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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2004

 

Climate and Atmosphere Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2003; 2002

 

CASE STUDY OF THE MULTILATERAL FUND FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL
(The World Bank, 2004)
This study analyses the efficacy of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, a mechanism designed to assist developing countries in their progress towards phasing out ozone-depleting substances. It describes the genesis and organization of the Multilateral Fund, and concludes that the Fund has targeted cost-effective interventions and has “established a new approach toward solving global environmental problems.” The report.

VOLUNTARY APPROACHES IN CLIMATE POLICY

(Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004) Edited by Andrea Baranzini and Philippe Thalmann, this book illustrates how corporate voluntarism can be harnessed to mitigate climatic impacts of business, and assesses the economics of such approaches at the company level and in the context of climate policies. The book also explores the efficiency and effectiveness of voluntary approaches, how they compare and combine with other instruments, how they impact competition and why they get adopted.

 

UNEXAMINED RISK: HOW MUTUAL FUNDS VOTE ON GLOBAL WARMING SHAREHOLDER RESOLUTIONS

(CERES, December 2004) This report from Douglas G. Cogan of the Investor Responsibility Research Center considers the use of shareholder resolutions to bring about more corporate disclosure on the financial impacts of global warming. Commissioned by CERES, a coalition of investment funds, environmental organizations, and public interest groups, the report finds that “a mere two percent of the assets of the largest 100 mutual funds in America voted in 2004 to support shareholder resolutions calling for more corporate disclosure” on global warming. The report suggested that a vast majority of investment companies resisted or failed to act on shareholder proposals on this issue. However, it noted that pension funds and other investors are supporting shareholder resolutions in growing numbers, reaching a record high of 37 percent at some recent annual general meetings. CERES has recently claimed that mutual funds are “a critical missing link in the push for better corporate disclosure about climate risk.” The report.

 

IGES PUBLISHES THE “HOTTEST JOURNAL ON THE KYOTO PROTOCOL”

IGES - Institute for Global Environmental Strategies - is pleased to announce its new publication, a special-featured issue of IRES on the Kyoto Protocol – its development, implications and the future. After seven years of negotiations, the Kyoto Protocol will finally come into effect in February 2005 with Russia’s ratification. This IRES issue is a new and interesting journal on Kyoto issues, containing the latest analyses and future forecasts by experts from all over the world. Leading thinkers in the climate policy arena, such as Michael Grubb, Visiting Professor at Imperial College, and Michael Zammit Cutajar, Former UNFCCC Executive Secretary, give their views and assessments on the Kyoto Protocol, and its future implications, in this issue. Country views from many experts, including the US, the UK, Germany, Russia, China, India, Australia, and Japan, are also provided. Their perspectives vary widely, such as on the value and effects of the Kyoto Protocol, its barriers, its status in the context of domestic policies, and the possibilities of the post-Kyoto regime. IRES (International Review for Environmental Strategies) is a biannual academic journal published by IGES, focusing on environmental policies. Click here for abstracts of each article.

 

COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS: LINKING ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE, SUSTAINABLE LAND USE, BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND WATER MANAGEMENT

(BothENDS 2004) Prepared by Ana Rojas, this report looks into the synergies between environmental policies and the development of comprehensive environmental projects. The report seeks to understand how climate change, sustainable land use, biodiversity conservation, and water management considerations can be linked to local actors’ activities in order to help local communities develop comprehensive environmental projects. Special focus is given to the issue of climate change adaptation. The report.

 

WORLD DISASTERS REPORT 2004

(IFRC, 2004) The World Disaster Report, which was launched in mid-November 2004 by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, focuses on community resilience to disasters. The report considers how international aid organizations can help strengthen local resilience to crises ranging from “slow-onset” problems such as drought or HIV/AIDS to sudden “one-off disasters” like earthquakes. It argues that a more development-focused approach is needed that places communities at the heart of defining their needs and identifying appropriate solutions. The report also deals with such specific issues as the impact of heat waves on the developed world, capacity building in rural India, disaster resilience in the Philippines, and key risks in urban slums. More information.

 

TOOLKIT “INTEGRATION OF BIODIVERSITY CONCERNS INTO CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIVITIES”
(UBA, 2004) Published by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), this toolkit seeks to provide practical guidance on designing climate change mitigation activities in a way that will benefit biodiversity and contribute to the 2010 biodiversity target. It also aims to enhance synergies between climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation policies. The first part of the toolkit provides an overview of potential climate change mitigation activities, particularly in the land use, land use change and forestry sector. The second part introduces selected instruments that could be applied for the integration of biodiversity aspects into climate change mitigation activities. The third part seeks to supports the design of activities that are beneficial for biodiversity and contribute to the global 2010 biodiversity target, and is based on decision-sheets for project types that are eligible according to the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. The toolkit.

 

ENERGY SERVICES FOR THE URBAN POOR IN AFRICA: ISSUES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
(AFREPREN, 2004) Edited by Bereket Kebede and Eng. Ikhupuleng Dube, this publication presents a compilation of country studies carried out on energy services for the urban poor in eastern and southern Africa. The book considers two major issues in Africa – poverty alleviation and growing urbanization – against an energy background, and seeks to contribute to the current energy policy debate in Africa. More information.


RENEWABLES AND ENERGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
(AFREPREN, June 2004) Edited by M. Mapako and A. Mbewe, this publication provides a compilation of country studies carried out by AFREPREN researchers in the Renewables and Energy for Rural Development Theme Group of 1999-2004. More information.

 

THE COST OF SECTORAL DIFFERENTIATION: THE CASE OF THE EU EMISSIONS TRADING SCHEME

(CICERO, 2004) This new working paper from Steffen Kallbekken examines the likely economic impacts of the new EU emissions trading scheme, noting that the EU scheme and Kyoto Protocol are likely to impose different commitments on various sectors of the economy as a result of political considerations and other factors. Kallbekken finds that sectoral differentiation will at least triple the cost of implementing climate policy, with only “limited benefits” even for those sectors that are granted concessions. The report appears to provide further ammunition for those arguing in favor of a comprehensive trading scheme that does not differentiate between sectors. The paper.

 

IN PURSUIT OF THE FUTURE – 25 YEARS OF IEA RESEARCH TOWARDS THE REALIZATION OF HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEMS

(IEA, 2004) The International Energy Agency has produced a publication on the work of its Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, which has collaborated on international research and development activities since 1977. Reviewing advances in the area, it notes progress in hydrogen’s growing potential as a source of energy, and considers how hydrogen-related technology may develop in the future. The publication. The IEA is also planning a new publication reviewing national research and development programmes on hydrogen and fuel cells.

 

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AFRICA

(UNDESA, May 2004) Stephen Karekezi, Jennifer Wangeci and Ezekiel Manyara of African Energy Policy Research Network authored this paper, which addresses energy consumption at the household level and in the agriculture and transport sectors in Africa. It also examines energy consumption at the subregional levels of North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa, and in South Africa, highlighting differences in consumption patterns and presenting the case for a differentiated approach to sustainable energy consumption options. The paper concludes with a range of policy options that could assist in the promotion of sustainable energy consumption in Africa and offers a chart that organizes the options according to subregional priorities. Actions that are priorities in all subregions include: efficient energy use at the household level; improved data collection on energy use in the agriculture sector; greater use of other renewable energy resources and technologies (excluding biomass) in the agriculture sector; regulatory measures in the transport sector; and energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper served as a background paper for the Regional Conference on Sustainable Consumption in Africa held in Morocco in May 2004, co-organized by DESA, UNEP and the Government of Morocco. The paper.

 

TYNDALL CENTRE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH WORKING PAPERS

Working Papers from the Tyndall Centre are now available online. The documents address a range of topics, including: Modeling innovation and threshold effects in climate change mitigation; Social simulation of the public perceptions of weather events and their effect upon the development of belief in anthropogenic climate change; Creating an index of social vulnerability to climate change for Africa; Developing regional and local scenarios for climate change mitigation and adaptation; the Announcement Effect and environmental taxation; Fuel Cells for a Sustainable Future?; and Restructuring our electricity networks to promote decarbonisation. The Tyndall Centre brings together scientists, economists, engineers and social scientists, who together develop sustainable responses to climate change through trans-disciplinary research and dialogue on both a national and international level. The documents.

 

DOES THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION’S CLIMATE POLICY MEAN CLIMATE PROTECTION?

(EPE, 2004) This article provides a perspective on US climate policy from two experts – Odile Blanchard of the French Department of Energy and Environmental Policy, and Chicago-based consultant James F. Perkaus. The paper considers two key parts of the Bush administration’s climate policy, namely its emission intensity target and its technology focus. The authors conclude that these policies do not guarantee emissions reductions that are likely to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at a level that is considered safe in the long term. They suggest that the administration’s approach gambles too heavily on securing a major technological breakthrough in the coming years. However, the authors also speculate that US policy on climate protection could well strengthen due to growing concern in Congress and at the state, corporate and civil society levels. A draft copy of the article can be accessed from the LEPII-EPE’s website at: http://www.upmf-grenoble.fr/iepe/Equipe/blanchard/blanchardPubliGB.htm

 

GLOBAL WARMING AND YOUR MUTUAL FUND

A new website has been launched to allow mutual funds investors to assess whether their investments are endangered by the financial risks posed by global warming. This free service is provided by Results for America, a non-profit group that monitors companies’ performance on climate change. The site, which covers the top 24 mutual funds in the US, allows investors to check if a specific company or mutual fund has a poor record in responding to climate change. This includes monitoring how individual companies compare with their rivals in taking climate change into account in their long-term strategies. For more information, visit: http://www.CookingYourNestEgg.org

 

THREE PUBLICATIONS ON HARVESTED WOOD PRODUCTS

(July/August 2004) Three reports have recently been published on the complex issue of harvested wood products under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. The first, Harvested Wood Products – A Beginning Guide to Key Issues, was prepared by New Zealand climate change expert Murray Ward. The report is intended as a primer for those following the climate change negotiations who are not necessarily experts on carbon sinks and land use, land-use change and forestry issues. Ward seeks to put the issue in the broader policy context, and considers some possible approaches for accounting for harvested wood products beyond the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period. A second recent paper on the same subject has also been prepared in recent weeks. Approaches for inclusion of harvested wood products in future greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC, and their consistency with the overall UNFCCC inventory reporting framework, was prepared by K. Pingoud, B. Schlamadinger and several other experts from various institutions in Europe, North America, and Australia. A third paper, by Daniel L. Martino of Uruguayan environmental services company Carbosur, is entitled A Negative View of Dakar Approaches for Reporting and Accounting Carbon in Harvested Wood Products. All three reports were released ahead of a planned UNFCCC workshop on the subject taking place in Lillehammer, Norway from 30 August to 1 September.

 

Links to further information

Ward’s paper can be accessed via e-mail

Martino’s paper can be requested by e-mail

The report by Pingoud et al

UNFCCC Secretariat’s harvested wood products website

 

THE INVESTOR GUIDE TO CLIMATE RISK
(CERES, July 2004) A new guide for investors outlining strategies to address the financial risks and investment opportunities posed by climate change has been published. Commissioned by the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES), a coalition of investment funds and environmental organizations, the guide focuses on actions that pension plans, fund managers and companies can take to address climate risk.  The report aims to assist investors in implementing the recommendations of the Investor Call for Action on Climate Risk – an agreement signed by a number of leading public and labor pension funds and other groups owning more than US$800 billion in assets. The guide focuses on assessing and disclosing risk, as well as in investing in solutions. The report is available online at: http://www.incr.com/investor_guide/

 

SOUTH-NORTH DIALOGUE ON EQUITY IN THE GREENHOUSE – A PROPOSAL FOR AN ADEQUATE AND EQUITABLE GLOBAL CLIMATE AGREEMENT
(Wuppertal Institute and the Energy Research Centre at Cape Town University) This publication, produced by 14 climate researchers from both developed and developing countries, outlines proposals for the content of a future climate agreement building on existing international treaties. The report outlines suggestions for how to approach the issue of climate mitigation, recommending “deep cuts” in emissions from industrialized countries, and “differentiated mitigation commitments” for four groups of developing countries. It also contains recommendations for adaptation policies designed to address the needs of the most vulnerable countries. The text concludes with recommendations on the future of the political process needed to secure such an agreement. The report can be downloaded online at: http://www.wupperinst.org/Sites/Projects/rg2/1085.html

 

ARCTIC MISSION - THE CYBERDOCUMENTARY
This cyber-documentary brings viewers on board the Sedna IV, a trawling turn research vessel, for a scientific adventure through the Arctic region in search of signs of climate change. Arctic Mission is an interactive, educational and entertaining resource that allows viewers to learn more about climatology and the impacts of global warming though different online activities. The resource, available in both English and French, is located at: http://www.onf.ca/missionarctique/landing_en.php

 

CAN GEOLOGICAL CARBON STORAGE BE COMPETITIVE?
(CICERO, 2004) This new working paper from Norwegian think-tank CICERO considers the costs and benefits of geological carbon storage. Authors Steffen Kallbekken and Asbjørn Torvanger argue that, in the short-term, carbon capture and storage is unlikely to be an economically-viable option, except under very specific circumstances (such as enhanced oil recovery). However, in the longer term, the paper suggests that technological improvements could see costs drop, and the financial feasibility of carbon storage improve. The working paper can be read online at: http://www.cicero.uio.no/publications/detail.asp?publication_id=2735&lang=en

 

PER CAPITA GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FOR ANNEX I COUNTRIES
(Australia Institute/IIASA, 2004) Hal Turton of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Austria has written a report looking at per capita emissions from the world’s industrialized countries and states belonging to the former Soviet Bloc (known collectively as “Annex I” countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change). Published by the Australia Institute, the report finds that Australia has the highest emissions per person at 27.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. This is 27% higher than those in the United States, and twice the average for Annex I Parties overall. A summary of the report is available online at: http://www.tai.org.au/Publications_Files/DP_Files/Dp66sum.pdf

 

THE PRICE OF POWER: POVERTY, CLIMATE CHANGE, THE COMING ENERGY CRISIS AND THE RENEWABLE REVOLUTION
(New Economics Foundation, 2004) This new report by Andrew Simms, Julian Oram and Petra Kjell argues that a continuing reliance on fossil fuels will perpetuate poverty and could drive a huge “reversal of human progress.” It shows that increased investment in renewable energy could save millions of lives and avert an impending crisis over global energy supplies. Even a relatively small shift in investment in the energy sector in percentage terms could have hugely beneficial consequences for people’s health and economic wellbeing. The report also argues against the current subsidies for coal, oil and gas, which it estimates amount to at least US$235 billion each year. The report is available online at: http://www.neweconomics.org/gen/z_sys_publicationdetail.aspx?pid=182

 

AFRICAN ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 2003/2004
(AfDB/OECD, May 2004) The AEO is an annual assessment of economic and social developments in African countries. The report shows that despite progress on several fronts and general economic growth in several countries, many will still not be able to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This third edition report’s special focus on energy considers whether improvements in energy supply can help alleviate poverty, and concludes that Africa’s huge energy potential remains “vastly under exploited.” Based on data from the 22 most significant African economies, this publication serves as a reference for policy makers, donors and the private sector. The AEO is prepared by the OECD Development Centre and the African Development Bank. More information is available at: http://www.oecd.org/document/47/0,2340,en_2649_201185_32282223_1_1_1_1,00.html

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN HEALTH: RISKS AND RESPONSES
(World Health Organization, 2004) Edited by A.J. McMichael et al, this book considers the risks to human health posed by climate change. The book looks both at current and future adverse impacts on human health, and how societies can lessen these impacts through adaptation strategies and by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Each chapter tackles a different aspect of the problem. More information on the book is available online at: http://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/cchhsummary/en/

 

NEW ACADEMY REVIEW JOURNAL – FOCUS ON CLIMATE CHANGE
(New Academy Review, May 2004) The New Academy Review, a journal focusing on key issues relating to responsible and successful enterprise in the 21st Century, is publishing an issue devoted to climate change. The issue will include articles covering a range of theoretical and methodological issues, empirical studies, and literature reviews. It was launched by the EC’s Commissioner for the Environment, Margot Wallström, at an event held in London on 11 May. For more information, visit: http://www.respecteurope.com/rt2/downloads/NAR%20Launch%20Invitation%20London.pdf

 

ECONOMICS OF SEQUESTERING CARBON IN THE U.S. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
(US Department of Agriculture, March 2004) This technical bulletin by the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture presents the results of an analysis of the performance of alternative incentive designs and payment levels if US farmers were paid to adopt land uses and management practices that raise soil carbon levels. The report finds that: agriculture can provide low-cost opportunities to sequester additional carbon in soils and biomass; different sequestration activities studied become economically feasible at different carbon prices; and the estimated economic potential to sequester carbon is lower than previously estimated technical potential. The report also finds that an incentive system with both payments for carbon sequestration and charges for carbon emissions may be more cost effective than a system with payments only. The report can be downloaded at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/tb1909/

 

THE EU EMISSIONS TRADING DIRECTIVE: OPPORTUNITIES AND POTENTIAL PITFALLS
(Resources for the Future, April 2004) This report by Joseph Kruger and William A. Pizer was published by Resources for the Future, a US-based institute focused on researching and analyzing environmental, energy, and natural resource issues. The report looks at the European Union’s new emissions trading programme. Noting that the programme is ten times the size of the Acid Rain programme in the US, the authors consider the design of the new EU initiative. While concluding that the programme is an “impressive development,” the authors raise concerns about issues of equity, enforcement, and efficiency. In particular, they point to a lack of data and weaker institutions in some EU Member States, which could cause problems in terms of allowance allocations and compliance and enforcement. The authors also warn that uncertainty about several key elements of the scheme, including external events, could create volatility in the markets, which could result in high compliance costs in the programme’s second phase. The report is available online at: http://www.rff.org/rff/Documents/RFF-DP-04-24.pdf

 

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KYOTO PROTOCOL WITHOUT RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION
(Statistics Norway and CICERO, 2004) This discussion paper by Bjart Holtsmark and Knut Alfsen considers the possible consequences if Russia decides to reject the Kyoto Protocol. Without Russian ratification, Kyoto will not enter into force as a legally-binding treaty. Given the widespread support for Kyoto among most industrialized nations and former eastern Bloc states, the authors speculate on how these pro-Kyoto countries might respond if the Protocol does not secure Russian support. It considers a scenario where a limited number of countries establish a new “mini-Kyoto” agreement setting out emissions targets, rules for emissions trading, and other elements along the lines of those contained in the Kyoto deal. The paper estimates the permit price and environmental benefits that are possible if a “mini-Kyoto” is implemented. The paper is available online at: http://www.ssb.no/publikasjoner/DP/pdf/dp376.pdf

 

THE KYOTO PROTOCOL: RUSSIAN OPPORTUNITIES
(RIIA/OIES, March 2004). This paper by Benito Müller investigates the opportunities provided by the Kyoto Protocol to the Russian economy. Müller estimates the value of Russian greenhouse gas mitigation under the Kyoto mechanisms based on different carbon prices, and considers how the mechanisms could best work for Russia’s economy. He concludes that the “Joint Implementation” mechanism provides the best platform for Russia, because of the way it leverages foreign direct investment. However, Müller urges that Russia should begin to engage in Joint Implementation projects as soon as possible if it is to extract the greatest possible benefit. The paper suggests that linkages with the European Union’s new Emissions Trading Scheme could be developed, which would benefit Russia once it ratifies the Kyoto treaty. The paper was published jointly by the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. It is available online at: http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~mueller/

 

THE HYPE ABOUT HYDROGEN: FACT AND FICTION IN THE RACE TO SAVE THE CLIMATE
(Island Press, 2004) This book by Joseph Romm investigates the recent hype around the prospects for using hydrogen fuels cells to solve the world’s environmental and energy dilemma. Romm, who was previously a US Energy Department official under the Clinton administration, argues that achieving a “hydrogen economy” is unlikely to be possible for several decades. He alerts readers to the dangers of over-estimating the short- to medium-term impact of hydrogen fuel cells, warning that “putting all our eggs in the hydrogen basket could allow climate problems to become irreversible.” For more information, visit: http://www.islandpress.org/books/detail.html?SKU=1-55963-703-x

 

CRITICAL USE NOMINATIONS – 2004 SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT
(UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel, February 2004) UNEP’s Technology and Economic Assessment Panel has produced an additional report on the issue of methyl bromide in request to a response late last year from Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The request was made over disagreements on the issue of exemptions to allow the use of methyl bromide – an ozone depleting substance – for “critical uses.”

 

In its supplementary report, the Panel makes a variety of recommendations, including that Parties to the Montreal Protocol should consider allowing methyl bromide for uses nominated for 2005 and 2006 “critical use exemptions” that have not been approved by Parties to date. However, it adds that this should only be permitted as long as the resulting emissions are offset through the collection and destruction of one kilogram of halon 1211 (another ozone-depleting substance) for every five kilograms of methyl bromide. The Panel also recommended that Parties be allowed to use methyl bromide for “critical use nominations” approved by Parties for 2007 and beyond, but again only if this is balanced by the destruction of a sufficient quantity of halons or chlorofluorocarbons to offset the ozone-depleting potential of the methyl bromide. The Panel notes that Parties’ nominations have been treated “liberally,” but warns that future evaluations will require Parties to demonstrate clearly that their nomination meets all the relevant criteria.

 

The methyl bromide issue has proved controversial, with further negotiations taking place throughout March to resolve the issue, culminating in an extraordinary Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol scheduled for 24-26 March in Montreal, Canada. This supplementary report proved to be no exception, with one Panel member, Gary Taylor, disagreeing with the procedures and content of the destruction credits section. The report notes Taylor’s view that the report is “seriously flawed” and that the Panel has exceeded its mandate. Taylor, who chairs the Halons Technical Options Committee, is resigning from his position effective 30 June 2004. The report is available online at: http://www.unep.org/ozone/pdfs/mbtoc-cun-report0204.doc

 

EMISSIONS TRADING IN INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
(Öko-Institut, 2004) This report by Martin Cames and Odette Deuber of Germany’s Institute for Applied Ecology (Öko-Institut) considers emissions trading in aviation, looking at possible design options for a trading system, as well as their likely impacts. The authors argue that an emissions trading system for aviation is “both possible and sensible,” while cautioning that the “total climatic impact of aviation [must] be covered” by such as system if it is to have the desired effect. The report was commissioned by the German Federal Environment Agency in response to the growing focus on economic instruments in limiting the impact of greenhouse gases from the aviation sector (the European Union is reported to be considering emissions levies, while the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is looking at setting up an emissions trading system). The report is available online at: http://www.umweltdaten.de/verkehr/emissionshandel-en.pdf

 

HIGH TIDE: NEWS FROM A WARMING WORLD
(Flamingo Press, March 2004) This new book by Mark Lynas explores the effects of climate change, both now and in the future. Aimed at a mainstream audience, the book is designed to raise awareness of the significant threat posed by climate change. Lynas considers the global impact of this phenomenon, from islands threatened by sea level rise to huge changes taking place in the world’s polar regions. Articles by Mark Lynas and information on how to purchase the book are available online at: http://www.marklynas.org/books/

 

ENERGY SUBSIDIES: LESSONS LEARNED IN ASSESSING THEIR IMPACT AND DESIGNING POLICY REFORMS
(Greenleaf Publishing, 2004) Edited by Anja von Moltke, Colin McKee and Trevor Morgan, this book seeks to raise awareness of the impacts of energy subsidies and provide guidance to policy makers on how to develop and implement energy subsidy reforms. It provides methodologies for analyzing subsidies and presents a number of case studies from various countries and regions. It also provides advice on how to overcome resistance to reform. The book draws on a range of sources, particularly the UN Environment Programme and the International Energy Agency. To purchase the book or view the Executive Summary, visit: http://www.greenleaf-publishing.com/catalogue/enersubs.htm

 

LINKING CDM AND JI WITH EU EMISSION ALLOWANCE TRADING

(Wuppertal Institute, 2004) A new policy briefing on links between the EU’s Emission Trading System and the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism and joint implementation initiative has been prepared by the Wuppertal Institute. The briefing considers the compatibility of the EU system with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors argue that a “significant compliance gap” exists, and recommends that a link between the EU trading scheme and the Kyoto mechanisms should be established. They also analyze the directive that has been prepared by the European Parliament’s Environment Committee to address this issue. The briefing.

 

THE EASTERN PROMISE: PROGRESS REPORT ON THE EU RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY DIRECTIVE IN ACCESSION COUNTRIES

(WWF, 2004) Conservation organization WWF has produced a report surveying the progress made by countries in eastern and central Europe in implementing the European Union�s renewable energy directive. These countries will shortly be joining the EU, and will be bound by its rules and procedures. The report surveys progress on a country-by-country basis, using various criteria to rank each nation on its level of success to date. The report also contains various recommendations to increase the use of renewables in these countries. The report is available online at: http://www.panda.org/downloads/europe/easternpromise.pdf

 

THE IMPACT OF THE EU EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM ON THE PRICE OF ELECTRICITY IN THE NETHERLANDS

(ECN, 2004) The Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN) has released a new publication on the impact the EU�s emissions trading scheme could have on electricity pricing in the Netherlands. It shows that the scheme could result in substantially higher electricity prices in the Netherlands and other EU member states. However, this will depend on several factors, including the price set for an emission allowance, and the extent to which emissions trading costs will be passed on to the final electricity consumer. The report points out that higher prices could benefit power producers while harming energy-intensive industries that are unable to pass on the increased costs. The report suggests several options for mitigating such effects. The report is available online at: http://www.ecn.nl/library/reports/2004/rx04015.html

 

CORAL REEFS AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE TO STRESS ON CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEMS
(Pew Center on Global Climate Change, February 2004) This new report from Robert Buddemeier, Joan Kleypas and Richard Aronson outlines the likely impacts of climate change over the next century on coral reef systems around the world. The report reviews the existing literature on the subject in an effort to analyze the current state of knowledge on coral reef communities and the likely impact of climate change. With the loss of an estimated 25 percent of coral reefs already due to human activities, the report argues that climate change will only intensify the �coral reef crisis� that already exists. Coral reefs are the greatest source of biodiversity of all marine ecosystems, and are estimated to contribute US$30 billion annually to the global economy. The report is available online from 13 February at: http://www.pewclimate.org/coral_reefs.cfm

 

MARKET POWER WITH INTERDEPENDENT DEMAND: SALE OF EMISSION PERMITS AND NATURAL GAS FROM THE FORMER SOVIET UNION
(CICERO, 2004) This working paper from the Norwegian research organization CICERO considers the role of the countries of the former Soviet Union in the emissions permit market. Written by Cathrine Hagem, Steffen Kallbekken, Ottar M�stad and Hege Westskog, the report examines the interdependence between the revenues from exports of permits and fossil fuels. Using a numerical general equilibrium model, the authors discover that the former Soviet Union countries� status as large exporters of natural gas would have a negligible effect on the incentives to exert monopoly power in the permit market. However, the authors also find significant impacts on what the optimal level of gas exports might be. The working paper is available online at: http://www.cicero.uio.no/publications/detail.asp?2597

 

CARBON FINANCE
(EBRD, 2004) The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has launched a new online information service on carbon trading. The information, which is contained in a new section of EBRD�s website, offers details about carbon financing, including project eligibility criteria and guidance on how projects can be developed. EBRD recently created one of Europe�s first carbon trading funds in partnership with the Dutch Government. The information service can be found at: http://www.ebrd.com/carbonfinance

 

CLIMATE ANALYSIS INDICATORS TOOL
(WRI, 2004) The World Resources Institute has recently released the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT), an interactive database that allows users to view the GHG emissions (all gases and sources) of any country. This resource compiles the �full basket� of greenhouse gases (including 5 non-CO2 gases) for both developed and developing countries, and can be used to analyze a range of climate-related data questions and to help support future policy decisions made under the UNFCCC and in other relevant fora. CAIT can be found at: http://cait.wri.org/

 

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
(IPIECA, January 2004) Guidelines to assist oil and natural gas companies in estimating and reporting their greenhouse gas emissions have been posted online by a group of industry experts. The Guidelines are an attempt to offer a cost effective, industry-endorsed method for estimating and reporting emissions. They include advice for companies on corporate management and reporting of emissions, regulatory compliance, and emissions trading. The Guidelines were prepared as part of a Joint Industry Task Force involving the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), the American Petroleum Institute, and the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers. The Guidelines are available online at: http://www.ipieca.org/reporting/ghg.html

 

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recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
Diego Noguera, IISD

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