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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE
This page was updated on: 01/12/10
(WBCSD, 2005) The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) prepared this report for release during the eleventh Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 2005. The report finds that the best way for the industry to reduce emissions is through technological innovation and accelerated capital stock turnover. The report.
(WRI, December 2005) This report from the World Resources Institute considers how economic development in developing countries can support efforts to mitigate climate change. More information.
(SciDev, November 2005) SciDev.Net, a website focusing on science and technology in developing countries, has prepared a special section on climate change and Brazilian, including articles on government policy and the possible impact of the Clean Development Mechanism. The website.
(Tyndall Centre, October 2005) This guidebook provides information on the risks from climate change, as well as options for how to prepare to cope with its impacts. The guidebook was produced by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research with funding from the UK Overseas Territories Environment Programme. More information.
(WWF, November 2005) WWF has released a new report on lessons for the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) based on studies commissioned from ILEX Energy Consulting and the Öko-Institut The report reviews the national allocation plans for key countries, and looks beyond the ETS second phase, which is scheduled to end in 2012. It sets out main findings and 12 principles for a better ETS in phase two. The report advocates more ambitious targets for Europe’s largest emitters. More information.
(UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, August 2005) Prepared by a group led by the British Trust for Ornithology, this report draws together broad research on the effects of climate change on migratory wildlife. It warns that climate change could affect and disrupt breeding, hamper migrations, and increase disease transmission in migratory birds and animals. The report.
(MATCH, September 2005) This paper was prepared by the Ad-hoc Group for Modeling and Assessment of Contributions of Climate Change (MATCH), a group that “calculates countries’ relative or absolute contribution to climate change and aims to improve robustness of calculations and more rigorously assess uncertainties and methodological choices. This paper studies the methodological and scientific aspects of the “Brazilian Proposal” for determining countries’ emissions targets. More information.
(UNEP Risoe Center, 18 October 2005) The UNEP Risoe Centre has updated its overview of projects in the pipeline through the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation. More information.
(ECN, 2005) The Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN) has released a new publication analyzing the linkages between emissions trading in the European Union and power prices, particularly the “free allocation of emission allowances for the price of electricity in countries of North-western Europe (Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands).” The study finds that a significant part of the costs is passed on consumers, and argues that such free allocation of emission allowances is a “highly questionable policy option.” It argues that auctioning might offer a better alternative. The report.
(UNU, 2005) This research brief reviews “Measuring Vulnerability to Hazards of Natural Origin,” a book proposed for publication by the UNU Press in 2006. The book explores the opportunities for adopting a pre-emptive rather than reactive approach to natural disasters. The brief.
(NCPA, September 2005) In this brief analysis for the National Center for Policy Analysis (a conservative U.S. think tank), H. Sterling Burnett claims that a “consensus is forming concerning the appropriate response to global warming.” Arguing that the cost of mitigating climate change by reducing emissions exceeds the benefits, the author views adaptation as a “superior response to threats posed by global warming.” The analysis.
The International Energy Agency has updated its climate change database, which now contains over 1100 searchable records “covering the policy making process in IEA’s 26 Member Countries.” The website.
(U.S. State Public Interest Research Groups, 2005) The Public Interest Research Groups, state-based advocacy organizations, have published a report outlining tools that policy makers could consider to reduce dependence on petroleum. The report.
(NRTEE, 2005) Canada’s National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) has published a report examining the role of economic instruments in supporting technologies that reduce energy-based carbon emissions. The report.
(Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, 2005) This paper by Wolfgang Sterk and Bettina Wittneben considers some of the concerns expressed about the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The authors consider the benefits of a sectoral approach. The paper.
(WGMS, August 2005) This new report from the World Glacier Monitoring Service, warns that global warming is causing dramatic glacial melting around the world. More information.
A new website has been launched as part of an ongoing project on the U.S. budget and climate change. The McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. and the Centre for European Policy Studies in Brussels have launched a website with papers and analysis on the U.S. government budget for climate change programmes. More information.
A new website has been launched to support renewable energy development in 27 countries within the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s area of operations. The project is receiving financial support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). More information.
(Joint Implementation Network, 2005) This guide by Joris Laseur explains the Clean Development Mechanism’s project cycle, explaining issues such as project eligibility and development. The report.
The Gold Standard, a quality-control system for projects developed under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), has launched an online registry system. More information.
Climate Policy, the international, peer-reviewed journal on climate change, has recently been relaunched by Earthscan publishers. Professor Michael Grubb of Imperial College, London, is editor-in-chief of the publication, which in its current issue addresses topics such as adaptation policies, the design of the Kyoto mechanisms, and public perception of climate change. More information.
(ICTSD, May 2005) This discussion paper by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) considers the interface between trade, climate change and sustainable energy. Authors Malena Sell, Bernice Law and Matthew Walls argue that the aims of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol can in most cases be aligned with those of the WTO. However, it also advocates win-win opportunities in a number of areas, including negotiations on agriculture subsidies. The report.
(Working Group on Climate Change and Development, June 2005) This report from a group of non-governmental organizations and think tanks argues that efforts to alleviate poverty in Africa will fail unless urgent action is to address climate change. More information.
(Trustcost Plc and Henderson Global Investors, June 2005) This new report examines some of the investment implications of climate change, focusing on the FTSE 100 list of companies. It models the potential implications of internalizing the costs of carbon into market prices. The report found considerable variations in the level of risk associated with internalizing carbon costs between different companies. The report.
(29 June 2005) This new report by financial services provider Allianz Group and conservation organization WWF argues that the financial industry needs to “systematically screen climate change risks,” outlining specific steps required to integrate better the risks from climate change into insurance, banking and asset management. The report.
(CEPS, July 2005). Written by Thomas L. Brewer and published by the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), this policy brief argues that there is an increasing divide on climate policy between the U.S> Congress and President, and an emerging bi-partisan Congressional coalition that is likely to impact EU-US relations. The report.
(AIXG, June 2005) This 32-page study, written by Cédric Philibert of the International Energy Agency at the request of the Annex I Expert Group (AIXG) on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, outlines a range of approaches on which future international cooperation to mitigate climate change might be based. The report.
(EU Synergy CDM Pool Project, 2005) This report, which was prepared by IT Power Carbon and ECN (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands), provides guidance on bundling small-scale projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The report.
(Palgrave Macmillan, July 2005) Written by Chris Spence, this book seeks to demystify the complex issue of climate change science and politics, making the topic accessible to a wider audience. The book addresses some of the popular myths and misconceptions about global warming, considers responses to the problem at the international, national and local levels, and offers practical advice about what individuals can do. More information.
(IPIECA, 2005). The International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) has launched a new web portal to provide guidance for companies, in particular in the petroleum sector, that are considering submitting emission reduction projects for approval as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The CDM Navigator.
A new Programme on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change has launched its website. The Programme, which was established during the Tenth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 2004, involves eight institutes and organizations. The Programme secretariat is based at the Rock Ethics Institute at Penn State University. The new website.
(CICERO, May 2005) This new report from the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research considers how a climate target of restricting temperature increases to 2ºC or less by 2100 could be achieved. Noting that efforts must be broader than those set out under the Kyoto Protocol, the report considers a “multi-stage approach” that would strengthen emission mitigation commitments as countries’ GDP increases. The report.
(Utrecht University, May 2005) This PhD thesis by Martin Junginger analyzes the falling costs of some renewable energy technologies, including onshore and offshore wind farms and some biomass technologies. It also considers the impact of technological progress on the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the expanded European Union. The thesis.
(UNEP Risoe Center, May 2005) UNEP’s Risoe Center has released and overview of projects “in the pipeline” under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism, as well as an overview of all Joint Implementation projects that have reached the validation stage. The report.
(23 May 2005) This new essay by Michel Gelobter, Michael Dorsey, Tom Goldtooth, Richard Moore and others seeks to respond to a controversial article published several months earlier, entitled “Death of Environmentalism.” The earlier article, which focused on climate change politics, questioned how effective the environmental community in the United States has been, arguing that the environmental movement has lost its way. In “The Soul of Environmentalism,” the authors argue that environmentalism is far from dead. They suggest instead that it is time for the green movement to stop “playing defense against the plunder-the-earth corporate elites” and to begin to focus more on achieving long-term “deep change” in societal attitudes and behavior.
(New Zealand Treasury, March 2005) This new working paper by Suzi Kerr, Isabelle Sin and Joanna Hendy was released recently by the New Zealand Treasury. The paper provides an overview of key issues involved in the choice among market-based instruments for climate change policy, examining the potential net benefits from shifting to a permit system for emission reduction, and the preconditions necessary for this change. The working paper.
(Resources for the Future, February 2005) This paper by Joseph Kruger considers the roles and interactions of environmental regulators and the companies that are regulated in the U.S. emissions trading programs for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It examines the administrative features involved in the system, and assesses lessons for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. The paper.
(CDM Investment Newsletter, 1 April 2005) This article by Hans Nilsson of the International Energy Agency is one of a number of articles on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in the latest issue of the CDM Investment Newsletter, a quarterly publication published by the Climate Business Network and BEA International. More information.
(UNEP, 2005) This short video on the Kyoto Protocol and its Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) shows the reasons for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the opportunities provided by the CDM for developing countries. More information.
A new report has addressed the issue of how to ensure that substitutes for ozone-depleting chemicals do not contribute to global warming. Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), was produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel. It contains a range of recommendations to minimize the impact of ozone-depleting chemicals and their replacements on climate change. The report was finalized at a recent meeting held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in early April 2005. Summary for Policymakers, IPCC, April 2005. New Report on How to Save the Ozone Layer while Combating Climate Change, UNEP press release, 11 April 2005.
(Greenleaf, March 2005) This book analyzes corporate responses to the climate change issue. The book describes and examines various recent business approaches in order to identify effective strategies and “promote the dissemination of proactive corporate practices on climate change worldwide.” It considers the factors that cause companies to pursue strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and support the Kyoto Protocol process. The book includes contributions from numerous climate and business experts, and was edited by Kathryn Begg, Frans van der Woerd, and David Levy.
(Oxford, March 2005) This short opinion piece by Benito Müller was presented during a civil society event held alongside the G8 environment and development ministers meeting in mid-March 2005. The piece considers the “opportunities and pitfalls of the upcoming post-2012 multilateral climate change negotiations.” The report warns of the dangers of moving away from a mandatory emissions cap regime of the type set out under the Kyoto Protocol. Rather than abandoning this approach after 2012, as officials from the UK and elsewhere have apparently mooted in recent months, Müller recommends that the UK and other EU member States establish a post-Kyoto system that allows sub-national entities, such as US states and companies, to join such a treaty. Joint technology initiatives with the current US administration should be entered into as a complement to, but not as a replacement for, a Kyoto-style treaty, he argues. With regards to engaging developing countries, Müller suggests that the developed world should start by fulfilling their pledges to support various funds agreed under the UNFCCC.
(IAP, 2005) This new report contains an analysis of the International Action Programme (IAP) that formed the central outcome of the Renewables Conference held in Bonn in June 2004. The report reflects on the almost 200 actions and commitments outlined by governments, international organizations and other stakeholders at the 2004 event.
EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FLOWS AND CDM POTENTIAL
(Transnational Corporations, Vol. 14, Num. 1, April 2005) This soon-to-be-published article, which will appear in UNCTAD’s journal Transnational Corporations in April 2005, considers the use of the Kyoto Protocol’s CDM, particularly as it relates to foreign direct investment (FDI). The article suggests that any assumption that CDM financial flows will correlate closely with FDI flows is “simplistic” and may be incorrect. It argues that further research is needed to determine how developing countries can attract CDM investment. The full article and the UNCTAD press statement providing an overview of the article.
(Munich Re, February 2005) This publication highlights 2004 as a year marked by “dramatic events as a result of earthquakes and tropical cyclones,” and reports record losses suffered by the insurance industry. The report describes the December 2004 tsunami disaster and highlights several unusual hurricane events, including one forming off the Brazilian coast – the first detected since observations began. Florida was struck by four hurricanes in just a few weeks, while Japan was hit by a record 10 tropical cyclones.
(CEPS, February 2005) This report by Christian Egenhofer, Noriko Fujiwara and Kyriakos Gialoglou examines the effects the EU Emissions Trading Scheme is likely to have on the business environment. While focusing on the 2008-12 period, the report also considers likely impacts beyond 2012. The report is published by the Centre for European Policy Studies.
(Tiempo, Issue 54, January 2005, pp. 18-22) In the January 2005 issue of Tiempo, Hannah Reid and Mozaharul Alam consider how climate change will impact on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The authors argue that climate change will make meeting the MDGs more difficult. However, they also suggest some practical examples of activities that meet “both climate change and development objectives.”
(Earthscan, 2005) This new book by Joanna Depledge considers the extremely complex and well-coordinated negotiations needed to produce and build upon the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, as well as the Kyoto Protocol and the Bonn and Marrakesh Accords. The author highlights some lessons and implications for other complex and far-reaching negotiations, such as the WTO process, and identifies six ï¿½key elements that determine organizational effectiveness as a necessary condition for successful outcomes.ï¿½
(RIVM, January 2005) This new report addresses questions of mainstreaming climate change in other policy areas. Over 250 pages long, the report includes chapters focusing on climate change in the context of poverty, land use, energy security, international trade, finance, subsidies, air pollution and health. It also contains chapters on adaptation and funding in climate change policies, climate mitigation policies and linkages with non-climate policy areas, and the ï¿½institutional interlinkages of global climate governance.ï¿½ The report, which contains contributions from 19 experts, was published by the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), in collaboration with several other Dutch research institutes.
AND CLEAN DEVELOPMENT: OPPORTUNITIES FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS - AN ICLEI
THE DEATH OF ENVIRONMENTALISM: GLOBAL WARMING POLITICS IN A POST-ENVIRONMENTAL WORLD
(Grist magazine, 13 January 2005) This paper by M Environmental Grantmakers Association in late 2004, has been reprinted in the online publication, Grist. The paper has caused considerable debate within environmental circles for questioning widely-held views on environmental politics, lobbying, and influencing politicians, the media and the public. The paper challenges the ï¿½conventional wisdomï¿½ in the environmental community that publicity should not seek to frighten the public about climate change but instead focus on technical solutions such as hybrid vehicles. The authors also question whether the environmental community in the United States has really achieved any lasting success in its efforts to combat global warming. They suggest that the environmental movement has lost its way, arguing that ï¿½modern environmentalism, with all of its unexamined assumptions, outdated concepts and exhausted strategies, must die so that something new can live.ï¿½ The special Grist report includes not only the original article by Shellenberger and Nordhaus, but also the views and responses of several leading environmentalists, including a rebuttal of some of the articleï¿½s key points by Sierra Club Director Carl Pope. The report.
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN A CHANGING CLIMATE
(VARG, 2005) This draft discussion paper by F. Sperling and F. Szekely argues for strategic coordination to help guide the exchange of information, methodologies and tools between experts and institutions active on disaster risk management, climate change and development. Arguing that such cooperation is necessary to reduce the impacts of natural disasters and to make development sustainable, the authors highlight various synergies between the work required to improve disaster risk management and the sort of actions needed to adapt to climate change. The discussion paper was produced on behalf of the Vulnerability and Adaptation Resource Group (VARG), an informal network of bilateral and multilateral agencies working on the impacts of climate change on development processes. VARG has a secretariat based at the World Bank in Washington, D.C. The paper.
UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION IN FUTURE CLIMATE AGREEMENTS: AN ASSESSMENT
(CICERO, January 2005) This paper from Andreas Tjernshaugen of the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO) in Oslo identifies key obstacles to U.S. participation in an international treaty to control greenhouse gas emissions. It also proposes some strategies to overcome such barriers. The paper begins by describing U.S. climate policy prior to 2001 and subsequently under President George W. Bush, before considering why Europe and the U.S. view climate change issues so differently. This is followed by an examination of barriers to U.S. participation in an international treaty, the costs of compliance, competitiveness concerns, and suggestions for strategies that European governments could adopt. The report.
THE COST OF U.S. FOREST-BASED CARBON SEQUESTRATION
(Pew Center on Global Climate Change, January 2005) This report, written by Harvard Universityï¿½s Robert N. Stavins and Kenneth R. Richards of Indiana University, synthesizes and expands on available studies of forest-based carbon sequestration in the United States. The authors analyze the real opportunity costs of using land for sequestration, in contrast with other productive uses, and examine factors that drive the economics of storing carbon in forests over long periods of time. The report.
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