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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2007

 

Climate and Atmosphere Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

COMMUNITY BASED ADAPTATION: A VITAL APPROACH TO THE THREAT CLIMATE CHANGE POSES TO THE POOR
(IIED, December 2007)
This briefing, written by Saleemul Huq and Hannah Reid, focuses on how community-based adaptation (CBA) can help millions of poor, who are at the greatest risk from climate change, to adapt. The authors outline the concepts behind CBA, share lessons learned, and call for greater networking, information sharing and support for CBA activities. The briefing.

MIGRATION AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(IIED, December 2007)
This briefing, written by Cecilia Tacoli, is part of the Sustainable Development Opinion series published by IIED. The author focuses on how climate change impacts human systems and behaviors, particularly mobility. The author details how migration is increasingly becoming an adaptive response to changes influenced by climate change. The author notes direct changes such as growing environmental stress and indirect changes such as socio-economic, political and cultural factors that are also vulnerable to climate change. The briefing.

FAST FACTS: UNDP AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(UNDP, November 2007)

This fact sheet summarizes the four main areas of UNDP’s work on climate change, lists the recommendations of the Human Development Report, and briefly describes UNDP’s role in the context of the Bali conference. The fact sheet.

ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS AND ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(UNEP/GEF, December 2007)

This report, jointly issued by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), provides examples of how vulnerable communities and countries may “climate proof” economies, livelihoods and infrastructure, underlining that factoring climate into development strategies is feasible, but that hard choices may have to be made. The report’s case studies encompass, among others: food security in the Sahel; artisanal fishing communities in South America; coastal townships of small islands in the Pacific; pastoralists in Mongolia; and rice farmers in the lower Mekong basin. The report.

WORLD IN TRANSITION – CLIMATE CHANGE AS A SECURITY RISK

(German Advisory Council on Global Change, December 2007)

The key message of this report is that without resolute global action, climate change will overstretch many societies’ adaptive capacities within the coming decades, which could result in destabilization and violence, jeopardizing national and international security. The report lists potential hotspots, including northern and southern Africa alongside countries in the Sahel region, the Mediterranean and Central Asia. The report.

 

REN21 RENEWABLES GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 2007

(REN21, December 2007)

This pre-publication summary for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change COP 13, issued by the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), argues that renewable energy has evolved from an “alternative” source of energy to a mainstream energy option. Noting that renewable energy (without large hydro) now provides about 240 gigawatts of clean power, avoiding some 5 gigatonnes of carbon emissions per year, the report also highlights that wind energy has the largest share of renewable energy investment and continues to grow at 25-30% per year. The report.

 

REDUCING U.S. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS: HOW MUCH AT WHAT COST?
(McKinsey & Company, 2007)
This report by the consulting firm McKinsey & Company is based on its work with leading companies, industry experts, academics, and environmental NGOs to develop a “detailed, consistent fact base estimating costs and potentials of different options” for reducing or preventing greenhouse gas emissions within the United States. The team analyzed more than 250 options, encompassing efficiency gains, shifts to lower-carbon energy sources, and expanded carbon sinks, and finds that the US could reduce its emissions in 2030 by 3.0 to 4.5 gigatons using tested approaches and high-potential emerging technologies. The study.

 

COMPLIANCE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE COMMITMENTS: THE G8 RECORD, 1975-2007
(G8 Research Group, 2007)

This research, by John Kirton and Jenilee Guebert of the G8 Research Group, assesses the G8 members’ compliance with their climate change commitments. It covers the period 1987-2007, and assigns a “B” to overall G8 compliance. The assessment.

THE AMAZON’S VICIOUS CYCLES: DROUGHT AND FIRE IN THE GREENHOUSE
(WWF, December 2007)
Written by Daniel Nepstad, this report points to a vicious cycle of climate change and deforestation that could wipe out or severely damage nearly 60% of the Amazon forest by 2030. Nepstad states that ongoing deforestation caused by agriculture and livestock expansion, fire, drought and logging releases carbon into the atmosphere and destabilizes the global climate, which in turn could cause rainfall in the region to decline and result in further forest damage due to drought. The report.

REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM AVOIDED DEFORESTATION AND DEGRADATION (REDD) AND FOREST GOVERNANCE
(Chatham House and ProForest, December 2007)

Written by Jade Saunders and Ruth Nussbaum, this briefing paper outlines governance challenges facing the inclusion of REDD in a post-Kyoto mechanism, suggesting lessons from Forest Law Enforcement and Governance and Related Trade processes. The paper.

CARBON MONITORING FOR ACTION (CARMA)
(Center for Global Development, November 2007)
This website, launched in November 2007, contains a database with information on the carbon emissions of more than 50,000 power plants and 4000 power companies around the globe. The website was produced by the “Confronting Climate Change Initiative” at the Center for Global Development, a non-partisan think tank based in Washington, DC, US. Power generation accounts for about one quarter of carbon emissions worldwide. The website.

ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN URBAN AREAS: THE POSSIBILITIES AND CONSTRAINTS IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME NATIONS
(IIED, 2007)
This paper, authored by David Satterthwaite, Saleemul Huq, Hannah Reid, Mark Pelling and Patricia Romero Lankao, was developed from a report commissioned by the Rockefeller Foundation as a background paper for a discussion on Climate Change and Cities at the Foundation's Global Urban Summit, Innovations for an Urban World, in Bellagio in July 2007. The resource.

THE TROUBLE WITH TRAVEL AND TREES
(IIED, 2007)
The aviation industry is a small - although fast-growing - contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, but per kilometre its impact outstrips that of any other form of transport. This paper examines whether carbon offsetting a viable green solution to the problem. The paper.

ON THE ROAD TO BALI: OPERATIONALISING THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND ADAPTATION FUND
(IIED, 2007)

The Adaptation Fund is unique in how it is financed and the potential scale of money generated. This paper asks whether it be best served with a 'stand-alone' operating entity and a decision-making format that guarantees the authority of the Protocol's Meeting of Parties over the Fund. The paper.

A CLIMATE OF CONFLICT
(International Alert, November 2007)
Taking as its starting point the broad scientific consensus expressed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that the effects of climate change have started to unfold, this report looks at the social and human consequences that are likely to arise, particularly the risks of conflict and instability. It identifies 46 countries at risk of violent conflict and 56 countries facing a high risk of instability as a consequence of climate change. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE, AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND POVERTY REDUCTION – HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW?
(Overseas Development Institute, 2007)
This paper seeks to trace the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture through changes in the quality of the physical asset base, access to assets, and impacts on grain production and on agricultural growth more generally. Its conclusions include suggestions to focus on g
etting an enabling environment in place and markets working, putting social protection in place, and strengthening R&D. It also suggests a need for improved coordination between climate change modelers, agricultural economists and agricultural policy-makers, and incorporating agricultural practices into mitigation policies and programmes such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The paper.

 

MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENT NEGOTIATOR’S HANDBOOK
(University of Joensuu, 2007)

Environment Canada, the UN Environment Programme and Joensuu University (Finland) produced the second edition of this Handbook. Is contains key technical information and common sense advice for negotiators. The Handbook.

TIME TO DITCH KYOTO
(Nature 449, 25 October 2007)
In this article, Gwyn Prins of the London School of Economics and Steve Rayner from the University of Oxford argue that the Kyoto Protocol has failed as an instrument for achieving emissions reductions. The authors urge participants at the upcoming UN climate change conference in Bali in December 2007 to “radically rethink climate policy,” arguing that Kyoto provides a “single shot” solution in the form of a top-down global carbon market – that is not sufficient to address such a multifaceted problem. It proposes a large-scale increase in research and spending on clean energy. The article.

THE BIG QUESTION: IS THE KYOTO TREATY AN OUTDATED FAILURE BASED ON THE WRONG PREMISES?

(The Independent, 26 October 2007)
In this response to the “Time To Ditch Kyoto” article published in Nature, Paul Vallely argues that the call to “ditch” the treaty is “not so much new science as old political ideology.” Vallely suggests that the Kyoto Protocol is nowhere near as flawed as the Nature article suggests, and that the treaty was always intended as the first of several phases that would be needed to reduce global emissions. He seeks to present a more balanced perspective that notes some “failures” with the Kyoto Protocol while also identifying important successes. Finally, he suggests that the problem is not the Protocol, but the absence of political will to implement it. The article.

 

A WORLD OF SCIENCE: RETROSPECTIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE
(UNESCO, October 2007)
This fifth anniversary issue of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) journal A World of Science offers a retrospective on UNESCO and climate, drawing on previous articles covering UNESCO’s programs in water, glaciers, arid lands, renewable energy, global observations, ocean acidification and carbon sequestration, and climate impacts on cultural heritage. The retrospective seeks to illustrate the role UNESCO has played in helping countries to monitor, mitigate and adapt to climate change. The journal.

 

THE US ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE COSTS OF INACTION

(University of Maryland, 2007)
This study presents an overview of climate impacts on various economic sectors in the US, organized by region, and suggests that the federal government should undertake region-and sector-specific studies to help guide climate policy and investment. The
report.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND TOURISM: RESPONDING TO GLOBAL CHALLENGES

(UNWTO, 2007)

This Advance Summary of the report, commissioned by the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the UN Environment Programme and the UN World Meteorological Organization, attempts to quantify the links between tourism and climate change, listing as key conclusions that carbon dioxide emissions from the tourism sector are estimated to account for 4-6 % of total emissions, and changing climate patterns might alter major tourism flows where climate is of paramount importance, such as Northern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Caribbean, leaving coastal and mountain-based destinations in least developed countries and small island developing states particularly affected. The report.

THE UN CHRONICLE SPECIAL ISSUE ON CLIMATE CHANGE: GREEN OUR WORLD!
(UN DPI, No. 2, June 2007)
This journal, produced by the UN Department of Public Information (DPI), includes articles authored by, among others, Ban Ki-moon, Achim Steiner, Kemal Dervis and Helen Clark, and offers an overview of where the international community stands with regard to climate change. The journal.

NATURE REPORTS: CLIMATE CHANGE
(Nature, 2007)
The publication Nature has launched a free-access website on climate change, to present “the news behind the science, the science behind the news.” The website, launched in September 2007, contains news, information and research and analysis on climate change. The website.

BIOFUELS: IS THE CURE WORSE THAN THE DISEASE?
(OECD, September 2007)
This paper, prepared by Richard Doornbosch and Ronald Steenblik for the Round Table on Sustainable Development organized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) from 11-12 September 2007, cites problems such as a potential conflict between biofuels and food crops, and threats to biodiversity. The report also addresses biofuel subsidies in the North, as well as sustainability certification. The paper at the Financial Times website or at the Friends of the Earth Europe website.

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR THE OZONE LAYER: LESSONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
(Earthscan, September 2007)
This book, written by Stephen O. Andersen, K. Madhava Sarma and Kristen N. Taddonio, looks at one thousand technology transfer projects in the ozone arena. The authors then suggest the lessons learned, and how to apply this experience to other environmental issues, including climate change. Abstract of the book.

UNDP PROTECTING THE OZONE LAYER - MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER – 20 YEARS OF SUCCESS
(UNDP, September 2007)

2007 marks the 20th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the international treaty that aims to protect the ozone layer by phasing out consumption and production of ozone depleting substances (ODS). This report focuses on UNDP’s contribution to the success of the Montreal Protocol and highlights ongoing activities that remain to be done to protect the ozone layer. The report.

UNWTO RELEASES NEW WEB-BASED CLIMATE CHANGE RESOURCE
Given the complex relationships between tourism and climate change, the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has created the “Climate and Tourism Information Exchange Service, an information gathering web resource that displays data, studies, policy papers and videos. The new resource is intended to foster knowledge and facilitate information exchange in relation to climate change. The web resource.

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: A CHALLENGE TO POLICY
(The Economists' Voice: Vol. 4: No. 3, Article 2, 2007)
In this article, Kenneth J. Arrow argues that the
fundamental conclusion of the UK’s Stern report is justified, we are much better off to act to reduce CO2 emissions substantially than to suffer and risk the consequences of failing to meet this challenge, and he suggests that this conclusion holds true even if, unlike Stern, one heavily discounts the future. The article.

CLIMATE CHANGE: THE UNCERTAINTIES, THE CERTAINTIES AND WHAT THEY IMPLY ABOUT ACTION
(The Economists' Voice: Vol. 4: No. 3, Article 3, 2007)

This article by Thomas C. Schelling argues that, although the uncertainties regarding climate change are many, the certainties create certain urgencies to take action. He emphasizes technological advance and governmental sponsorship. The article.

CLIMATIC AND ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON THE VARIABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES
(UNESCO-IHP, Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 80. 2007)
This publication comprises the proceedings of the international seminar on “Climatic and anthropogenic impacts on the variability of water resources” held on 22-24 November 2005, in Montpellier, France. The seminar was organized in the framework of the UNESCO-IHP FRIEND (Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data) programme. The FRIEND programme is an international collaborative study intended to develop, through the mutual exchange of data, knowledge and techniques at a regional level, a better understanding of hydrological variability and similarity across time and space. The publication.

MARKET MECHANISMS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: HOW DO THEY FIT IN THE VARIOUS POST-2012 CLIMATE EFFORTS?
(IISD, July 2007)
This report from Aaron Cosbey, Deborah Murphy and John Drexhage of the International Institute for Sustainable Development examines how a future market mechanism that supports sustainable development could fit in the various scenarios being considered for the post-2012 period (when the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period expires). The report considers a wide range of options and approaches to post-2012, arguing that a successful future regime will need to balance the demands and expectations of both developed and developing countries. The report also suggests that any future regime that supports sustainable development will need targets, although both intensity targets and sectoral targets could be an option, as well as absolute targets. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND TRACE GASES
(Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 18 May 2007) This article by James Hansen et al suggests that the Earth’s climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings that have in the past allowed “the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states.” The articles suggests that recent greenhouse gas emissions place the Earth “perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures.” The authors suggest that only intense efforts to slow carbon dioxide emissions and non-carbon dioxide forcings can keep the climate close to the range it has been in during the past million years. The article highlights the need to address not only carbon dioxide emissions, but also those of methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases. The article.  

FUTURE INVESTMENT – A SUSTAINABLE INVESTMENT PLAN FOR THE POWER SECTOR TO SAVE THE CLIMATE
(Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council, 6 July 2007)

This report argues that “investing in a renewable energy future will save 10 times the fuel costs of a ‘business as usual’ fossil-fueled scenario.” The report suggests shifting global investments towards solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and bio energy and away from coal and nuclear power, which it labels as “dangerous.” The report stresses the need for urgent action, given that many existing power plants will soon need replacing and that emerging economies such as China, India and Brazil are rapidly building new energy infrastructure. The report.

ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: HOW WE ARE SET TO COPE WITH THE IMPACTS

(IIED, 2007)

This briefing paper defines climate change adaptation and shows why it matters, who needs to adapt most, and what shape adaptation must take across a range of scales and sectors. In particular remote or marginalized communities are so burdened they will struggle to meet the coming challenges. Adaptation - learning to cope with rising temperature and other effects of climate change - is a difficult but essential task for these vulnerable millions. The briefing paper.

“EATING THE DRY SEASON” – LABOUR MOBILITY AS A COPING STRATEGY FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
(IISD, June 2007)
This short article by Oli Brown of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) notes the increasing impact of climate change in the coming decades. Citing the recent attention on adaptation as well as mitigation, Brown notes that the current approach to adaptation is based on “the idea of adapting in situ,” with migration being seen as a “failure of adaptation.” He urges further consideration to be given to labor mobility as a possible coping strategy for populations exposed to climate stress, noting that some analysts are now arguing that immigration is both “a necessary element of global redistributive justice and an important response to climate change.” The article.

CLIMATE AND THE UN: A NEW BID FOR CONTROL?
(BBC online, May 2007)

In this BBC news online opinion piece, Felix Dodds and Richard Sherman of Stakeholder Forum consider the recent Security Council debate on climate change in April 2007, considering developing countries’ questions over whether this was an appropriate forum for this discussion. The authors suggest that the question is “not whether climate change is a threat to international peace and security, but more about how and where the world should have a discussion on addressing these issues creatively.” The opinion piece.

A CHANGE IN THE CLIMATE: IS BUSINESS GOING GREEN?
(Economist Intelligence Unit, 2007)

This report investigates how the corporate sector is preparing for the coming carbon controlled world, and its key findings illustrate that little has been done to establish corporate responses to carbon emissions, that companies are reacting to reputational risk and not exploiting business opportunities, and that governments have crucial roles in regulating how companies address carbon-related issues. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE, COMPETITIVENESS AND TRADE
(Chatham House, May 2007)
This new publication by Chatham House’s Richard Tarasofsky and Aaron Cosbey of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) focuses on the nature of concerns over competitiveness, and considers the relationship between the Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organization. The authors consider “what trade law might be applicable to each of the various possible instruments states might use to address climate change and competitiveness concerns.” The report.

CHATHAM HOUSE BRIEFING PAPERS ON CLIMATE CHANGE
(Chatham House, June 2007)
Five new papers published by Chatham House argue for a “substantive behavioral shift or a ‘step-change’ in order to seriously tackle the problem of climate change.” To contribute to the debate, Chatham House’s Energy, Environment and Development Programme has published five papers that examine the links between climate change, foreign and security policy, energy policy, trade and investment. More information.

A MEANINGFUL SECOND COMMITMENT PERIOD FOR THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
(bepress, 2007)

In this article from the Berkeley Electronic Press (bepress),
Robert Stavins and Sheila Olmstead propose ways to modify the Kyoto Protocol for its second commitment period (2012-2016). They emphasize the need to ensure that key nations are involved, an extended time path of action, and the inclusion of firm-level market-based policy instruments. Access the article.

GLOBAL TRENDS IN SUSTAINABLE ENERGY INVESTMENT 2007
(UNEP, June 2007)
Climate change worries together with high oil prices and increasing government support fuel
soaring investment rates in the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries, according to this study issued by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). Noting that renewable energy sectors such as wind, solar and biofuels attract the highest investment levels, the study also stresses that renewable energies are no longer subject to the whims of fluctuating oil prices, but are becoming generating systems of choice for many power companies and countries. The study.

MDG CARBON FACILITY: LEVERAGING CARBON FINANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(UNDP, June 2007)

This booklet outlines the main features of the UN Development Programme’s (UNDP) MDG Carbon Facility, noting that the Facility has been established to help leverage the potentially significant benefits of carbon finance for the developing world, and its main objectives are: broadening access to carbon finance by enabling a wider range of developing countries to participate, and promoting emission reduction projects that contribute to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The booklet.

OUR SEAS: WHY CLIMATE CHANGE MATTERS
(WWF, June 2007)
This brief note presents the top issues in relation to climate change and marine ecosystems. Climate change is affecting nearly every aspect of the marine ecosystems, from the very water itself to every type of biodiversity; this impact will continue and magnify over the coming decades and centuries. The note also stresses that marine wildlife is degraded by fishing, bycatch, habitat destruction, pollution and invasive species. The note.

WORLD IN TRANSITION: CLIMATE CHANGE AS A SECURITY RISK
(WBGU, 2007)

In their Summary for Policy-Makers, the German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) s
uggests that, without resolute counteraction, climate change will overstretch many societies’ adaptive capacities within the coming decades. However, WBGU suggests that climate change could also unite the international community, provided that it recognizes climate change as a threat to humankind and soon sets the course for the avoidance of dangerous anthropogenic climate change by adopting a dynamic and globally coordinated climate policy. The summary for policy-makers.

WHALES IN HOT WATER – THE IMPACT OF A CHANGING CLIMATE ON WHALES, DOLPHINS AND PORPOISES
(WWF and Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, May 2007)
This report highlights the growing impacts of climate change on cetaceans, currently greatest in the Arctic and the Antarctic. Climate change impacts range from changes in sea temperature and the freshening of the seawater because of melting ice and increased rainfalls, to sea level rise, loss of icy polar habitats and the decline of krill populations – the main source of food for many of the great whales - in key areas. According to the report, cetaceans that rely on polar, icy waters for their habitat and food resources, such as belugas, narwhals and bowhead whales, are likely to be dramatically affected by the reduction of sea ice cover. The report.

GLOBAL AND REGIONAL DRIVERS OF ACCELERATING CO2 EMISSIONS
(PNAS, 22 May 2007)
This report, published by Klepper, Field, et al. in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), finds that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning and industrial processes accelerated during 2000-2004 compared with the previous decade, in spite of warnings from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change about the risks of emissions growth. The report notes that the increase in emissions was greater than that assumed under even the most fossil-fuel intensive of the IPCC’s emissions scenarios developed in the late 1990s. The report suggests that no region is decarbonizing its energy supply, and that the growth rate in emissions has been strongest in rapidly developing countries, particularly China. The report also finds that “the developing and least-developed economies (forming 80% of the world’s population) accounted for 73% of global emissions growth in 2004 but only 41% of global emissions and only 23% of global cumulative emissions since the mid-18th century.” These results, say the authors, have implications for global equity. The report.

GUIDEBOOK TO MARKETS AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF FORESTRY CDM PROJECTS
(CATIE, 2007)
This guidebook, published by the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), aims to provide information to project developers on markets and commercialization of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) from forestry projects, by means of outlining the development stages of a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) forestry project, the specific characteristics of forestry CERs and the demand for this type of credits. The guidebook.

GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ICE AND SNOW
(UNEP, June 2007)

This report, issued by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) on
World Environment Day, argues that the futures of hundreds of millions of people across the world will be affected by declines in snow cover, sea ice, glaciers, permafrost and lake ice, noting that that impacts are likely to include significant changes in the availability of water supplies for drinking and agriculture, rising sea levels affecting low lying coasts and islands and an increase in hazards such as subsidence of currently frozen land. It also suggests that the reduction in snow and sea ice means more of the sun’s heat is being absorbed by the planet, which in turn may hasten climate change. The report.

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS AND SERVICES: AN ILLUSTRATIVE ANALYSIS OF SECTORS RELEVANT TO AIR-POLLUTION AND RENEWABLE ENERGY
(United Nations University-Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Centre on Innovation and Technology- UNU-MERIT, 2007)
This paper, authored by Lynn Mytelka, seeks to develop a broader conceptualization of the technology transfer process and open the discussion on the need for a multi-goal approach to Environment Goods and Services (EGS) negotiations in the WTO. It argues that a broader perspective must be adopted, with longer-term goals and processes and a more integrated approach to EGS negotiations with the WTO. The paper argues that such a conceptual reframing would reshape the dynamics of North-South negotiations on EGS to include commitments, activities and partnerships that strengthen the knowledge base, encourage learning and innovation in the South, and address the global importance of sustainable development. The paper.

MELTING GLACIERS
(UNEP/GRID Sioux Falls, 2007)

UNEP/GRID Sioux Falls released this set of PowerPoint presentations to commemorate the World Environment Day on 5 June 2007, which is focused on “Melting Ice—A Hot Topic? This collection of slides of melting ice shows changes measured using satellite observations. The collection.

EARTH PORTAL
(National Council for Science and the Environment, April 2007)
The Earth Portal offers science-based, expert-reviewed information about the environment. It seeks to bring the global scientific community together to produce “the first free, expert-driven, massively scaleable information resource on the environment, and to engage civil society in a public dialogue on the role of environmental issues in human affairs.” It includes features such as the Encyclopedia of Earth, Earth News, Earth Forum and Environment in Focus. The Portal.

LITTLE GREEN DATA BOOK 2007
(World Bank, May 2007)
The “Little Green Data Book 2007” is a pocket-sized quick reference book on key environment and development data for over 200 countries, based on the World Development Indicators 2007. Country, regional, and income group profiles provide a baseline for comparison on the state of the environment and its linkages with the economy and people. This year’s publication affirms that carbon dioxide emissions – the principal man-made cause of global warming – continue to rise, with the world producing today 16 percent more carbon dioxide than in 1990. The book.

THE STATE AND TRENDS OF THE CARBON MARKET 2007
(World Bank, May 2007)
The seventh annual carbon market intelligence study released by the World Bank shows that the global carbon market tripled, from US$ 10 billion in 2005 to US$ 30 billion in 2006. It notes during the past year, the market was dominated by the sale and resale of European Union Allowances (EUAs) at a value of nearly US$ 25 billion; and the size of the project-based market in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition doubled to US$ 5 billion in 2006. The study.

STRENGTHENING THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL: INSURANCE AGAINST ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE
(Sustainable Development Law & Policy, Winter 2007)
This article, authored by Donald Kaniaru, Rajendra Shende, Scott Stone and Durwood Zaelke, discusses the co-benefits of controlling ozone-depleting substances (ODS) that are also greenhouse gases under the Montreal Protocol and emphasizes that the Montreal Protocol will have done more by the end of the decade to mitigate climate change than the initial reduction targets of the Montreal Protocol. The authors say this suggests that the greenhouse gas emissions reductions achieved under the Montreal Protocol offer low-cost insurance against abrupt climate change and provide space to agree on the post-2012 climate regime. The article further discusses the actions that need to happen to strengthen the ozone regime and maximize its ability to mitigate climate change. The article.

CLIMATE SCIENCE 2006: MAJOR NEW DISCOVERIES
(WRI, April 2007)
In this World Resources Institute (WRI) Issue Brief, authors Kelly Levin and Jonathan Pershing review the climate change research of 2006, which they organize according to research on the physical climate, hydrological cycle, ecosystems, and mitigation technologies and economics. The Issue Brief.

ANALYSING OUR ENERGY FUTURE: SOME POINTERS FOR POLICY-MAKERS

(UNEP, 2007)

This report is the UN Environment Programme’s (UNEP) non-technical summary of the International Energy Agency’s latest World Energy Outlook. It focuses on its Alternative Policy and Beyond the Alternative Policy Scenarios, and highlights that early moves to shift towards a more sustainable energy system are more effective and cheaper compared to delayed action. It outlines some policy approaches that can bring about this shift and the time scales involved in it, noting that a delay of 10 years in implementing the Alternative Policy Scenario, for example, would push back the date of being on a sustainable path by several decades. The report.

NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE THREAT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
(CNA Corporation, April 2007)
Eleven retired US admirals and generals participated in the advisory board for this report from the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA) Corporation, which finds that projected climate change poses a serious threat to America’s national security and will act as a “threat multiplier” for instability in some of the world’s most volatile regions. The report recommends integrating the consequences of climate change into national security and defense strategies, and suggests that the US should take a stronger role in helping to stabilize climate change. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN SECURITY
(April 2007)
A team of scientists, headed by Ben Wisner, produced this memorandum on the occasion of the UN Security Council’s discussion of climate change on 17 April 2007. The paper suggests adopting a new, systematic way of thinking about the complex interconnections among climate change, human security, and geo-strategic security. The paper.

CASE STUDIES ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND WORLD HERITAGE
(UNESCO, April 2007)
The UNESCO World Heritage Centre has published a document intended to raise awareness of climate change impacts on world heritage. The report includes 26 case studies that illustrate the dangers faced by the 830 sites on the World Heritage List. The report.

BUILDINGS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
(UNEP, April, 2007)
This report argues that the right mix of government regulation, energy saving technologies and behavioral change can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the building sector, and thus stresses that the building sector, which accounts for 30 to 40 percent of total energy use, can play an important role in combating climate change. The report.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOREIGN POLICY: AN EXPLORATION OF OPTIONS FOR GREATER INTEGRATION
(IISD, 2007)
This report was authored by John Drexhage, Deborah Murphy, Oli Brown, Aaron Cosbey, Peter Dickey, Jo-Ellen Parry and John Van Ham of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and Richard Tarasofsky and Beverley Darkin of Chatham House. It presents a series of recommendations on how foreign policy can foster international cooperation on climate change action and suggests that an integrated climate change–foreign policy approach has the potential to improve prospects for more effective efforts to address climate change at the national and international levels. The report.

 

ENVIRONMENTALISTS CLASH OVER CARBON OFFSETS
(Ecosystem Marketplace, 2007)
This article, authored by Alice Kenny, surveys the issues involved in the debate over voluntary carbon offsets. The article.

 

POLICY DIRECTIONS TO 2050: A BUSINESS CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIALOGUES ON COOPERATIVE ACTION

(WBCSD, 2007)

This publication by the World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) emphasizes the role of decisive, concerted and sustained actions between governments, businesses and consumers to combat climate change. The report.

 

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE EUROPEAN MARINE AND COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

(European Science Foundation, March 2007)

This report is based on a two-year study led by marine ecologist Katja Philippart from the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, who chairs the European working group on Climate Change Impacts on the European Marine and Coastal Environment. This position paper reveals that European marine species are feeling the effects of global warming. The study provides details about the impact of climate change at a European Seas level � in the Arctic, the Barents Sea, the Nordic Seas, the Baltic, the North Sea, the Northeast Atlantic, in the Celtic-Biscay Shelf, the Iberia upwelling margin, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.  It finds that the decline in sea ice cover in the northern Arctic and Barents Seas has triggered the most obvious temperature changes for marine life. The open systems structure of these seas demonstrates how climate changes are causing further northward movement of marine organisms. The position paper.

CONFRONTING CLIMATE CHANGE: AVOIDING THE UNMANAGEABLE AND MANAGING THE UNAVOIDABLE
(UN Foundation-Sigma XI, February 2007)
This publication
by the United Nations Foundation (UN Foundation) and Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society was released during the UN Commission on Sustainable Development�s Intergovernmental Preparatory Meeting in February. It proposes limiting temperature increases to 2-2.5 �C above the 1750 pre-industrial level; making the most of opportunities around the globe to reduce emissions using existing technologies; adapting to the climate change that is already unavoidable; and accelerating negotiations to �develop a successor international framework for addressing climate change and sustainable development.� The report.

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL IN PROTECTING CLIMATE
(Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 8 March 2007)
This analysis of the effects of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (the Montreal Protocol) finds that actions taken in accordance with the Montreal Protocol have done more to slow global warming than actions taken under the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, the authors find that significant climate benefits could be achieved through further action possible under the Montreal Protocol, including through an accelerated transition away from hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) to refrigerants with lower global-warming-potentials. The
study.

OUR PRECIOUS COASTS: MARINE POLLUTION, CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESILIENCE OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS
(UNEP, 2007)
This report highlights links between sustainability of coastal ecosystems and levels of pollution in a changing climate. The report cites recent research in the Seychelles, where coral reefs that were bleached in the late 1990s by high sea-surface temperatures have generally recovered faster when facing lower levels of pollution, dredging and other human-induced disturbance. The report.

 

CLIMATE RISK DISCLOSURE BY THE S&P 500
(Ceres and Calvert, 31 January 2007)

This analysis of climate disclosure practices among the 500 largest US companies concludes that America�s largest companies �still are not taking climate change seriously enough,� with less than half responding to a global survey last year by the Carbon Disclosure Project requesting information about their climate risks and strategies. Of those that responded, only a quarter disclosed measurable emissions reductions targets and specific time frames for reductions. In addition, very few companies linked more extreme weather to climate change, or disclosed strategies for addressing such physical impacts of climate change. The report.

ASIAN ASPIRATIONS FOR CLIMATE REGIME BEYOND 2012
(IGES, January 2007)

This publication from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, in collaboration with several other organizations, reflects on consultations held in 2006 in a number of different Asian countries and sub-regions. The consultations, which followed an earlier round of discussions in 2005�focused on a future climate regime after 2012. The report.

LINKING TRADE, CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY
(ICTSD, November 2006)

This collection of issue briefs edited by Erwin Rose and Moustapha Kamal Gueye addresses the points of contact between trade liberalization and the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, and mutual supportiveness between domestic and international measures to address climate change and the international trade system. Issue briefs summarize links between trade, climate change and energy; explain some of the specific circumstances in Asia, especially China; and focus on bioenergy, looking both at the global picture and at experiences in Africa, Asia and Brazil. The briefs.

UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE HANDBOOK
(UNFCCC Secretariat, December 2006)
This 220-page handbook is intended as a �reference document linking the Convention and the decisions through which it has been implemented.� It aims to assist Parties, researchers and others interested in the international climate change regime and negotiations. The handbook.

2006 TOP NEWS ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN ASIA
(IGES, December 2006)
The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies has published its annual list of top environmental news stories of 2006. The list includes stories on climate change, air quality, waste disposal, forest conservation and other environmental issues. The list.

FOREIGN CARBON CREDIT PURCHASING OPTIONS OPEN TO JAPAN TO ACHIEVE THE KYOTO TARGET
(IGES, December 2006)

This report from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies considers Japan�s options in securing carbon credits from overseas in order to help domestic efforts to meet its targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The report.

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send a message to
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