IISD Reporting Services -
KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERE
This page was updated on: 12/10/10
Latest New Publications and Resources
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) released this report, which examines scenarios, results and policy options to promote sustainable food production in an era of climate change. The report features 15 food security scenarios through 2050 that examine potential population and income growth, alongside climate change scenarios. The report suggests that the negative impacts of climate change on food security could be mitigated by improved agricultural productivity, broad economic growth and robust international trade to counter regional food shortages. The report notes poor biophysical and social data to help improve models, but also highlights initiatives underway to address these shortfalls. The report further underscores the need to improve satellite observation data. [IFPRI publication on food security and farming]
The paper states that using market-based mechanisms can help ease the funding burden and steer investors towards low-carbon development. It says market mechanisms, combined with increased public funding to research and development, and investments in “immature” renewable technologies, are needed to give impetus and lower risk for private investors. [The report]
This report, published by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), highlights the vulnerability of LDCs to climate impacts. For example, the report indicates that the LDC small island developing states (SIDS) and LDCs in Asia are particularly vulnerable to the impact of storms and are also the least able to cope with the social and economic fallout from climate-related incidents. Although the LDCs as a group contribute relatively little to global warming — accounting for less than 1 per cent of the world’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions — the report notes that they will be disproportionately affected by changing climatic conditions. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in LDCs (e.g. droughts, extreme temperature and floods) have been increasing, with five times as many such incidents occurring from 2000-2010 as from 1970-1979. The number of people in LDCs affected by these extreme events has almost doubled, rising from 100 million from 1970-1979 to 193 million from 2000-2010. During the latter period, economic losses in LDCs resulting from natural disasters amounted to an estimated US$14.1 billion. [The report]
(World Bank, 2010)
This World Bank report underlines that, by 2015, solar portable lights could provide access to clean and safe lighting to an estimated 65 million Africans who are currently either un-electrified or under-electrified. Solar Lighting development potential is attributed to three factors: a significant improvement in the quality and performance of solar portable lights in the past five years; a decline in retail price; and product features that have been adapted to meet consumer needs. [The report]
(UNEP and GEF, 2010)
The report details how rising CO2 emissions are altering the chemical balance of our oceans and outlines the wide-ranging consequences of this emerging issue on marine food chains and ecosystems as well as human activities such as tourism and fishing. It also analyzes the effects of ocean acidification on global food security. [The report]
The report estimates the emissions contribution of the waste sector at roughly 3-5%, but notes that reliability of calculation methods and data between countries vary, and concludes that the waste sector is well placed to cut its contribution to global man-made greenhouse gas emissions. [The report]
(University of Padova, November 2010)
Written by Lucio Brotto and colleagues, this document outlines a set of concepts, guidelines and procedures for integrating the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) forest management certification with REDD+ projects. It provides an overview of the historical role of FSC in the forest-carbon market, outlines the timeline of REDD+ projects in relation to FSC certification, and identifies management tools to overcome the constraints encountered in organizing REDD+ projects.
(CIFOR, November 2010)
This policy brief provides an overview of the 17 REDD+ pilots under development in Indonesia by mid-2009. It examines the degree of spatial planning and heterogeneity of forest classification, strategies for long-term claims to carbon and the driver and agent of deforestation and degradation. The brief recommends that new approaches that allow participation of smallholders be explored, and calls for research to assess the success of outcomes of pilot types. [The policy brief]
(UNEP Risø Centre, November 2010)
The latest volume of Carbon Markets Perspectives series contains articles on experiences with carbon markets, the future role of the carbon market and the private sector in scaling up investments for REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable use of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks), and engaging communities. The authors make suggestions for a future international REDD+ regime, including on: its architecture and underlying principles; measuring, reporting and verification (MRV); private sector involvement; the rights of indigenous people and local communities; and biodiversity conservation and environmental integrity. [The document]
(UNEP GRID-ARENDAL, October 2010)
This report, released during the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), details solutions to the current biodiversity crisis in the Arctic, but it stresses that conservation gains are only possible if root causes for biodiversity loss are addressed outside the Arctic. It finds that existing multilateral environmental agreements that include the Arctic region, such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes, may be effective against threats caused by local, national or regional activities (mining and oil and gas exploitation, for example) if implemented adequately, because threats such as climate change, transboundary contaminants and habitat fragmentation are global in nature. Among its recommendations, the report stresses that: more global, cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary thinking by policy-makers, scientists and other stakeholders will be necessary to deal with increasing pressures on Arctic biodiversity; the Arctic Council could play a more active role in supporting the development of specific conservation efforts and further collaboration with non-Arctic states that share responsibility for migratory Arctic wildlife; strengthening existing mechanisms for the protection and conservation of biodiversity, through the implementation of existing mechanisms, is necessary; harmonization of national reporting between the Arctic nations on issues of common concern would allow for more effective national reporting to multilateral environmental agreements; Arctic nations should substantially increase the extent of protected areas, especially in coastal zones and in the marine environment; and Arctic nations should invest in co-management regimes and programmes of adaptation for societies in the Arctic, drawing on their traditional knowledge. [The report]
(CBD Technical Series No. 54, October 2010)
Edited by P.L. Ibisch, A. Vega E. and T.M. Herrmann, this report presents an analysis of the systemic character of global change, biodiversity and human development, and the relationships between them, describing and evaluating the complicated relationships and dynamics between human and biological systems. It includes a technical section, an introduction to issues related to the interdependence of biodiversity and development under global change, and a proposal for a “radical” ecosystem approach for mutual mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation and human development. Background papers address: global patterns and case studies on the interlinkages of biodiversity and human development; biocultural diversity and development under local and global change, including issues related to endogenous development, traditional knowledge and benefit-sharing, and indigenous peoples’ conserved areas; and theoretical background papers presenting, among others, an alternative conceptual framework for sustainability based on systemics and thermodynamics. [The publication]
(AU, UNOSAA, OECD, October 2010)
This study, prepared by the African Union (AU), the UN Office of the Special Advisor on Africa (UN-OSAA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), highlights that the global financial and economic crises exposed African economies’ dependence on too few export commodities and how they can diversify their economies. The study notes that climate change negotiations are opening up new opportunities for greening African economy growth, such as the Clean Development Mechanism to provide emission reduction credits to private companies. [The report]
(UNHCR, October 2010)
This report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to the 65th session of the General Assembly reviews the work carried out by UNHCR between January 2009 and mid-2010. The report notes that population displacement remains a major global issue, but population growth, urbanization, food and energy insecurity, water scarcity and climate change are interacting with traditional drivers – such as conflict and violence – to create new forms of displacement. [The report]
(ICAO, October 2010)
This report, published by the International Civil Aviation Organisation, focuses on climate change by bringing together a vast array of authoritative ideas, solutions and new challenges to feed the global discussion on how best to deal with the impact of aviation on the environment. [The report]
(UNDP, November 2010)
This report focuses on long-term development trends and indicates that, although inequalities within and between countries remain, people today are generally healthier, wealthier and better educated than they were in 1970. It indicates that major challenges to development, including climate change, need to be addressed by a global governance system and not by individual States. The report stresses that economic insecurity and climate change are major sources of vulnerability and unsustainability of development, in particular from unsustainable production and consumption patterns that rely heavily on fossil fuels. It emphasizes that climate change may be the single factor that makes the future very different, impeding continuing progress in human development. [UNDP Human Development Report 2010]
(UN-HABITAT, October 2010)
This booklet presents the work of the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) in the perspective of international debate on urban planning and at the country level. Issues covered include planning for slum prevention and upgrading, addressing climate change and building environmental sustainability, urban safety and security, local economic development and infrastructure, and disaster and post-conflict reconstruction. The booklet focuses on issues related to climate change and the urban environment agenda such as the dependency of cities in fossil fuels and how to bridge the green and brown agenda through environmental management and planning. [The booklet]
(Asian Development Bank, 2010)
The report, product of a two-year collaborative study by the ADB, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the World Bank, highlights the impact of climate change on Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City and Manila under a range of climate change scenarios through 2050. The report finds that costs from major flooding events on infrastructure and the economy could run into the billions of dollars, with urban poor populations likely to be the hardest hit. It concludes that all three cities need to take targeted, city-specific and cutting edge approaches to meet these challenges. [The report]
This report by Jean-Joseph Bellamy and Kevin Hill synthesizes the results of the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA) programme, launched in January 2000, to deepen knowledge on countries’ foundational capacities to meet global environmental objectives. The programme focused on assessing the key individual, organizational and systemic capacities needed to sustain achievements that satisfy the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), collectively known as the Rio Conventions, and other multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The exercise also sought to develop an understanding of the key drivers of, and barriers to, sustained environmental protection and conservation, with particular reference to meeting and sustaining objectives codified within the Rio Conventions. [The report]
(UNIFEM, September 2010)
This report, released by UNIFEM, maps out gender-related concerns from the floods to current relief camps, identifying gaps in information and flagging issues for upcoming stages of early recovery. The report notes that, based on global evidence, people often resort to unsustainable use of natural resources in times of humanitarian crisis. It indicates that as existing resources are washed out or depleted, pressure on the remaining resources increase, recording harm to forest land, destroying saplings and plantations and stocked timber as well as extraction for firewood. The report also indicates extensive damage to livestock, which not only impairs women’s livelihood, but also affects sources of energy such as dung cakes and fertilizer. [The report]
(International Energy Agency, UNDP, UNIDO, September 2010)
The International Energy Agency (IEA), the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) have released an excerpt fromtheir forthcoming World Energy Outlook, titled "Energy Poverty: How to make modern energy access universal?" The report notes that over 1.4 billion people currently lack access to electricity, and argues for the need to improve energy access and reduce energy poverty on health, environmental, and economic development grounds. It estimates the investment costs required to close the energy access gap completely to be US$36 billion per year globally until 2030. The report also introduces the Energy Development Index, a new tool to help measure progress on energy poverty. [The report]
(IISD's Global Subsidies Initiative, August 2010)
This paper is published as part of the series Untold Billions: Fossil-fuel subsidies, their impacts and the path to reform. This study helps increase the body of knowledge about the data sources that hold information on subsidies to fossil-fuel producers, by reviewing available data in a series of countries, diverse in terms of their level of data transparency, governance systems, energy markets and stages of economic development. Using a detailed matrix setting out the main subsidy policies, the type of fuel, and their main data sources, pilot studies have been completed for China, Germany, Indonesia and the United States. It was found that fossil-fuel producers are supported by a multitude of policies, ranging from direct payments to preferential access to government-owned lands. While direct payments were relatively easy to identify in government budget reporting, data was not always provided at a sufficient level of disaggregation to allow proper attribution to beneficiaries. Pilot studies also found that information on these support measures was held by a variety of government ministries and non-governmental organizations. [The report]
(UNESCO/International Hydropower Association (IHA), September 2010)
The Guidelines are a key outcome of the UNESCO/IHA GHG Status of Freshwater reservoirs Research Project. They provide individuals responsible in this area with a comprehensive tool to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) status of freshwater reservoirs, including definitive guidance on measurement and qualification of emissions resulting from the formation of reservoirs. [The guidelines]
This report by Jean-Joseph Bellamy and Kevin Hill synthesizes the results of the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA) programme, launched in January 2000, to deepen knowledge on countries’ foundational capacities to meet global environmental objectives. The programme focused on assessing the key individual, organizational and systemic capacities needed to sustain achievements that satisfy the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), collectively known as the Rio Conventions, and other multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The exercise also sought to develop an understanding of the key drivers of, and barriers to, sustained environmental protection and conservation, with particular reference to meeting and sustaining objectives codified within the Rio Conventions. [The report]
(IFC, September 2010)
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) published a report by Asian Tigers Capital Partners that highlights that involvement by the private sector is critical for Bangladesh to prepare for both the challenges and opportunities of climate change. While much of this report underlines the benefit and importance of private sector engagement in the battle against climate change, it also highlights that corporate climate change is perceived by the private sector as irrelevant or at best an extension of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and proposes measures to change this perception. [The report]
(International Water Management Institute, September 2010)
This International Water Management Institute (IWMI) paper addresses the need for systematic planning in water storage and management to cope with increased rainfall variability. It describes rainfall variability and the range of above- and below-ground water storage options. It notes that water storage increases water security, agricultural productivity and adaptive capacity, but cautions that poorly planned storage is a waste of financial resources and may aggravate climate change impacts. It calls for systems that combine complementary storage options and urges consideration of uncertainty in planning. 
(The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society, 2010)
This casebook draws on four experiences in Bolivia, Madagascar and Indonesia that examine the principal aspects of demonstrating REDD credibility, such as baselines and additionality, measuring and monitoring, leakage and impermanence. It states that the projects reviewed demonstrate that REDD can produce credible carbon benefits, often with positive effects on local people and biodiversity. [The casebook]
(IUFRO, August 2010)
In this IUFRO Occasional Paper, lead author Chris Eastaugh and others review the impacts of climate change on the livelihoods of millions of forest-dependent people in Africa. They conclude that the development and implementation of adaptation measures as part of sustainable forest management need to be underpinned by new modes of governance that are sensitive to context, take a broad view of community needs, and respond quickly to policy learning, in order to improve the adaptive capacity of communities and reduce their vulnerability to climate change impacts. [The paper]
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has released this paper with suggestions for improving national measuring, reporting and verification (MRV). Focusing on the Copenhagen Accord’s call for national communications to be submitted every two years, the paper investigates options for easing the burden facing non-Annex I countries to fulfill this requirement. In particular, the paper suggests differentiating information that needs to be regularly updated from that which may remain constant over longer periods. [The report]
(Rights and Resources Initiative, 2010)
This paper focuses on the contextual issues influencing the adequacy and appropriateness of opportunity cost as a proxy for payments required to get successful REDD+, and notes that resolving them can be expensive and time consuming. [The paper]
Three country case studies covering Zambia, Mozambique and Namibia were used to draw lessons from community-based natural resources management that could inform pro-poor REDD as well as provide the likely opportunity costs of REDD+. [The report]
(World Bank, 2010)
This study finds that Brazil could reduce its gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 37% between 2010 and 2030, while maintaining the development goals set out by the government for that period, and without negatively affecting growth or jobs. The study identifies areas with the greatest mitigation potential, including changes in land use (such as agriculture and deforestation), energy, transportation and waste management. The study also highlights that reaching a low-carbon scenario would require additional investments of around US$400 billion over 20 years. The report.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), June 2010)
This sixth issue of Agriculture Outlook projects the global markets of key agricultural commodities in order to build consensus on how global agriculture may evolve in the coming decade and the key issues impacting its course. The report highlights an improved macroeconomic environment for commodity projections from 2009, with growth expected to be stronger and faster in large developing countries than in developed countries. It notes that global agricultural production is anticipated to grow more slowly in the coming decade than in the previous decade, and that production growth in the least developed countries is struggling to keep up with population growth. It describes the need for governments to create policies that increase confidence in access to food and notes the potential volatility created by uncoordinated policy actions among governments internationally. Agriculture Outlook 2010-2019 web site.
(UN-Water, June 2010)
This policy brief is addressed to practitioners and policy makers of water resources management and climate change, as well as sectoral decision makers. It aims to draw attention to the critical importance of better water resources management in adapting to climate change, and argues that it should be systematically integrated into national plans and international investment portfolios. The brief describes: climate change impacts on water; water resources management under present climate variability; adaptation measures for water managers; and guiding principles for the required investments and policy shifts. These principles include: mainstreaming adaptation within the broader development context; strengthening governance and improving water management; improving and sharing knowledge and information on climate and adaptation measures, and investing in data collection; building long-term resilience through stronger institutions, and investing in infrastructure and in well-functioning ecosystems; investing in cost-effective and adaptive water management as well as technology transfer; and leveraging additional funds through both increased national budgetary allocations and innovative funding mechanisms for adaptation in water management. The policy brief.
(World Bank, 2010)
The World Bank’s Issue Brief #1 is part of a series of policy briefs on the topics of Climate, Finance and Development, and addresses how to track, monitor and report on various types of financial flows. It also explores ways to track additionality in official development assistance (ODA) flows. The briefs.
(World Bank, 2010)
Issue Brief #2 showcases how public finance can catalyze climate action, for example through combining resources and instruments to maximize synergies between climate and development, and finding opportunities to expand the scope for market mechanisms. The briefs.
(Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2010)
The ADB has launched a new Clean Air Portal, which is the point of entry for data and information on air quality, climate change co-benefits, energy and transport. The Portal's Knowledgebase allows users to search and upload articles, policies, organizations, projects and programmes, training courses, photos and videos, as well as to tag content thematically and geographically. Members can also participate in online communities of practice such as Air Quality and Co-benefits, Sustainable Transport, and Green Freights. The portal.
(World Bank, 2010)
This report, by Alexandre Kossoy and Philippe Ambrosi, World Bank Environment Department, indicates that the value of the global carbon market grew six percent, to US$144 billion, in 2009 despite being its most challenging year to date.
The Report indicates that, on the supply side, the reduction in access to capital made it difficult for many greenhouse gas emissions reduction project developers to lock in financing, causing project origination to grind to a halt. In addition, the global economic crisis also is reported to have negatively impacted the demand side because, as industrial output plummeted, the demand for carbon assets fell.
The Report analyzes data from the trading of European Union Allowances (EUAs) and secondary Kyoto offsets under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). It also evaluates transactions under the Kyoto markets: Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), Emission Reduction Units (ERUs), and Assigned Amount Units (AAUs), as well as data from voluntary markets. The report.
(UNDP, May 2010)
This report, published by the UN Development Programme in Armenia, focuses on the issue of human mobility, the impact of poverty, inequality, security, and climate change issues in driving this process. The report details the trends in migration and their impact on the poor and vulnerable groups of the Armenian population. The report.
(UN Secretariat, May 2010)
The report of the 16th High-level Committee on South-South Cooperation to the 65th session of the General Assembly session (A/65/39) has been released. The report contains the decisions, a summary of the Committee’s work, as well as the provisional agenda for its next session. The report highlights that the collective impact of the recent financial, food, energy and climate-change crises has imposed challenges and diminished the gains achieved by countries in past decades and further threatened the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. It notes that South-South cooperation had played a critical role in assisting developing countries to face those challenges and that countries pledged their continued support for South-South and triangular efforts. The report.
(UN Secretariat, May 2010)
The report of the twelfth session of the Committee for Development Policy has been released (E/2010/33). The report covers the following issues: impact of global crises on gender equality and the empowerment of women; international support measures available for least developed countries; support by the UN system for small island developing States, and coherence of the climate change agenda in relation not only to its own financial architecture but also with respect to other development policies; and the development progress of countries graduating from the least developed country category, namely Equatorial Guinea, Maldives and Samoa. The report.
This report, published by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), focuses on the risks faced by farmers in agriculture from natural catastrophe to market and production risks that make their incomes unstable and unpredictable from year to year and that will steadily increase with the effects of climate change. The report notes that, although risks are inherent in agriculture, they can be managed. The problem arises when farmers and rural communities cannot afford the financial services offered by private insurers to manage the risks associated with agriculture. In some cases, particularly with small-holder farmers, outside help is necessary to guarantee insurance coverage. The report.
(UN-REDD, May 2010)
The UN-REDD Programme has released its May 2010 Newsletter, which highlights many recent activities and publications on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). The newsletter.
(IUFRO, May 2010)
This policy brief from the Global Forest Expert Panel and the International Union of Forest Research Organization (IUFRO) Special Programme for Developing Countries aims to contribute to the development of effective adaptation strategies in Africa and facilitate related international efforts. The brief.
(UNEP-WCMC and German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, 2010)
This new website highlights the potential for actions on reducing emissions from land use change to secure additional important benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services (co-benefits). The website demonstrates the utility of spatial analyses to assist decision makers in identifying areas where high carbon, high biodiversity priority, and ecosystem service values overlap, which represent opportunities for securing co-benefits. It showcases UNEP-WCMC’s recent work with in-country partners on developing such analyses and includes an interactive mapping tool that allows users to explore the spatial relationships between carbon and co-benefits. The web site.
(World Bank, April 2010)
The World Bank's brief on "Multiple Solutions to Address the Climate Change Challenge" highlights the fiscal year 2009 efforts channeled US$9.3 billion in financing for climate-affected sectors. The brief notes that: new Country Assistance Strategies substantively address climate-related issues; low-carbon growth country studies have been undertaken for Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland and South Africa; the Latin America and Caribbean Region has developed an portfolio of approximately 180 activities with adaptation and mitigation co-benefits totaling over US$7 billion; and commitments for the fiscal year 2009 to climate-affected sectors (such as agriculture, flood protection, water supply and health), have more than tripled the average annual engagement in those sectors across the preceding three fiscal years. In addition, new renewable energy and energy efficiency financing reached US$1.3 billion, more than doubling the previous fiscal year's investment. The report.
(UNESCO, April 2010)
The latest issue of the “Climate Change Frontlines,” sponsored by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), features an article on the growing impact of climate change in accelerating desertification and accentuating the winter conditions for herding communities. The article highlights perspectives from Mongolian pastoralists and the Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden. The article.
(CBD, April 2010)
The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has published its ninth volume of the "REDD-plus & Biodiversity e-Newsletter." Aiming to inform CBD national focal points and partners about biodiversity aspects related to reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), this volume highlights a new collaboration between the CBD and the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), and several projects and publications related to REDD+. The e-Newsletter.
(CIFOR, April 2010)
Edited by Oliver Springate-Baginski and Eva Wollenbergon, this report addresses how reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives are likely to interact with the interests of local communities and indigenous groups. Chapters examine the UNFCCC REDD negotiations and lessons from past experiences with forest management and land tenure, payments for environmental services, the Clean Development Mechanism and voluntary carbon projects. Experiences are also presented based on pilot REDD projects and REDD readiness in Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Tanzania, Madagascar and Nepal. The report.
(UNDP Regional Centre in Bangkok, January 2010)
The UNDP Asia-Pacific Climate, Environment, and Energy Team released its quarterly newsletter, which provides the latest updates on activities in the region. It includes updates on: new project approvals; impacts and results; policy and mainstreaming work; noteworthy climate, environment and energy announcements; events; and activities in the Pacific. The newsletter.
(UNDP Regional Centre in Panama, January 2010)
The second issue of the UNDP LAC Energy and Environmental Practice newsletter highlights environmental finance initiatives in Brazil and the Galapagos Islands; new initiatives such as the Green Commodities Facility – a global entity established to offer strategic advisory services for country offices, governments and private companies on greening commodity supply chains; and initiatives undertaken by the MDG Carbon Facility in the region. The newsletter highlights a knowledge product from El Salvador, the “Advisory Group on Climate Change, a new framework for decision making,” which has proven to be successful in facilitating dialogue, sharing knowledge and generating information to effectively position climate change in the country’s national agenda. The newsletter.
(Global Witness, March 2010)
This assessment of the World Bank's Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Readiness-Preparation Proposals (R-PPs) and Joint Program Documents (JPDs) of the UN-REDD Programme, was written by Global Witness, the civil society representative to the UN-REDD Policy Board. A key finding of the assessment is the need for more guidance on non-carbon monitoring from the FCPF, the UN-REDD Programme, and the international community. Theassessment.
(ICTSD, December 2009)
This paper, by Diarmuid Torney and Moustapha Kamal Gueye, seeks to provide trade negotiators and policy-makers with an overview of the current state of play of domestic climate change measures being implemented or considered in selected OECD countries – Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, and the US – that may have trade and development implications for developing countries. This paper focuses on five key issues as they relate to the trade and development concerns of developing countries: border measures, renewables, standards and labels, fiscal stimulus packages and Kyoto Protocol measures. The paper.
(World Bank, 2010)
This book presents ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as an essential pillar in national climate change strategies. It starts with an introduction to ecosystem-based mitigation and adaptation, then describes the role of natural ecosystems in mitigation through carbon stocks, sinks and reservoirs, and addresses how to reduce vulnerability through ecosystem-based adaptation. The book concludes by evaluating how to implement ecosystem-based approaches to climate change within the World Bank Group. The book.
(PLoS Biology, March 2010)
This study by scientists from 13 different organizations and research institutions states that forest protection offers one of the most effective and immediate strategies to combat climate change. The paper makes specific recommendations for incorporating protected areas into overall strategies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation and degradation (REDD). The paper.
(OECD, February 2010)
This paper offers an empirical assessment of the linkages between microfinance-supported activities and adaptation to climate change. Specifically, the lending portfolios of the 22 leading microfinance institutions in two climate vulnerable countries – Bangladesh and Nepal – are analyzed to assess the synergies and potential conflicts between microfinance and adaptation. The paper identifies areas of opportunity where microfinance could be harnessed to play a greater role in fostering adaptation, as well as its limitations in this context. It also explores the relationship between the top-down macro-financing for adaptation through international financial mechanisms and bottom-up activities that can be implemented through microfinance. The working paper.
(UNEP-WCMC, January 2010)
This briefing provides an update on negotiations under the UNFCCC and the implications of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) for forest restoration. It calls for conservation professionals to provide strong feedback if national negotiating positions and REDD+ policy frameworks prove prejudicial to biodiversity conservation, and provides guidance on assessing the viability of forest restoration proposals under REDD+. The briefing.
(CBD Secretariat, February 2010)
This e-newsletter reviews recent publications of relevance to reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) and biodiversity, and includes a call for posters to the fourteenth meeting of the CBD Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA), to be held from 10-21 May 2010, in Nairobi, Kenya. The e-newsletter.
(IUCN, December 2009)
The IUCN Environmental Law Centre has completed a comprehensive study on national legal frameworks for REDD. Using case studies from Brazil, Cameroon, Guyana and Papua New Guinea, the report identifies main themes for ensuring successful REDD legal regimes and elaborates relevant legal and policy considerations with regard to each. The study.
(UN-REDD Programme, January 2010)
The UN-REDD Programme and the Viet Nam Department of Forestry have produced a study on the requirements for a REDD+- compliant benefit distribution system in Viet Nam. The study identifies constraints that need to be addressed in order to create such a system and outlines policy recommendations to address them. The study.
(KfW Entwicklungsbank, 2010)
The KfW Entwicklungsbank, the German Development bank of the Federal Republic and federal states, acting on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development BMZ, has commissioned the development of this Excel-based tool to calculate climate protection effects of different waste disposal strategies. The objective of the Tool is to aid in understanding the effects of proper waste management on GHG emissions. The SWM-GHG calculator and a manual can be downloaded free of charge in German or English.
(IUFRO, January 2010)
This newsletter of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) reports on: the Asia and the Pacific Forest Products Workshop on Green Technologies and Products for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation; the activities of IUFRO at the UNFCCC COP15 in Copenhagen; and the first meeting of the newly established IUFRO-led Expert Panel on the International Forest. The newsletter.
(Rights and Resources, January 2010)
This report takes stock of the current status of forest rights and tenure globally in light of the increased attention and investment in forests as they are integrated into global carbon markets and politics. The report.
(UN ECLAC, February 2010)
This report, by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN ECLAC), focuses on demographic and social aspects, with special emphasis on gender, of Latin American and Caribbean countries. The report provides economic statistics, such as prices, international trade, balance of payments and national accounts. It also provides information on the environment and natural resources. The report.
(UNU-MERIT, December 2009)
This working paper, written by Théophile T. Azomahou, Micheline Goedhuys and P. Nguyen Van, discusses the various relationships between CO2 emissions levels and income per capita. It notes that the majority of available studies find emissions to monotonically increase with income, because they do not account for possible feedback effects of the environment to economic growth. By analyzing data for 107 countries, over a 44 year period, the study finds that CO2 emissions first increase with income at low income levels and then become delinked with income at high income levels. The working paper.
(UNDP, December 2009)
This report, by the UNDP Regional Centre for Asia and Pacific, looks into the lessons learned from the past economic crises, the impact of the current crisis and policy responses in 14 countries in Asia Pacific. The analysis takes into consideration the rising threat of climate change and the recent experience of natural disasters in the region. The report.
(UNPFII, January 2010)
This report notes that the world’s 370 million indigenous peoples suffer from higher rates of poverty, health problems, crime and human rights abuses if compared to the non-indigenous population both in developing and developed countries. The report indicates that indigenous peoples are also more vulnerable to environmental pollution and climate change effects. It highlights that self-determination and land rights are vital for the survival of indigenous peoples. The report.
(Anthem Press, 2009)
This book was authored by Joseph Henry Vogel, with a Foreword by Graciela Chichilnisky. Vogel argues that mainstream economics fails to recognize the thermodynamic nature of climate change. He argues that, through the lens of economic theory, the understandable intransigence of poor countries to assume the ‘cap’ in ‘cap and trade’ is a distortion to the economic system. But by that same economics, one distortion can justify another – and that other distortion is the payment Ecuador seeks for not drilling in the Yasuní Biosphere. The book.
The Renewable Energy Policy Network REN21 has launched the beta-version of its Renewables Interactive Map. The Map contains information on renewable energy, including support policies, expansion targets, current shares, installed capacity, current production, future scenarios, and policy pledges. The map.
(Global Forest Coalition, December 2009)
Written by Ronnie Hall and Simone Lovera, this report addresses the question: how does the theoretical success of REDD work out on the ground, in places where legislation on biodiversity is weak, and where safeguards to protect the rights of Indigenous Peoples hardly exist? The report.
(UN-REDD, January 2010)
The fifth issue of the UN-REDD Programme Newsletter provides an overview of events surrounding the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference related to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), and includes articles on Forests Day 3, moving forward on monitoring, verification and reporting (MRV), and high school education programmes on REDD. Also featured in the Newsletter is a commentary by Markku Simula on the lack of attention paid to forest degradation in REDD+. The newsletter.
REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM PRIVATE CARS: INCENTIVE
MEASURES FOR BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE
This paper, written by Vikram Kolmannskog, on climate change, disaster, displacement and migration, is based on evidence from two African countries, Burundi and Somalia, that are among the most vulnerable countries in the world. It emphasizes that disasters and degradation can trigger displacement and conflicts, which can further accentuate environmental degradation. The paper.
This primer, co-authored by Barbara Adams and Gretchen Luchsinger, sheds light on the discussion of equity and justice in the context of the climate change debate, and argues that climate justice is not only an ethical imperative, but an economic and social one. The publication gathers research and analysis from various international organizations and civil society to demonstrate that the climate agenda needs to be jointly addressed with the need to achieve poverty reduction and respect human rights. The primer.
This guidance note on climate change aims to integrate human development analysis and advocacy into more equitable, sustainable and climate-resilient development planning and policy debates. The note emphasizes how short-term and long-term effects of climate change threaten people’s abilities to lead long and healthy lives and to have a decent standard of living, as well as the overall impact on achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It provides practical suggestions on ways that national reports can complement existing climate change responses and broader development initiatives. The guidance note.
(UNECE, December 2009)
This report, by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), presents major current and projected climate changes in the UNECE region, which spans North America, Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, and Israel. The changes include increased or decreased precipitation, forest fires, changes in ecosystems, sea-level rise, malaria risks and impacts on agriculture. The report.
The report looks into the impacts that climate change is having on Moldova’s environment, society and economy. According to the report, developing countries are more vulnerable to these impacts, have fewer resources with which to adapt and to recover losses caused by extreme weather events and are in general more dependent upon the environment for their citizens’ livelihoods. As a result, climate change poses a serious threat to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to which Moldova has committed. The report.
This policy brief, by the United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research and training centre on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT), focuses on the long-term policy commitments that are needed to combat climate change and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. It argues that the global community should accelerate and coordinate investments on R&D that reduce marginal costs of GHG emissions control. The policy brief.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND
IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE
A HIDDEN RISK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
SYNTHESIS OF THE IMPACTS OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ON MARINE BIODIVERSITY
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