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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2009

 

Biodiversity and Wildlife Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE: SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT: BIODIVERSITY AND LIVELIHOODS
(CBD and IUCN, November 2009)

Part of a series of Good Practice Guides produced by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), this booklet provides a range of case studies and other materials to make the forest sector more biodiversity-friendly, and socially beneficial. The guide: introduces public decision-makers to some techniques, technologies and procedures that optimize the social and environmental contributions of forestry and minimize negative impacts; presents good practice examples on the interface between forestry, poverty reduction and biodiversity; provides suggestions for the improvement of national and sub-national forest-related policies, strategies, plans and projects that consider poverty reduction and biodiversity; provides suggestions for organizing forestry training and workshop sessions; and provides sources and references for more detailed information. The guide.

 

TEEB REPORT FOR POLICY MAKERS
(UNEP TEEB Initiative, November 2009)
Prepared by The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) Initiative, this new report calls on policy-makers to accelerate, scale-up and embed investments in the management and restoration of ecosystems. It also calls for more sophisticated cost-benefit analysis before policy decisions are made. The report outlines a ten-point plan aimed at catalyzing a transition to more ecosystem savvy economies able to meet the multiple challenges and deliver the multiple opportunities on a planet of six billion people, rising to nine billion by 2050. Key recommendations include the need to: invest in ecological infrastructure; reward benefits through payments and markets; reform environmentally harmful subsidies; address losses through regulation and pricing; recognize that protected areas are a cornerstone of conservation policies and provide multiple benefits; halt deforestation and forest degradation; protect tropical coral reefs; save and restore global fisheries; recognize the deep link between ecosystem degradation and the persistence of rural poverty; and agree to a forest carbon deal at Copenhagen. TEEB study.  

 

2009 IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES
(IUCN, November 2009)

The latest update of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species reveals that 21% of all known mammals, 30% of all known amphibians, 12% of all known birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed so far are under threat. The report serves as an urgent reminder that the world is still far from stemming the worldwide tide of extinction. The update information.

 

LEARNING FROM THE PRACTITIONERS: BENEFIT SHARING PERSPECTIVES FROM ENTERPRISING COMMUNITIES
(UNEP/UNU-IAS, October 2009)

This new publication by M.S. Suneetha and Balakrishna Pisupati considers the sharing of benefits derived from genetic resources in the context of human and community wellbeing. Published by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and UN University’s Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), the report was launched in Montreal, Canada, on 13 November 2009, at an event held on the margins of the eighth meeting of the Ad hoc Open-ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-sharing (ABS) of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The report outlines case studies in Latin America, Africa and Asia-Pacific, and concludes that people’s wellbeing can be improved by ABS if it is part of a deliberate planning process. The publication was dedicated to the work and memory of Benson Venegas, Director of ANAI, an organization pioneering economic development and environmental conservation in Costa Rica’s Talamanca region. The report.

BIO-CULTURAL COMMUNITY PROTOCOLS – A COMMUNITY APPROACH TO ENSURING THE INTEGRITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY
(UNEP, Natural Justice, October 2009)

Edited by Kabir Bavikatte and Harry Jonas, this book illustrates the application of bio-cultural community protocols to a range of environmental legal frameworks. Part I focuses on the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and access and benefit-sharing. Part II looks at other frameworks to which bio-cultural protocols can be applied by indigenous and local communities, including REDD, the CBD programme of work on protected areas and payment for ecosystem services schemes. Part III looks more broadly at the meaning of bio-cultural protocols for environmental law. The
book.

FOREST RESILIENCE, BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
(CBD Secretariat, October 2009)
This synthesis report on the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems, produced at the request of the ninth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, strongly supports the conclusion that the capacity of forests to resist change, or recover following disturbance, is dependent on biodiversity at multiple scales. The findings are relevant for the further implementation of the CBD programme of work on forest biodiversity, as well as for efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The report.

TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION AND USE OF RESOURCES: ASSESSING BIOFUELS
(UNEP, October 2009)

Based on a review of published research up to mid-2009 as well as the input of independent experts world-wide, this report by the UNEP International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management recognizes that the research that has accrued over recent years presents a complex and uncertain picture of the risks and benefits of biofuels. The report’s main message is that biofuels’ costs and benefits are context-specific, and therefore simplistic approaches to managing biofuels production are unlikely to yield environmentally positive results. Considering not only biofuels for transport, but biomass as a whole, the report’s chapters discuss, inter alia: the full life-cycle approach needed to completely account for the impacts of biofuels; the issue of land-use change; options for more efficient and sustainable production; and strategies to enhance resource productivity. The report.

CONSERVATION FOR A NEW ERA
(IUCN, September 2009)
Authored by Jeffrey McNeely and Susan Mainka, this book outlines critical issues taken up during the World Conservation Congress held in Barcelona in October 2008. The book considers the state of global natural resources, as well as current trends. It reports a consensus at the Congress that work on ecosystems, species and protected areas will increasingly become a critical element in any societal strategy capable of bringing about a sustainable future.  The book includes 22 chapters covering topics such as: ecosystem services; climate change and biodiversity; protected areas; challenges related to species conservation; armed conflict and post-disaster recovery; human health and biodiversity; the green economy; and forest, marine, dryland, freshwater, agricultural and urban systems. The book.  

WILDLIFE LEGISLATION AND THE EMPOWERMENT OF THE POOR IN LATIN AMERICA
(FAO Legal Paper Online no. 80, September 2009)
Authored by Soledad Aguilar and Elisa Morgera, this study analyzes and compares national legislation on wildlife management in eleven countries in Central and South America. The comparative analysis aims at identifying strengths and weaknesses of legal frameworks in the promotion of sustainable wildlife management, and in allowing all members of society, particularly disadvantaged people, to directly benefit from wildlife management. The study.

BIOFUELS CERTIFICATION AND THE LAW OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
(ICTSD, August 2009)

This paper by Marsha A. Echols analyzes biofuels certification within the optic of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and proposes requirements for compliance with the international trading system. The paper explains how the compatibility of a biofuels-certification measure with international trade rules is determined from several perspectives, to determine whether the nondiscrimination rules of Article I or Article III of GATT apply and, if there is prohibited discrimination, whether it is excused by the health or environmental carve-outs of GATT Article XX (among other possible exceptions). The decisions also determine whether the detailed substantive and procedural rules of other WTO agreements apply. The paper further analyzes how implementation of certification schemes must also be aligned with WTO rules. The paper
.

COVERING ABS: ADDRESSING THE NEED FOR SECTORAL, GEOGRAPHICAL, LEGAL AND INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION IN THE ABS REGIME
(IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper no. 67/5, 2009)
Edited by Tomme Young, this book is the fifth in The ABS Project book series. It focuses on: sectoral issues, with marine genetic resources as an example; regional and other coordinated interests, including examination of the Southern African Development Community context; social issues, including ABS and livelihoods; commercial and legal systemic issues, addressing legal certainty for users, claims of unauthorized access and misappropriation, administrative and judicial remedies available; and a final part on ABS and the international regime, including critical areas for further work. The paper

AUSTRALIA’S BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE: A STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE VULNERABILITY OF AUSTRALIA’S BIODIVERSITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(Australian Government Biodiversity and Climate Change Expert Advisory Group, 2009)
This assessment of the vulnerability of Australia’s biodiversity to climate change was begun in early 2007 in response to a request from the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council. Its key messages and policy directions address the need to reform biodiversity management; strengthen national commitments to conserve Australia’s biodiversity; invest in the life support system; build innovative and flexible governance systems; and meet the mitigation challenge. The report.

RIGHTS-BASED APPROACHES: EXPLORING ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR CONSERVATION
(Center for International Forestry Research, IUCN, 2009)

This publication contributes to the ongoing discussion regarding the relation between conservation and human rights, exploring questions and concepts relating to rights-based approaches to conservation. Case studies address natural resource management in Colombia, water management in the Middle East, a human rights approach to conservation and development in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa, a Sherpa community conserved area in the Mount Everest in Nepal, and integrating a gender approach in ABS governance. The publication.

NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH - EARLY DETECTION AND RAPID RESPONSE TO BIOLOGICAL INVASION ALONG US TRADE PATHWAYS
(IUCN and US EPA, 2009)

This report, produced by IUCN, states that ports and trade hotspots in the US require better ways to detect invasive species, as well as more rapid response protocols. The publication urges swift action to improve biosecurity measures, including improved coordination between agencies and greater international cooperation. Neighborhood Watch offers recommendations to improve biosecurity measures at US ports, as well as a possible funding mechanism based upon the “polluter pays” principle. The report.

WILDLIFE IN A CHANGING WORLD – AN ANALYSIS OF THE 2008 IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES
(IUCN, July 2009)

Published every four years, this IUCN analysis indicates that the 2010 target to significantly reduce biodiversity loss will not be met. The report analyzes 44,838 species on the IUCN Red List and presents results by groups of species, geographical regions, and different habitats, such as marine, freshwater and terrestrial. The report shows that a broad range of marine species are experiencing potentially irreversible loss due to over-fishing, climate change, invasive species, coastal development and pollution; nearly one-third of amphibians, more than one in eight birds and nearly a quarter of mammals are threatened with extinction, while the situation is even more serious for some plant groups, due to habitat destruction, through agriculture, logging and development. IUCN press release. The report.

THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF PELAGIC SHARKS AND RAYS: REPORT OF THE IUCN SHARK SPECIALIST GROUP PELAGIC SHARK RED LIST WORKSHOP
(IUCN, June 2009)
This study is the first to determine the global conservation status of 64 species of open ocean (pelagic) sharks and rays and reveals that 32% are threatened with extinction, primarily due to overfishing. The percentage of open ocean shark species threatened with extinction is higher for the sharks taken in high-seas fisheries (52%) than for the group as a whole. The report.

CONVENIENT SOLUTIONS TO AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH: ECOSYSTEM-BASED APPROACHES TO CLIMATE CHANGE
(World Bank, 2009)
The World Bank’s Environment Department has published a report that sets out a compelling argument for including ecosystem
-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. Such ecosystem-based strategies can offer cost-effective, proven and sustainable solutions contributing to, and complementing, other national and regional adaptation strategies. The report notes three of the world’s greatest challenges over the coming decades will be biodiversity loss, climate change, and water shortages. It highlights that promoting further integration of ecosystem-based approaches into climate change responses and national adaptation strategies will require access to much greater sources of funding, including capitalizing on opportunities to protect natural ecosystems as part of major energy and infrastructure projects. The report.

BIOFUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN
(ENERGIA, 2009)

This book of case studies represents a collaborative effort to explore the potential of biofuels to provide sustainable livelihoods and local sources of energy for people in rural areas of developing countries, with a special emphasis on women. Although there are many forms of bio-energy that can be useful in this regard, book focuses on plant products, mostly seeds, used to produce oil - which is then either utilized directly in engines or equipment, or processed into biodiesel. The book was presented at the 17th session of the UN Commission for Sustainable Development. It was developed with support from IUCN and edited by Gail Karlsson and Khamarunga Banda. The book.

THE WADER ATLAS – AN ATLAS OF WADER POPULATIONS IN AFRICA AND WESTERN EURASIA
(Wetlands International, May 2009)
Funded by the governments of Belgium, the UK and the Netherlands, and the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (UNEP/AEWA), this publication is a compilation of current knowledge of the numbers, distribution and movements of wader populations in Africa and Western Eurasia and is a result of an international effort involving thousands of coordinated expert observers in nearly 100 countries. The atlas.

WILDLIFE LAW AND THE LEGAL EMPOWERMENT OF THE POOR IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
(FAO Legal Paper Online no. 77)

Authored by Maria Teresa Cirelli and Elisa Morgera, this paper includes: an overview of international legal instruments related to wildlife management; a chapter on selected themes relevant to legal empowerment of the poor in wildlife management; an analysis of emerging trends with focus on the empowerment of the poor, resulting in suggestions for the drafting of legal provisions; and a country-by-country analysis providing an overview of the legal framework in each of the twelve countries considered. The paper.

SMALL SCALE BIOENERGY INITIATIVES: BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND PRELIMINARY LESSONS ON LIVELIHOOD IMPACTS FROM CASE STUDIES IN LATIN AMERICA, ASIA AND AFRICA
(FAO and PISCES, January 2009)

This study, published by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Policy Innovation Systems for Clean Energy Security (PISCES), covers 15 bioenergy projects across 12 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia, on the linkages between livelihoods and small-scale bioenergy initiatives. The study focuses on the impacts that different types of local level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods in different contexts in the developing world. Livelihoods, as defined by the study, are the enhancement of the full range of natural, financial, human, social and physical capitals on a sustainable ongoing basis. The study.

BENEFIT SHARING IN ABS: OPTIONS AND ELABORATIONS
(UNU-IAS and UNEP, 2009)
Authored by MS Suneetha and Balakrishna Pisupati and presented during a side-event at ABS 7, this report attempts to assess and analyze the issues related to benefit sharing, the entry points for discussions on the issues and the possible considerations that national implementing authorities should make before deciding on benefit sharing principles and policies. The principles are discussed under five topics in the order of a typical scheme in a bio-prospecting exercise: defining ownership over resources and related knowledge; by-products/Derivatives; benefit sharing; Third Party Transfer of research results; and intellectual property concerns. The report.

MARINE BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION NETWORK
(Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 2009)

Created by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), an inter-disciplinary committee of the International Council for Science, the Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN) is a collaborative web portal that provides free and open access to information on Antarctic marine biodiversity. The portal started as a major Belgian contribution to the International Polar Year, but grew into an international collaborative effort. The portal.

ITTO/IUCN GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY IN TROPICAL TIMBER PRODUCTION FORESTS
(International Tropical Timber Organization and IUCN, 2009)

These guidelines are a complete revision and update of ITTO's original Biodiversity Guidelines published in 1993. They set out the specific actions that policymakers, forest managers and other stakeholders should take to improve biodiversity conservation in tropical production forests. The guidelines.

IUCN CASE STUDIES ON WATER AND PROTECTED AREAS 
(IUCN, 2009)
This compilation of case studies concludes that
protecting watersheds provides many of the world’s megacities with freshwater and saves billions of dollars. The cases relate to: Guatopo and Macarao National Parks;
Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park; Kruger National Park; and the Macquarie Marshes. Case studies.

PLANT CONSERVATION REPORT
(CBD Secretariat, Global Partnership for Plant Conservation, 2009)
The Plant Conservation Report reviews progress in implementing the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, adopted in 2002 by the sixth Conference of the Parties to the CBD. The report.

ITTO/IUCN GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY IN TROPICAL TIMBER PRODUCTION FORESTS
(ITTO, IUCN, 2009)
This publication, which offers a complete revision and updating of the original Biodiversity Guidelines published by the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) in 1993, sets out the specific actions that policymakers, forest managers and other stakeholders should take to improve biodiversity conservation in tropical production forests. The guidelines.

STATE OF BIODIVERSITY IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES – AN ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS TOWARDS ACHIEVING THE TARGET OF HALTING BIODIVERSITY LOSS BY 2010
(Norden, 2009)

The Nordic countries have agreed on a common target to halt the decline in biodiversity by 2010. This report aims at evaluating the 2010 target by presenting indicators that can describe trends in biodiversity in the Nordic countries. The report.

COPING WITH WATER SCARCITY: WHAT ROLE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGIES?
(FAO, 2008)
This UN Food and Agriculture (FAO) discussion paper
represents the outputs from an e-mail conference hosted by the FAO Biotechnology Forum from 5 March-1 April 2007. It provides an overview of the current status and future perspectives regarding water availability as well as a discussion of some major strategies that can be employed to deal with water scarcity. The paper then looks at the issue of water use in agriculture in more detail as well as some of the potential ways in which biotechnology could contribute to this area. It also contains a summary of the main issues discussed during the moderated conference, based on the messages posted by the participants. The discussion paper.

ABS INFORMATION PORTAL
(CBD Secretariat, February 2009)
The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has launched an �Information Portal� related to the negotiations of an international regime on access and benefit-sharing. The portal.

STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ABS INTERNATIONAL REGIME AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS WHICH GOVERN THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES: WTO, WIPO AND UPOV
(CBD Secretariat, January 2009)

Authored by Jorge Cabrera Medaglia, this study includes: an overview and factual description of the relevant provisions and developments on access and benefit-sharing at the WTO, WIPO and UPOV; options and scenarios; and final remarks. The study.

GREEN CUSTOMS GUIDE TO MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS
(UNEP, 2008)
This guide aims to orient customs officers and border protection officers to provisions of multilateral agreements that are relevant to their work.
The guide.

THE GOVERNANCE OF NATURE AND THE NATURE OF GOVERNANCE: POLICY THAT WORKS FOR BIODIVERSITY AND LIVELIHOODS
(IIED, 2009)
Written by Krystyna Swiderska  et al., this book examines the governance of biodiversity - how it is managed and how decisions about it are made - at the local, national and international levels. It reviews experience with community-based conservation, mainstreaming biodiversity, and the Biodiversity Convention process, and includes case studies from India, Peru and Tanzania. The book
.

FARMERS� RIGHTS IN PERU: FARMERS� PERSPECTIVES
(Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Farmers� Rights Project Background Study 8, November 2008)

Authored by Maria Scurrah, Regine Andersen and Tone Winge, this study presents the perceptions and experiences of 180 farmers from various regions of the Peruvian Andes on issues related to Farmers� Rights as they are addressed in the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. A series of regional workshops were held in the Andes from March to May 2008 to map the views, experiences and suggestions of farmers on the realization of Farmers� Rights. Their views were presented at a national multi-stakeholder workshop in Lima in September 2008. This report presents and analyzes the results from these workshops. Recommendations emphasize the importance of: documentation of traditional knowledge; the establishment of agro-biodiversity reserves; support to community gene banks, seed fairs and exchange visits; participatory research on traditional seed systems and participatory plant breeding; assistance in processing and marketing products made from traditional varieties; improved economic incentive structures for maintaining traditional crop varieties; and the establishment of pilot villages to bolster the conservation and exchange of genetic resources and traditional knowledge. Suggestions for activities to foster farmers� participation in decision-making are elaborated as well as institutional questions on how to coordinate the realization of Farmers� Rights. The report
.

PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT LAWS
(FAO Legal Paper, December 2008)
Authored by Elisa Morgera and James Wingard, this paper illustrates the relevant international framework and identifies design principles regarding the development of effective national legislation on wildlife management. The paper.

RESULTS OF FAO E-CONFERENCE ON BIOTECHNOLOGIES AND BIOENERGY
An FAO-moderated e-mail conference entitled �The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bioenergy in developing countries� ran from 10 November to 14 December 2008. Major topics of discussion included applying biotechnologies in jatropha; the potential benefits for small-scale farmers of applying biotechnologies for bioenergy production; biogas production in developing countries; and production of enzymes for efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels. Most attention was paid to applications of genetic modification, molecular markers and tissue culture in crops for biofuel purposes. The messages.

CD-ROM ON THE APPLICATION OF THE ADDIS ABABA PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY WITHIN THE BIODIVERSITY-RELATED CONVENTIONS
(Biodiversity Liaison Group, 2008)
The Biodiversity Liaison Group, comprising the CBD, CITES, CMS, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, the Ramsar Convention and the World Heritage Convention, is launching a CD-Rom on the application of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the sustainable use of biodiversity within the biodiversity-related conventions. Composed of four sections, it contains information on the application of the Principles and Guidelines by the six biodiversity-related conventions, their full text, relevant decisions, recommendations and resolutions, background documents, as well as other materials, including links to relevant websites. Copies are available from the convention secretariats upon request. In due course, information will also be made available through the web.

ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING IN PRACTICE: TRENDS IN PARTNERSHIPS ACROSS SECTORS
(CBD, 2008)

Authored by Sarah Laird and Rachel Wynberg and part of the CBD Technical Series, the study fills gaps in current understanding of ABS partnerships, collaborations and contractual agreements in the range of sectors using genetic resources. It looks at the nature of these relationships, and whether and how they achieve the objectives of sustainable use and equitable benefit-sharing. Also examined are the characteristics and procedures common to different sectors seeking access, and sharing benefits. The study.

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIOENERGY ON NUTRITION
(FAO and IFPRI, 2008)
This paper examines the consequences of climate change and rising bioenergy demand for sustainable development, food security and nutrition throughout the lifecycle. It also explores the implications of climate change and rising bioenergy demand for nutrition and analyzes potential strategies for cultivation of bioenergy crops that can contribute to poverty reduction, food security and sustainable natural resource management. The authors note that efforts to assure food security and good nutrition in the face of current climate change challenges must continue in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The report.

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