FINANCE THROUGH AVOIDED DEFORESTATION AND ITS POTENTIAL TO CREATE CLIMATIC, CONSERVATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS
(Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, February 2008
, Vol. 363, pp. 1917–1924)
In this article, Johannes Ebeling of EcoSecurities and Maï Yasué of the University of British Columbia consider recent proposals to compensate developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) as part of a future climate change mitigation agreement. The authors argue that, if credits for such actions were traded on the carbon market, “even moderate decreases in deforestation could generate billions of Euros annual for tropical forest conservation.” They consider the challenges in establishing a framework for rewarding reduced emissions from deforestation, including issues of “additionality” and going beyond business-as-usual, carbon leakage, and other governance-related issues. The article.

WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK
(IMF, April 2008)
This year’s World Economic Outlook (WEO) includes a chapter on climate change and the global economy, where the IMF cautions that serious efforts to abate climate change could have rapid and wide-ranging macroeconomic consequences. To minimize the costs of mitigation policies, the IMF recommends: long term and credible carbon-pricing policies; a multilateral policy framework that equitably distributes costs of mitigation across countries while engaging all groups of economies in pricing their emissions; and policies that aim for a common world price for emissions and are sufficiently flexible to accommodate cyclical economic fluctuations. The report.

TOWARDS A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE WORLD BANK GROUP
(World Bank, March 2008)
The World Bank has released a concept and issues paper that develops a draft for a comprehensive Strategic Framework on Climate Change and Development for the World Bank Group (WBG). The draft will be subject to public consultations and proposed for endorsement by the Board in September 2008. The paper outlines objectives, principles, approaches and key issues, seeks to articulate the WBG’s vision on how to integrate climate change and development challenges, without compromising growth and poverty reduction efforts through country operations, including policy dialogue, lending and analytical work in client countries, and through regional and global operations. The paper.

REDUCING DEFORESTATION AND TRADING EMISSIONS: ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS FOR THE POST-KYOTO CARBON MARKET
(Centre for European Economic Research, 2008)
This paper, written by Niels Anger and Jayant Sathaye, quantitatively assesses the economic implications of crediting carbon abatement from reduced deforestation for the emissions market in 2020. The authors find that integrating avoided deforestation in international emissions trading considerably decreases the costs of post-Kyoto climate policy - even when accounting for conventional abatement options of developing countries under the CDM. The paper.

How to Climate Proof Development: Adapting to the Inevitable - Challenges in a Water Stressed World
(Swedish Water House, 2008)
On 5 February 2008, the Swedish Water House, the UN Development Programme and the Stockholm International Water Institute convened a seminar titled “Adapting to the Inevitable – Challenges in a Water Stressed World: How to Climate Proof Development.” The seminar used the recommendations from the 2007/2008 Human Development Report as an entry point to discuss water-related issues that remain central to both climate change adaptation and development. Seminar report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORCED MIGRATION
(UNHCR, 2008)
This research paper, authored by Etienne Piguet and issued by the UN High Commissioner on Refuges (UNHCR), explores what impact climate change is likely to have on migration and provides suggestions on how the international system of protection should respond to these challenges, including by increased international cooperation for collective burden sharing, and by the opening of emigration channels with the recognition of environmental push factors in subsidiary international instruments of protection. The research paper.

MAKING SENSE OF THE VOLUNTARY CARBON MARKET: A COMPARISON OF CARBON OFFSET STANDARDS
(Stockholm Environmental Institute, 2008)
This report discusses the role of the voluntary carbon offset market, and provides an overview and guide to the most important currently available standards, using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as a benchmark. The report.

AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE: LAW ENFORCEMENT, NATIONAL SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(
Oxford Research Group, UK, 2008)

This briefing paper focuses on the interlinkages between climate change, instability and the responsibility to protect, by exploring the social tensions, in terms of e.g. radical changes in lifestyle and mass migration, that could arise from climate change, in addition to describing possible challenges for national security and the military. The paper also contends that at each stage of this “process” from climate change, to socio-economic impacts and security consequences, there are opportunities for prevention, mitigation and adaptation. The briefing paper.

IEA ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY DATABASES
(IEA, 2008)
The International Energy Agency (IEA) collaborates with governments to collect and classify national policies on climate change mitigation, renewable energy and energy efficiency, and makes available online databases of these policies. The IEA has recently updated its Energy Efficiency Database and the Renewable Energy Database. The Energy Efficiency Database. The Renewable Energy Database.

ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: WHERE DO WE GO FROM BALI?
(Tiempo Climate Newswatch, March 2008)

In this commentary, Sven Harmeling of Germanwatch proposes a number of ways to move discussions forward on adaptation issues following the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali in December 2007. He considers the role that the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWGLCA) could play. The AWGLCA is holding its first meeting from 31 March – 4 April 2008, in Bangkok, Thailand, in parallel with the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. The article.

FINANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY: LESSONS FROM BRAZIL, CHINA, INDIA AND BEYOND
(World Bank, 2008)

This World Bank book focuses on China, India, and Brazil as three of the globe's top 10 energy consumers. The book draws on the results of a multiyear, global technical assistance effort known as the Three Country Energy Efficiency Project, a joint initiative of the World Bank, the UN Environment Programme's Denmark-based Risoe Centre (URC), and partners in Brazil, China, and India. It looks at the different ways of financing energy efficiency, including: ESCOs (energy service companies) that work with businesses or governments to identify and design energy efficiency projects, arrange financing, and implement the projects; energy efficiency loan financing and loan guarantees to encourage commercial banks to lend money for energy efficiency projects; and using energy distribution utilities to finance and implement an energy efficiency programme. The book emphasizes that any financing approach requires thorough knowledge of the local institutional environment and enough flexibility to adjust a program or customize it as it is being scaled up. The book.

 

ADAPTATIONS OF FORESTS TO CLIMATE CHANGE: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY REVIEW
(IUFRO, February 2008)
Written by Chris Eastaugh, this Occasional Paper, published by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations, summarizes existing scientific papers and reports on the topic of adaptation of forests to climate change. It includes a review of the physical science and a discussion of economic and social impacts. The paper.

 

ADAPTATION LEARNING MECHANISM
(UNDP, February 2008)
The UN Development Programme’s (UNDP) Adaptation Team has launched the Country Adaptation Profiles. The profiles are available for over 140 countries and provide two key services: linking climate change risks to national development priorities; and sharing up-to-date information on climate change adaptation, including ongoing efforts, science, and assessments. The country adaptation profiles.

 

UNEP YEAR BOOK 2008
(UNEP, February 2008)

The UNEP Year Book 2008: An Overview of Our Changing Environment, was launched at the tenth special session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (20-22 February 2008, Monaco). The latest UNEP Year Book
– which in previous years was known as the GEO Year Book – highlights the increasing complexity of and interlinkages between climate change, ecosystem integrity, human wellbeing, and economic development. The Year Book also examines the emergence and influence of economic mechanisms and market-driven approaches for addressing environmental degradation, arguing that the emerging “green” economy is driving invention and innovation to an extent not witnessed since the industrial revolution. The Year Book is the fifth annual report on the changing environment produced by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) in collaboration with many international environmental experts. When presenting this year’s publication in Monaco, UNEP’s Executive Director Achim Steiner noted that investment in environmentally-friendly projects is growing rapidly, highlighting that combating climate change is increasingly being perceived as an opportunity rather than a burden. The Year Book
.

 

IN DEAD WATER: MERGING OF CLIMATE CHANGE WITH POLLUTION,

OVER-HARVEST, AND INFESTATIONS IN THE WORLD’S FISHING GROUNDS

(UNEP, February 2008)

This report, which was compiled by researchers including many from various UN Environment Programme (UNEP) offices, suggests that at least three-quarters of the world’s key fishing grounds may become seriously impacted by changes in circulation as a result of the ocean’s natural pumping systems fading and falling. The report draws on a range of new and emerging science, including the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the World Meteorological Organization. The report.

 

BIOFUELS: MAKING TOUGH CHOICES
(IIED, February 2008)
Authored by Sonja Vermeulen, Annie Dufey and Bill Vorley, this opinion piece looks at the serious trade-offs involved in the production and use of biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. It provides a “decision tree” to guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development. The paper.

 

BIODIVERSITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND POVERTY: EXPLORING THE LINKS
(IIED, February 2007)
Authored by Hannah Reid and Krystyna Swiderska, this IIED Brief explores the links between biodiversity, climate change and poverty. It unpicks these strands to show that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. It suggests that, compared with activities such as forest conservation and afforestation, biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. The paper argues that this relative neglect must be addressed, and that “urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.” The paper.

ADAPTING TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE: A GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
(USAID Climate Change Program, 2007)
This guidance manual looks at how to incorporate climate change adaptation when planning and designing development projects, and it outlines a six-step approach for assessing vulnerability and implementing adaptation, including to: screen for vulnerability; identify adaptation options; conduct analysis; select a course of action; implement adaptations; and evaluate adaptations. The manual also gives examples of USAID projects applying this approach in different countries. The manual.

BETTER MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTE WILL REDUCE GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
(EEA, January 2008)
This briefing paper, issued by the European Environment Agency (EEA), analyzes how better management of municipal waste can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While predicting a significant decrease in net GHG emissions from municipal waste by 2020, mainly due to increased recycling and waste recovery, in addition to incineration combined with energy production and diverting waste away from landfills, the paper also warns that unsustainable consumption and production patterns may overshadow the improvements taking place in the waste management sector. The briefing paper.

DROUGHT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION
(Oxfam, 2008)

This study is the result of a three-way collaboration between Oxfam in Viet Nam, the International Environment and Disaster Management (IEDM) laboratory of the Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies (GSGES), Kyoto University, Japan, and the People’s Committee of Ninh Thuan. It considers some aspects of the recent droughts in the Mekong region and tries to discover what could be the reasons behind them and how best they could be mitigated. The study.

THE CLIMATE REGIME BEYOND 2012: RECONCILING ASIAN DEVELOPMENTAL PRIORITIES AND GLOBAL CLIMATE INTERESTS
(IGES, 2008)

This report summarizes the findings from the third round of the Asia-Pacific multi-stakeholder consultations on the climate regime beyond 2012 (held in New Delhi and Beijing), organized by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). Participants discussed four specific themes of importance to the region and the future climate regime: sectoral approaches; technology development and transfer; adaptation financing and mainstreaming; and developmental co-benefits of climate actions. The report also proposes recommendations for strengthening the future climate regime from an Asian Perspective. The report.

OVERVIEW OF UN ACTIVITIES IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(UN, 2008)

This report by the UN Secretary-General has been released in advance of the UN General Assembly’s High Level Thematic debate on climate change, to be held in February 2008. The report notes that an inclusive and coherent approach to climate change would enable the UN system to provide support for the negotiations on an international agreement on an effective post-2012 climate change framework, and provide a multi-sectoral mechanism through which to deliver on future agreements, as well as improve implementation of existing mandates. The report.

G8 IMPACT ON INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE NEGOTIATIONS - GOOD OR BAD?
(Ecologic, 2007)
This paper, authored by Nils Meyer-Ohlendorf and Henrike Peichert, analyzes the recent Group of Eight (G8) Summit outcomes and their practical impacts on international climate change negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The paper maintains that G8 Summit outcomes appear to yield overall positive influence on the UNFCCC processes, although more ambitious action needs to be taken and implemented. The paper.

A CHALLENGING CLIMATE – WHAT INTERNATIONAL BANKS SHOULD DO TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE
(
BankTrack, 2007)
This report, published by BankTrack -
a network of civil society organizations tracking the operations of the private financial sector, contends that commercial banks are of crucial importance in the transition to a low-carbon economy based on energy efficiency and renewable energies, underlining their importance in mobilizing and allocating the necessary financial resources for long run investment. The report.

ACCESS TO WATER - THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SMALL MUNICIPALITIES
(
Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, 2007)

This case study emphasizes that, despite uncertainties around quantitative assessments of climate change impact and water resource management, climate change will have an effect on water resources. Focusing on the economic consequences of water resource scarcity on poor and small municipalities, the study aims to assist municipal planners to develop appropriate strategies to ensure the sustainability and affordability of long term water supplies. The case study.

BALI 2007: ON THE ROAD AGAIN!
(Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, January 2008)
In this reflection on the 2007 UN Climate Change Conference in Bali, Benito Müller assesses the progress made on the Kyoto Protocol’s Adaptation Fund and on a “road map” for finalizing an agreement in the next two years on a multilateral framework for post-2012 (when the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period ends). He considers countries’ negotiating positions and concludes that a successful outcome in the future will require a compact between North and South that involves assistance for developing countries to take action. This agreement is enshrined in Article 4.7 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which states that: “The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments… will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology…” The report.

TRADE AND CLIMATE CHANGE LINKAGES
(IISD 2007)
This brief, written by Aaron Cosbey, is the first of a pair of background papers prepared for the Trade Ministers' Dialogue on Climate Change Issues, held in conjunction with the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 8–9, 2007 (UNFCCC COP 13, Kyoto Protocol MOP 3). It lays out the full range of linkages by which trade and climate change are interlinked, including legal linkages, physical impacts of climate change on trade and investment flows, impacts of trade and investment policy changes on climate change, and competitiveness issues. The paper.

TRADE POLICY TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(IISD 2007)
This brief, written by Aaron Cosbey, is the second of a pair of background papers prepared for the Trade Ministers' Dialogue on Climate Change Issues, held in conjunction with the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia, December 8–9, 2007 (UNFCCC COP 13, Kyoto Protocol MOP 3). It examines in depth the ways in which trade and investment policy might be employed to further climate change objectives. The discussion covers: liberalizing trade in low emission goods, allowing subsidies for greenhouse gas reductions, addressing domestic barriers to clean energy investment, amending intellectual property rights and lowering fossil fuel subsidies. The paper.

BOOM OR BUST: HOW COMMODITY PRICE VOLATILITY IMPEDES POVERTY REDUCTION, AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT
(IISD 2007)
This paper, written by Oli Brown, argues that commodity price volatility is a serious issue, but not a hopeless one. The basic economic tools necessary to help commodity producers get more predictable incomes are well-known and better understood than ever before. This publication synthesizes a sizeable body of commissioned work to investigate the experience, problems and promise of five different types of economic tools: supply management, national revenue management, market-based price risk management, compensatory finance and alternative trade initiatives. The paper, (soon available in French and Spanish).

CAN CHINA CONTINUE FEEDING ITSELF? THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE
(World Bank, 2007)
This paper by the World Bank’s Sustainable Rural and Urban Development Team looks at the supply and demand for food in China, in light of near-future expected changes in climate, and examines the effect of temperature and precipitation on net crop revenues. The analysis suggests that global warming is likely to be harmful to China, but the impacts are likely to be different in each region. The paper estimates that the likely gains realized by some farmers will nearly offset the losses to other farmers in China: the mid-latitude region of China may benefit from warming but the southern and northern regions are likely to be damaged. However, the study does not capture the effects of changed water-flow, which, if they occur, could lead to large damages not addressed in this study. The study.

STRENGTHENING THE CAPACITY OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TO PREPARE FOR AND PARTICIPATE IN NEGOTIATIONS ON FUTURE ACTIONS UNDER THE UNFCCC AND ITS KYOTO PROTOCOL
(Institute of Development Studies, 2007)
This report, authored by Farhana Yamin, summarises the activities undertaken by the BASIC Project (Building and Strengthening Institutional Capacities on Climate Change in Brazil, India, China and South Africa), which has focused on supporting the institutional capacity of key developing countries to determine what kind of national and international climate change actions best fit their social, political and economic circumstances. The report.

THE TROUBLE WITH TRAVEL AND TREES: THE AVIATION INDUSTRY AND CARBON OFFSETTING
(International Institute for Environment and Development, 2007)
This briefing paper maintains that offsetting schemes based on tree planting or forest conservation may trigger a number of other problems, including that: communities may be evicted from land allocated for tree planting or denied access to forest resources; forest-based offsetting schemes are subject to uncertainty as forests can be chopped down or burnt, which releases stored carbon back into the atmosphere; some schemes fail to prevent “leakage,” in which planting trees in one place just shifts deforestation to another. The paper suggests that for real progress to be made on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, action needs to go beyond tree-planting and offsetting. The briefing paper.

CARBON CRUNCH – COUNTING THE COST
(UNEP FI, December 2007)

This briefing paper, published by the UNEP Finance Initiative’s (UNEP FI) Climate Change Working Group, highlights the role of the finance sector in climate change mitigation and adaptation, owing to its influence in directing investment and financial flows,
and reviews what leading financial institutions are doing to address climate change. The paper also underlines the importance of the policy making community in setting up the regulatory frameworks that will provide long-term investment horizons. The briefing paper.

Asia's Much-Needed Low Carb Diet
(Far Eastern Economic Review, November 2007)

This article, written by Paul Steele and Sergio
Feld, examines whether Asian countries will emerge as leaders of the low-carbon revolution. The authors note that Asia could dominate the world�s politics and economics by shifting away from fossil fuels and toward a low-carbon emissions economy, which would create demand for new products and new technologies, and open new markets. The article.

Risk and responsibility in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
(Overseas Development Institute, December 2007)

This paper, written by Leo Peskett and Zoe Harkin, examines how reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) transaction mechanisms between buyers and sellers might be established. The paper also examines the implications that risk reduction mechanisms might have for different stakeholders in developing countries. The briefing.

THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NAMIBIA: HOW CLIMATE CHANGE WILL AFFECT THE CONTRIBUTION OF NAMIBIA�S NATURAL RESOURCES TO ITS ECONOMY
(IIED, 2007)

This discussion paper by Hannah Reid, Linda Sahl�n, Jesper Stage, James MacGregor, for the
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), offers a first attempt to provide economic indicators of how climate change will affect Namibia � one of the most vulnerable countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The discussion paper.

URBAN ENVIRONMENTS, WEALTH AND HEALTH: SHIFTING BURDENS AND POSSIBLE RESPONSES IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME NATIONS
(IIED, 2007)
This paper, authored by Gordon McGranahan, examines urban health in low- and middle-income countries, in relation to persistent local environmental health burdens, most notably the water, sanitation and housing deficiencies prevalent in the poor neighborhoods of so many urban settlements, and emerging global environmental burdens in urban areas, especially those associated with climate change. The paper
.

UP IN SMOKE? ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
(IIED, 2007)

This report, authored by Hannah Reid and Andrew Simms with Victoria Johnson, asks whether global warming will send Asia and the Pacific �Up in Smoke?�. The
study.

THE VOLUNTARY CARBON OFFSETS MARKET
(IIED, 2007)

This paper, authored by Elizabeth Harris, examines the structure and dynamics of the voluntary retail carbon market and, in light of these findings, considers the future developments and implications of this market for sustainable development. The
paper.

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recently published documents and online resources,
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