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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2006

 

Climate and Atmosphere Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

NAIROBI TALKS MAKE PROGRESS ON FOREST CONSERVATION FOR GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS CREDITS
(Mongabay.com, 4 December 2006)

This interview with carbon finance analyst Johannes Ebeling reflects on recent developments relating to emissions from deforestation. The interview.

Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Climate Change: Experiences and lessons from community initiatives

(UNDP and GEF, November 2006)
This publication reviews 65 sustainable transport community projects funded by the GEF Small Grants Programme, and provides lessons and experiences that demonstrate the role community initiatives play in testing new approaches, raising awareness of new ideas, piloting innovative strategies, and informing and stimulating policy dialogue in a cost-effective way. The publication.
 

OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS: MAINSTREAMING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

(Tearfund, November 2006)

This report from the Institute for Development Studies “reviews progress by developing country governments and donor agencies in mainstreaming climate adaptation into development planning.” It examines barriers to progress and recommends how such barriers might be overcome. The report.

STATE OF THE AFRICAN CARBON MARKET
(World Bank, November 2006)
This report by Karan Capoor and Philippe Ambrosi examines the state of the carbon market in Africa. It suggests that Africa will not only be the continent hardest hit by climate change, but also is likely to benefit the least from the carbon market. It cites figures indicating that African projects represent a low fraction of the entire CDM pipeline; as of October 2006, 19 projects from Sub-Saharan Africa were in the CDM project pipeline, out of a total of 1274 projects for all developing countries. Among other reasons, the report notes that the small energy and industrial sectors in African countries have limited mitigation potential relative to countries such as China and India, and are thus less attractive to carbon market investors. The report.

GUIDANCE FOR PROMOTING SYNERGY AMONG ACTIVITIES ADDRESSING BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, DESERTIFICATION, LAND DEGRADATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(CBD, May 2006)
This CBD Technical Series report highlights the major biological factors that contribute to ecosystem resilience under the projected impacts of global climate change, assesses the potential consequences for biodiversity of particular adaptation activities under the CBD thematic areas, provides methodological considerations when implementing these activities, and highlights research and knowledge gaps. The report recognizes the potential of, and stresses the need for, synergy in the implementation of activities that interlink biodiversity conservation, mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, and land degradation and desertification in the context of the objectives of the three Rio Conventions and other relevant multilateral environmental agreements. The report.

REPORT OF THE EIGHTEENTH MEETING OF THE PARTIES TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER
(UNEP, 2006)

The ozone secretariat released this advance copy of the report of the eighteenth meeting of the parties (MOP-18), held in November 2006 in New Delhi, India. The report details the proceedings of both the preparatory segment and high-level segment of MOP-18, and contains the text of the 37 decisions taken. The report.

MIGRATORY SPECIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACTS OF A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT ON WILD ANIMALS
(UNEP/CMS, November 2006) This report indicates that climate change is and will increasingly have dramatic impacts on migratory species from whales and dolphins to birds and turtles. Changes in the length, timing and location of migration routes are being documented, as well as habitat changes, reduced breeding success and feminization of populations. The report.

STATE OF THE CARBON MARKET REPORT UPDATE
(World Bank/IETA, October 2006) This report highlights that, from January-September 2006, the carbon market grew to nearly US$22 billion, more than doubling the US$11 billion recorded in 2005. The report highlights increases in energy efficiency projects (nearly 14% of total Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) volumes) and renewable energy (12% of the CDM market), with wind energy leading this sector. It cautions on the need to provide a long-term signal to markets on the continuation of the carbon market. The report also shows that clean energy is benefiting from the carbon market and that a change in availability of finance to tap mitigation potential in developing countries is taking place as a result. The report.

GREENHOUSE DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS: An approach to the global climate regime that takes climate protection seriously while also preserving the right to human development
(EcoEquity and Christian Aid, November 2006)

The
principal authors of this report, Tom Athanasiou and Paul Baer of EcoEquity and Sivan Kartha of the Stockholm Environment Institute, argue that “Green House Development Rights” should be considered in relation to the global climate regime. This approach would take into account fundamental rights to human development. The paper provides an alternative for calculating countries’ responsibility and capacity indexes in a manner that is sensitive to intra-national income disparities. The paper.

Managing Climate Risk: Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

(World Bank, 2006) The report looks at how the World Bank, through the enhancement of risk management practices, can address growing risks from climate change and make current development investments more resilient to climate variability. The report.

STERN REVIEW ON THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
(HM Treasury/University of Cambridge Press, October 2006) This re
port by Sir Nicholas Stern was commissioned by the UK Chancellor in July 2005 and was presented to the UK Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer on 30 October 2006. It calculates that the costs of unabated climate change range from 5-20 percent of GDP or more, depending on the scientific assessments considered, while the costs of action to avoid the worst impacts of climate change can be limited to approximately 1 percent of global GDP per year. The review will be considered during an official UNFCCC dialogue on long-term action during the UN Climate Conference – Nairobi 2006. The review.

Up in Smoke? Latin America and the Caribbean: The threat from climate change to the environment and human development
(Working Group on Climate Change and Development, August 2006)
This resource represents the third report from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development, a coalition of 20 major environment and development groups. It catalogues the impact of climate change and environmental degradation ranging from drought in the Amazon to floods in Haiti and elsewhere, vanishing glaciers in Colombia to extreme cold in the Andes, and hurricanes in Central America and the Caribbean as well as southern Brazil. The report.

SAVING THE FORESTS
(World Bank, October 2006)

This podcast contains a World Bank report addressing how global carbon finance can be used as an incentive to stop deforestation. The podcast.

CARBON TRADING: A CRITICAL CONVERSATION ON CLIMATE CHANGE, PRIVATISATION AND POWER
(Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, September 2006) This report argues that the Kyoto Protocol and EU Emissions Trading Scheme are “ineffective and unjust,” and that carbon trading is “particularly detrimental to African interests.” The critique, which asserts that the limits placed on emissions from industry are similar to business-as-usual, was published by the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, Durban Group for Climate Justice and The Corner Group. The report.

AN INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK FOR CLEAN ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT: A PROGRESS REPORT
(World Bank, September 2006) In this progress report on the development of an investment framework for clean energy and development, the World Bank analyses the energy needs currently conditioning development and the achievement of the MDGs. It also examines the transition to a low-carbon economy and adaptation, noting financing needs and proposing alternative funding instruments to channel resources for clean energy and development. The report asserts that the current financing gap for the energy sector in developing countries requires deeper and broader policy reforms to attract the private sector, as well as additional concessional support to meet the energy access challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. It underscores the importance of a long-term stable global regulatory framework, with differentiated responsibilities, to stimulate private investments and provide predictability to longer-term investments in clean energy sources. The report.

HOW THE WORLD BANK’S INVESTMENT FRAMEWORK SELLS THE CLIMATE AND POOR PEOPLE SHORT
(Friends of the Earth et al, September 2006) In response to the World Bank’s investment framework for clean energy, a group on NGOs prepared this paper to present their arguments for increased support from governments and international financial institutions for renewable energy technologies. Their report notes that while renewable energy will not be able to address all energy needs of developing countries, it could go a long way to cover the basic energy needs of the world’s poor. In their estimates, the basic electricity needs of one billion people could be covered with low or no-carbon technologies, would cost an estimated $100 billion dollars and would have a positive impact not just for poverty reduction, but also for combating climate change. The paper.

RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: LESSONS FROM MAURITIUS, CHINA AND BRAZIL
(UNU, 2006) This report reviews three renewable energy developments that have taken place in developing countries without significant foreign investment: bagasse cogeneration in Mauritius, ethanol in Brazil and solar hot water in China. It suggests that renewable energy planning should be approached strategically by developing countries, with specific technological strategies grounded in national industrial capacity and energy resources. The report.

MONTREAL VS. KYOTO: A TALE OF TWO PROTOCOLS
(SSRN, August 2006) This paper, by Cass R. Sunstein of the University of Chicago Law School, considers the reasons for the different approaches to the two protocols by the United States. The article argues that, from a cost-benefit point of view, “compliance with the Montreal Protocol would have been justified even if no other country had complied…[but] compliance with the Kyoto Protocol would not have been justified even if all other parties had complied.” The paper also argues that “any international agreement to control greenhouse gases is unlikely to be effective unless the United States believes that it has more to gain than to lose.” The article has reportedly generated discussion among some experts over its approach and accuracy. The report.

INTERIM REPORT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMME
(REN21, June 2006) This report assesses progress made towards the implementation of the International Action Programme adopted two years earlier during the International Conference for Renewable Energies held in Bonn in June 2004. The report notes significant progress in implementing the Action Programme. If fully implemented, carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 1.2 billion tonnes every year to 2015. The  Interim Report.

PUBLIC OPINION ON CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES IN THE G-8 AND G-5 COUNTRIES
(USclimatechange.com, 14 July 2006) This article by Thomas L. Brewer of Georgetown University compiles and compares results from public opinion polls on climate change over the past three years. It considers countries of the G8 (the US, Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Canada) and G5 (China, India, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa). The article suggests that “strong majorities in all countries consider climate change to be a serious problem, with the level of concern up substantially in nearly all of the countries since 2003.” It also finds, however, that support for energy taxes and nuclear power is less strong and more variable across countries. The report.

A NEW AGENDA FOR GLOBAL WARMING
(BEPress, July 2006) In this article, Joseph Stiglitz “presents his plan for getting the United States and the Developing World to address global warming.” The article (requires online subscription).

PODCAST: WORLD BANK ON GAS FLARING
(World Bank podcast, 20 June 2006) Each year about 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas are flared. Traditionally considered a safe and effective way of getting rid of excess natural gas that comes with oil production, gas flaring (i.e. burning natural gas) is now a great cause of concern for the large amount of greenhouse gas emissions it generates and the waste of valuable energy resources. The World Bank has prepared an online podcast on the topic.

THE VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT: GLENEAGLES G8 ONE YEAR ON
(Oxfam, 9 June 2006) This briefing note reviews the progress in the areas of debt, aid, conflict, trade, and climate change, one year after the 2005 G8 Summit at Gleneagles. On trade it suggests that there has been progress in ending export subsidies on farm products, but overall it notes that proposals currently on the table, far from promoting developing countries’ ability to tackle poverty through trade, are more likely to hinder their development. On climate change it highlights that the G8 in Gleneagles took steps to raise public awareness and commitment, but as global energy tensions rise there is a danger that the world’s fragile consensus will break down and be replaced by a more nationalistic and competitive pursuit of security of supply, in which the poorest countries will be marginalized. The policy briefing.

TAXING CARBON TO FINANCE TAX REFORM
(WRI, June 2006) In this issue brief from the World Resources Institute and Duke Energy, the authors argue that a carbon tax in the US would reduce carbon dioxide emissions while also supporting federal tax reform efforts and sound energy policies. The report. In recent weeks, WRI has also been involved in publishing a service sector guide to greenhouse gas management, and an analytical tool on corporate climate investments.

GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY NETWORK
In June 2006, the UNDP/UNEP/GEF National Communications Support Programme (NCSP), with funding from the Swiss government, launched a forum to access and exchange information on greenhouse gas emission inventories. The aim of the network is to “provide technical assistance to developing countries for the preparation of GHG inventories and to build a larger and more capable community of inventory practitioners.” The Network.

CDM/JI PIPELINE OVERVIEW
(UNEP Risoe Centre, June 2006) This spreadsheet contains up-to-date information on projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation mechanism. A total of 860 CDM projects are now listed in the Pipeline, up by more than 100 since early May 2006. Most of these new projects come from India (46), Brazil (25), and China (ten), while biomas energy and energy efficiency in industry reportedly make up a significant number of the new projects (44 in total). More information.

INCREASING THE AMBITION OF EU EMISSIONS TRADING
(Greenpeace, June 2006) This report, commissioned by Greenpeace International, assesses the draft second national allocation plans for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme of Germany, the UK and the Netherlands. The report argues that these country plans have “taken the burden of emissions reductions off the utility companies and industries covered under the ETS, and placed it firmly onto consumers, taxpayers and the other sectors not covered by the ETS.” The report.

GLOBAL MITIGATION OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES
(US EPA, June 2006). This report from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is one of two new EPA reports on global non-CO2 greenhouse gas projections and mitigation. More information.

WHAT IS NEXT AFTER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL? ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY POST 2012
(Techne Press, May 2006) This book by Niklas Höhne considers the new phase that the multilateral climate change negotiations are entering, and considers options for the period after the Kyoto Protocol’s first “commitment period” expires in 2012. The book is available for purchase only (not free of charge). More information.

BUSINESS VIEWS ON INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE AND ENERGY POLICY: SUMMARY AND KEY OBSERVATIONS
(BCSE/Climate Group, April 2006) This report from the UK Business Council for Sustainable Energy and The Climate Group, surveys private sector insights and opinions on international climate policy beyond 2012, when the Kyoto Protocol’s first “commitment period” ends. The summary of key findings. The full report.

STATE AND TRENDS OF THE CARBON MARKET 2006
(World Bank and IETA, April 2006) This report by the World Bank and International Emissions Trading Association reflects on the current situation in the carbon market, which was valued at US$10 billion in 2005 and is predicted to grow to US$25 billion or more in 2006. The report, which was prepared before the EU carbon market price dropped in late April, considers the global market’s recent development and possible future trends. The report.

ADDRESSING AIR POLLUTION AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE PAN-JAPAN SEA REGION: AN OVERVIEW OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
(IICRC, May 2006) This report from the Ishikawa International Cooperation Research Centre analyses atmospheric emissions in the Pan-Japan Sea region countries and considers some of the economic instruments used to address air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. More information.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOREST GENETIC DIVERSITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE

(IPGRI and IUFRO, April 2006) This report is a summary of proceedings of a workshop held in Paris, France, in March 2006. The workshop, one of the pan-European actions for implementation of Vienna Resolution 5 (climate change and sustainable forest management in Europe) of the Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE), addressed: up-to-date reviews based on the current understanding on how forest trees will cope with and adapt to climate change; the implications for practicing sustainable forest management in Europe; and inputs and recommendations to the MCPFE process for further action. The report.

 

CARBON 2006: TOWARDS A TRULY GLOBAL MARKET

(Point Carbon 2006) This report from consulting firm Point Carbon provides an overview of “volumes, values and trends in 2005” for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism, joint implementation, and other aspects of the market. The report is available for free download.

 

CLIMATE POLICY SOLUTIONS: A SECTORAL APPROACH

(GtripleC Consulting, March 2006) In this paper, Murray Ward considers the different types of sectoral approaches possible for the post-2012 climate change framework, particularly the in-country sectoral approach, which has been viewed as a path to attract greater developing country participation. The report.

 

CLIMATE CHANGE: A GATHERING STORM

(ETH Zurich, March 2006) This report be David Victor considers the international legal commitments for addressing climate change and issues in implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Victor analyzes the various economic, social and political challenges in developing countries and policy instruments for combating climate change. The report.

 

RISKS AND CHANCES OF COMBINED FORESTRY AND BIOMASS PROJECTS UNDER THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM

(UNEP RISOE, March 2006) The Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) Project at the UNEP RISOE Centre has launched a Working Paper Series, with the first paper focusing on the potential and constraints of “combining carbon sink and bio-energy use projects in the CDM.” The paper, which was authored by Michael Dutschke, Gerald Kapp, Anna Lehmann and Volkmar Schafer, also provides an overview of the current state of biomass use in developing countries. It proposes a “close integration of the Afforestation/Reforestation and Biomass use methodology work under the CDM, with the possibility to bundle these two kinds of project activities.” The paper.

 

CDM PIPELINE OVERVIEW

(UNEP RISOE, 6 March 2006) The UNEP RISOE Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development has published a series of spreadsheets providing an updated overview of projects in the pipeline of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. More information.

 

THE KYOTO PROTOCOL COMPLIANCE MECHANISM

(Schulthess, March 2006) This book by Juliette Voinov Kohler focuses on the Kyoto Protocol’s compliance mechanism, one of the most “sophisticated and ambitious compliance mechanisms” relating to a multilateral environmental agreement. The book is available for purchase online. It is available only in French. More information.

 

ACHIEVING THE MDGS IN ASIA: A CASE FOR MORE AID?

(UNESCAP, 2006) This report analyzes aid to sub-regions in the world on a needs basis calculated on percentage share of underweight children and other Millennium Development Goal indicators, and suggests that Asia is being ignored in favor of Africa. This report was prepared by UNESCAP as background for the Asia 2015 Conference - Promoting Growth, Ending Poverty, London, 6-7 March 2006. The report.

 

EC ENERGY GREEN PAPER

(EC, March 2006) The European Commission published this Green Paper on 8 March 2006. It seeks to develop a common, coherent European Energy Policy, with the objective of helping the European Union lay the foundations for secure, competitive and sustainable energy. The Green Paper.

 

NOT IF, BUT WHEN: ADAPTING TO NATURAL HAZARDS IN THE PACIFIC ISLANDS REGION

(World Bank, 2006) Pacific Island countries rank among the most vulnerable in the world to natural disasters. According to this policy note written by 14 experts for the World Bank, Pacific Island countries that plan ahead and act early to avert the impacts from climate change-related and other natural disasters will do far better in the long term than those countries that wait for disasters to hit and then repair the damage. The note calls for urgent action to reduce the risks facing Pacific Islands countries from more intense and frequent cyclones. The policy note.

 

“NAPASSESS”: A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR USE IN THE NAPA PROCESS

(SEI, 2006) The Stockholm Environment Institute has launch a new tool – NAPAssess – to assist in identifying options and encouraging transparency with National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) in least developed countries. The tool.

 

LINKING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION NETWORK WEBSITE

(University of Sussex, 2006) The Climate Change and Disasters Group, part of the Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, has launched a new website as part of the Linking Climate Adaptation (LCA) Network. The website focuses on climate change adaptation policies, publications, organizations and information sharing. The website.

 

CHANGING CLIMATES – THE ROLE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN A CARBON-CONSTRAINED WORLD

(REN21, February 2006) This report from the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) takes the view that renewable energy must play a significant role in the global energy supply in order to meet the serious economic and environmental threats resulting from climate change. The report calls for a major increase in investment, suggesting that economic instruments can “quickly improve the cost-competitiveness of renewable energy systems and technologies. The report.

 

REPORT OF THE SEVENTH MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE VIENNA CONVENTION AND THE SEVENTEENTH MEETING OF THE PARTIES TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL

(UNEP, 25 January 2006) The official report of the Seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Vienna Convention and the Seventeenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, held from 12-16 December, 2005 in Dakar, Senegal, is now available online. The report of the meeting.

 

REPORT OF THE 35TH MEETING OF THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEE

(UNEP, 2 February 2006) The official report of the 35th meeting of the Implementation Committee under the Non-Compliance Procedure for the Montreal Protocol, held from 7-9 December, 2005 in Dakar, Senegal, is now available online. The report of the meeting.

 

MONTREAL 2005: WHAT HAPPENED AND WHAT IT MEANS

(Oxford Climate Policy, February 2006) This paper by Benito M�ller seeks to explain what occurred in December 2005 at the recent Montreal climate conferences (the first Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol and eleventh Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change). More information.

 

AGENDA FOR CLIMATE ACTION

(Pew Center, January 2006) The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has published a plan to cut greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. The plan sets out both broad policies and short-term actions that could be taken. The report.

 

JOINT IMPLEMENTATION WEBSITE SECTION LAUNCHED

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat has launched a new section of its website containing information on the Kyoto Protocol�s Joint Implementation mechanism and the newly-established Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee. The website.

 

OUTGROWING THE EARTH: THE FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE IN AN AGE OF FALLING WATER TABLES AND RISING TEMPERATURES

(Earth Policy Institute, 2005) This text by Lester Brown examines linkages between population growth, agricultural productivity, soil fertility, water tables, climate change and security. The report.

 

ASIAN PERSPECTIVES ON CLIMATE REGIME BEYOND 2012: CONCERNS, INTERESTS AND PRIORITIES

(IGES, December 2005) The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), in collaboration with several other organizations, has published a new report reflecting views and priorities of Asian countires in a future climate regime. The report, which was produced following a series of stakeholder consultations in the second half of 2005, highlighted issues such as the development dimension, technology transfer, and adaptation. A second round of consultations is expected in April 2006. The first report.

 

CDM COUNTRY GUIDES

(IGES, 2006) The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies has launched its CDM County Guides, a series of manuals for the Clean Development Mechanism for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. The reports.

 

ENERGY �FACTOIDS�

(Sustainable Energy Coalition, 2006) The Sustainable Energy Coalition has released the second set of five �factoids� in a series considering various energy issues, including renewable energies, fossil fuels and reliance on oil, and biomass. The �factoids� outline findings from recent studies and focus in particular on issues facing the U.S. More information.

 

ENERGY PLANNING, TECHNOLOGIES AND SUSTAINABILITY: A PRIMER

(Cen2eco: Centre for Economic and Ecological Studies, 2005) This primer considers the �performance, costs, and resource implications for a wide range of power generation technologies used to supply electricity in energy markets.� It also addresses demand-side considerations at the regional, national and local levels. The report.

 

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