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KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2008

 

Biodiversity and Wildlife Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2003; 2002

OCEAN NOISE: TURN IT DOWN
(IFAW, December 2008)
This report highlights the dramatic increase of undersea noise from human activities in recent decades. It notes that this increase is set to continue and, unless tackled, poses a potentially major threat to marine animals of many kinds worldwide. The report calls for wide-ranging action, including a requirement that builders and owners of all vessels factor noise reduction measures into vessels’ design and operation. The report.

ESTABLISHING RESILIENT MARINE PROTECTED AREA NETWORKS – MAKING IT HAPPEN
(IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, 2008)

This document represents a synthesis of the expertise, knowledge and views of leading experts in marine protected area network design and implementation. It highlights global commitments for marine conservation and shows how to move from individual MPA sites to an effective system of national regional MPA networks. The report.

Carbon and Biodiversity Demonstration Atlas
(UNEP, 2008)
This atlas highlights areas where high carbon content and high biodiversity overlap, demonstrating that reducing emissions from deforestation can combat climate change and biodiversity loss. The atlas.

INTEGRATING BIODIVERSITY INTO BUSINESS STRATEGIES: THE BIODIVERSITY ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK
(Fondation pour la recherche sur la biodiversité, Orée – entreprises, territoires et Environnement, 2008)

This study, presented during the European platform for biodiversity research strategy meeting (17-21 November 2008, Paris, France), confirms that biodiversity underpins the development of numerous businesses, as the economy as a whole interacts, directly and indirectly, with living systems. It proposes a new model for the co-evolution of businesses and ecosystems, calling it the co-viability of biodiversity and business. Based on the language of business itself, that of costs and revenues, this model calls for the introduction of a new accounting system, complementing financial accounting. The report in English and French.

THE STATE OF WILDLIFE TRADE IN CHINA
(TRAFFIC, November 2008)
According to this review of wildlife trade in China in 2007, China’s traditional medicine trade is rapidly growing, China’s consumption of wildlife is rising, China’s illegal ivory trade is declining, and China is the world’s second largest wood importer, whilst China’s trade in freshwater turtles is thriving. Over-harvesting and poor management of resources are looming threats and currently there are no standards to ensure the sustainable collection of wild medicinal plants. The majority of illegal wild animal trade was in freshwater turtles and snakes, mostly sold in China for their meat and for medicinal purposes. The report.

INDUSTRIAL LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPACT ON SMALLHOLDERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(League for Pastoral Peoples, April 2008)

Authored by Susanne Gura, this study describes the industrialization of livestock production and its impact on smallholder producers, and discusses what should be done to improve their situation. It presents many examples of how smallholders and pastoralists have lost out with the expansion of industrial livestock production, but also how their movements and supporting organizations have set out to secure their rights, and continue to develop their breeds, their production systems and their cultures. Several case studies are provided, as well as a series of recommendations for action. The report.

NEW PGRFA PORTAL
Launched by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a new portal for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) is now available. Aiming to foster implementation of the Global Plan of Action adopted in 1996, the portal provides access to a wide range of information, including funding sources, regarding activities in the field of PGRFA. The portal.

PUBLISH OR PATENT? KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
(IFPRI Discussion Paper no. 795, September 2008) Authored by An Michiels and Bonwoo Koo, this paper concludes that there have been significant shifts toward applied research by developing countries and toward patenting as a means of knowledge dissemination during the past few decades, reflecting the increasing role of the private sector in developing countries in crop improvement research. The paper.

LINKING INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE WITH ACTION FOR SUSTAINABLE POVERTY ALLEVIATION: WHAT WORKS?
 (Center for International Development, Harvard University, 2008) This working paper reviews the experience of the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya in implementing five agricultural projects in Africa and Asia, to identify institutional arrangements and procedures that are more likely to strengthen the links between research and development. The authors develop a seven-point framework for establishing better links between knowledge generated through research with actions that help people. The paper.

SUSTAINABLE BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN UEMOA MEMBER COUNTRIES
(West African Economic and Monetary Union and The Hub for Rural Development in West and Central Africa, October 2008)
Produced by the United Nations Foundation, the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and the Energy and Security Group, this report concludes that bioenergy can provide significant economic and environmental opportunities for rural areas in West Africa finds that donor and host country investments in bioenergy can reduce the exposure of West African countries to high food and oil prices and open up new economic opportunities in clean energy development.
The report.

THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOENERGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(FAO, 2008)
This UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report is the background document for an upcoming FAO e-mail conference that takes places from 10 November-7 December 2008. It provides an overview of the current status regarding bioenergy, focusing on first and second generation liquid biofuels, including the reasons for the major current focus on liquid biofuels, as well as current concerns about them. It then considers some of the potential ways in which biotechnologies could contribute to bioenergy production, covering production of biomass as well as conversion of the biomass to first or second generation liquid biofuels, in addition to production of biodiesel from microalgae and production of biogas.
The document. The e-mail conference website.

ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES IN AFRICA: ANALYZING DEVELOPMENT OF ABS POLICIES IN FOUR AFRICAN COUNTRIES
(UNEP and UNU-IAS, 2008)
This publication includes case studies on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing (ABS) arrangements in four African countries: Botswana, Ghana, Uganda and Zambia. The report provides a detailed view of the national policy climate relating to ABS in the four countries, based on research carried out by consultants in cooperation with national agencies, using questionnaires and workshops.
The report.

KILLING WITH KEYSTROKES: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE ON THE WORLD WIDE WEB
(IFAW, 2008)
This report offers the fourth and most comprehensive investigation into the potentially illegal trade in endangered species on the Internet by the International Fund for Animal Welfare. It is based on a three-month investigation on 183 publicly accessible websites. Investigators looked at both the wildlife product and live animal trade in primates, birds, reptiles, big cats, bears, elephants, rhinoceros, sharks, Tibetan antelopes and sturgeon. The investigation concludes that illegal wildlife transactions via the Internet may be fostered by low levels of awareness about guidelines regarding trade in protected wildlife; by a lack of stringent and enforceable legislation that clearly declares trade in endangered wildlife online as a serious criminal offense; by weak monitoring and enforcement; and by readily available electronic loopholes through which wildlife traffickers can operate without detection.
The report.

ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME – A THREAT TO OUR FUTURE
(Environmental Investigation Agency, October 2008)

Organized environmental crime poses a growing threat, yet remains a low priority for the enforcement community. Environmental crime includes illegal trade in wildlife, smuggling of ozone-depleting and global-warming substances, illicit trade in hazardous waste, illegal fishing, illegal logging and the associated trade in stolen timber. This report shows the scale and impacts of environmental crime and calls for strong political will to tackle it as a matter of urgency. The report.

DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING AN ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF OCEAN-RELATED ACTIVITIES
(DOALOS, 2008)
This UN Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) interdisciplinary manual focuses on the development and implementation of an ecosystem approach to the management of human activities and their impacts on the marine environment within a national context, while meeting regional and international obligations. The manual will form a basis for the delivery of a training workshop, organized by DOALOS in the context of the Train-Sea-Coast Programme, and in collaboration with the UN Environment Programme and other partners, to be held in Mombasa, Kenya, from 27 October to 1 November 2008. The objective of the workshop is to provide government officials and managers with the necessary knowledge and skills to develop and implement an ecosystem approach to the management of ocean-related activities. The manual.

MDG ON REDUCING BIODIVERSITY LOSS AND THE CBD’s 2010 TARGET
(UNU, September 2008)
This report, written by Balakrishna Pisupati and Renata Rubian, focuses on the critical link between the MDGs, in particular MDG 7 on environmental sustainability, and the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) 2010 target and indicators. The authors argue that the adoption of the 2010 biodiversity target as part of the MDG framework, as target 7b, is a recognition of the role that biodiversity plays in ensuring the livelihoods of the poor. However, the selection of indicators for monitoring progress under MDG 7, such as the proportion of terrestrial and marine protected areas and species threatened, is still limited vis-à-vis the options under the 2010 biodiversity target. The authors argue that indicators should be more flexibly applied and tested according to national requirements. The report.

THE STATE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2008 – BIOFUELS
(FAO, October 2008)
The 2008 edition of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization State of the World’s Food and Agriculture Report focuses on the prospects, risks and opportunities for biofuels. The report addresses key questions relating to the benefits and impacts of biofuel production and use, including impacts on food security, land and water resources, as well as contributions to greenhouse gas reduction and agricultural development. The report assumes that biofuel demand will affect food prices for the coming decade or longer. While higher food prices threaten the food security of poor households in developing countries, they could offer an opportunity for agricultural development if they are accompanied by increased investments in research, institutions and infrastructure as well as sound policies. It also points to the need to harmonize approaches towards assessing greenhouse gas balances and other impacts, and calls for investments in research and development of second generation biofuels. The report stresses that blending mandates and subsidies have resulted in a rush on biofuels in advance of actual knowledge about their effects and impacts, and calls for their revision and additional policy action to ensure they are produced in an environmentally and socially sustainable manner. FAO Press Release. State of the World’s Food and Agriculture Report.

ANNUAL REPORT ON PROTECTED AREAS: A REVIEW OF GLOBAL CONSERVATION PROGRESS IN 2007
(UNEP-WCMC, 2008)
The Annual Report on Protected Areas highlights achievements made in protected areas around the world during the past year. The report addresses both the current status of global and national protected area coverage for terrestrial and marine environments, with additional insights on forest biodiversity and the high seas. Topics such as the management effectiveness of protected areas, livelihood impacts and climate change are highlighted to demonstrate the breadth of conservation issues related to protected areas. The report concludes with a look at the 2008 International Year of the Reef. It indicates that while progress towards achieving the 10% protected area target has been better on land, marine areas remain especially poorly protected. While 12.2% of the planet’s land area is under legal protection, only 5.9% of the world’s territorial seas and less than 1% of the high seas are protected. The report

THE 2008 REVIEW OF THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES
(IUCN, October 2008)
This publication explores all aspects of the IUCN Red List, including: the Red List as a key conservation tool; freshwater biodiversity; status of the world’s marine species; broadening the coverage of biodiversity assessment; species susceptibility to climate change impacts; and the Mediterranean, a biodiversity hotspot under threat. The review.

LIFE AS COMMERCE: THE IMPACT OF MARKET-BASED CONSERVATION ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND WOMEN
(Global Forest Coalition, October 2008)

This report features case studies from India, Costa Rica, South Africa, Paraguay and Colombia about the impact of market-based conservation mechanisms like ecotourism, forest certification, biodiversity offsets and carbon trade on indigenous peoples, local communities and women. Focusing on the rules and standards needed for these mechanisms to generate benefits for local communities, the report concludes that governments and other donors should undertake a profound analysis of market-based conservation approaches to assess whether they really do strengthen rights-based, socially just biodiversity conservation policies, or whether they are, in reality, ineffective, inefficient and risky, contributing to the erosion of good public governance over biodiversity.  The report.

BIOSAFETY PROTOCOL FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OUTREACH MATERIAL
(CBD, September 2008)
On the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, celebrated on 11 September 2008, the CBD Secretariat has posted a CD containing related outreach material. The CD.

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OVERALL HEALTH STRATEGY IN THE AREA OF GMOs
(EC Joint Research Centre, September 2008)

This study assesses the current state of knowledge in the field of potential health impacts of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It contains an expert opinion stemming from an international workshop on assessment and monitoring of health effects of GMOs. The executive summary of the study. JRC news release.

STATE OF THE WORLD’S BIRDS
(BirdLife International, September 2008)
Launched at BirdLife International’s World Conservation Conference, held from 22-27 September 2008, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, this report and related website indicate that common birds are in decline across the world, providing evidence of a rapid deterioration in the global environment that is affecting all life on earth. The report identifies many key global threats, including the intensification of industrial-scale agriculture and fishing, the spread of invasive species, logging and the replacement of natural forest with monocultural plantations, but mostly climate change. State of the World’s Birds website.

FUELLING DESTRUCTION IN LATIN AMERICA: THE REAL PRICE OF AGROFUELS
(Friends of the Earth International, 2008)
On the basis of a number of case studies regarding Latin and Central America, this report concludes that the development of agrofuels is unlikely to benefit people in Latin America, noting that rapid expansion will increase preexisting social, environmental and human rights problems enabling national, and increasingly international, agribusiness and investors to profit. The report.

NEW KEY ISSUES ELDIS GUIDE: PAYMENTS FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
(Eldis, September 2008)

This guide provides an overview of Payments for Ecosystem Services schemes, their potential and possible pitfalls, and links to further reading from a range of sources. The guide.

THE WIPO VOLUNTARY FUND: A STRONGER VOICE FOR INDIGENOUS AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN WIPO’S WORK ON TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, TRADITIONAL CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS AND GENETIC RESOURCES
(WIPO, 2008)
This booklet presents the Voluntary Fund created within the framework of the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It includes practical steps and tips for applicants and donors. The booklet.

BIOSAFETY REGULATIONS OF ASIA-PACIFIC COUNTRIES
(Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions, Asia-Pacific Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology and FAO, 2008)

This publication provides a compilation of the biosafety regulatory instruments of 39 countries of the Asia and the Pacific region, allowing for clear understanding and comparison. The publication.

PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR CLIMATE-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEMS AND RESOURCES
(USEPA, 2008)

This report is a contribution to the US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and was developed by the Global Change Research Program in the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development. It is one of 21 synthesis and assessment products commissioned by the CCSP. This report has been peer-reviewed and seeks to provide the best-available science to date on management adaptations for ecosystems and resources. The
report.

INTERNATIONAL SEED TREATY’S GOALS OF BIODIVERSITY, FOOD SECURITY TOUGH TO IMPLEMENT
(IP Watch, August 2008)
This article, authored by Catherine Saez, presents an overview of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, including its main provisions, breeders’ and NGOs’ concerns and funding issues. The article.

POST-MORTEM FOR THE GENEVA MINI-MINISTERIAL: WHERE DOES TRIPS GO FROM HERE?
(ICTSD, August 2008)
This article by Frederick M. Abbott provides an overview of the state of play in the negotiations on the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), including biodiversity-related issues, following the collapse of the WTO Geneva Ministerials. The article.

PROMOTING VALUE CHAINS OF NEGLECTED AND UNDERUTILIZED SPECIES FOR PRO-POOR GROWTH AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION: GUIDELINES AND GOOD PRACTICES
(Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Species, 2008)

Authored by Margret Will, this publication presents guidelines and good practices for value chain development of neglected and underutilized species. The guidelines draw upon lessons learned and good practices described in eight case studies implemented by the Global Facilitation Unit and its partners, other published and grey literature, and the experience of the author in horticultural marketing and value chain development. The publication.

AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS, FACTS AND TRENDS
(WBCSD and IUCN, July 2008)
This report by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and IUCN presents facts and figures on trends in agricultural production and consumption to help governments, farmers, consumers and industry better understand the challenges facing the sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems, such as meeting demand form a fast growing world population, adapting to impacts of climate change, and managing natural resources of an increasingly depleted planet. The report.

CURBING UK IMPACTS ON GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY: AN AGENDA FOR ACTION
(IIED, May 2008)
Stemming the tide of biodiversity loss is a global issue with national implications. The UK has set up initiatives to reduce its impacts on biodiversity worldwide, but a government review found in 2006 that they have yet to add up to a comprehensive strategy. This research identifies possible actions to fill the gaps. The full brief.

ENTANGLED IN THE WEB OF LIFE: BIODIVERSITY AND THE MEDIA
(IIED, May 2008)
This brief explains why biodiversity loss will be an increasingly important story in the coming years. The brief.

WORLD RESOURCES 2008: ROOTS OF RESILIENCE – GROWING THE WEALTH OF THE POOR
(World Resources Institute, July 2008)

This report, produced collaboratively by UNDP, UNEP, the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute, looks at the overlap between ecosystems and poverty. The report argues that properly designed enterprises can create economic, social and environmental resilience that cushion the impacts of climate change, and help provide needed social stability. It suggests that efforts that foster resilience chart the first steps on the path out of poverty. The report.

SAFETY NET: PROTECTED AREAS AND POVERTY REDUCTION
(WWF, 2008)
This report, written by N. Dudley, S. Mansourian, S. Stolton, and S. Suksuwan, looks at the role of protected areas in poverty reduction, focusing primarily on the poorest countries and on poor communities. Case studies are from Argentina, Finland, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Poland and Tanzania. The report concludes that: there is an evolution of approaches to integrating the needs of people and nature in protected areas; monitoring is critical; and good examples of effective protected area management combined with poverty reduction strategies need to be studied and replicated. The report.

FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE: THE ANSWER IS BIODIVERSITY
(Greenpeace, June 2008)
This report suggests that a review of recent scientific literature underlines that the most effective strategy to adapt agriculture to climate change is to increase biodiversity. A mix of different crops and varieties in one field is a proven and highly reliable farming method to increase resilience to erratic weather changes. The report further notes that the best way to increase stress tolerance in single varieties are modern breeding technologies that do not entail genetic engineering, such as marker assisted selection. The report.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE: BIOPIRACY OR BIOPROSPECTING?
(ETH Zürich, June 2008)
Authored by Michael J. Krieger, this working paper examines issues related to bioprospecting as addressed by the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, as well as the friction created between the two treaties, in view of their differing goals. The paper.

ANOTHER INCONVENIENT TRUTH: HOW BIOFUEL POLICIES ARE DEEPENING POVERTY AND ACCELERATING CLIMATE CHANGE
(Oxfam, June 2008)
In this report, Oxfam calculates that rich country biofuel policies have dragged more than 30 million people into poverty, according to evidence that biofuels have already contributed up to 30% to the global rise in food prices. The report.

PLANT BREEDING AND RELATED BIOTECHNOLOGY CAPACITY ASSESSMENT
(FAO, 2008)
This database provides information from a survey carried out by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and its partners to assess national plant breeding and related biotechnology capacity worldwide. The survey has been concluded in 62 countries and is still ongoing in 30 countries. The database.

BECON WEB-BASED BIBLIOGRAPHY
(IFPRI, 2008)

BEcon, a web-based bibliography developed by researchers at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), is a selective collection of peer-reviewed applied economics literature that assesses the impacts of genetically engineered crops in developing countries. BEcon.

THE ECONOMICS OF ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY – AN INTERIM REPORT
(EC, 2008)
Inspired by the momentum created by the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change, and proposed by the German Government and endorsed by the G8+5 leaders in 2007, this study was designed to “initiate the process of analyzing the global economic benefit of biological diversity, the costs of the loss of biodiversity and the failure to take protective measures versus the costs of effective conservation.” Under the leadership of Deutsche Bank’s Pavan Sukhdev, several partners worked during the first phase of the study to demonstrate the huge significance of ecosystems and biodiversity and the threats to human welfare if no action is taken to reverse current damage and losses. The second phase of the study will expand on this and show how to use this knowledge to design the right tools and policies. Preliminary findings included in this interim report were presented to the High-Level Segment of the ninth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP9). Final results will be presented at CBD COP10 in 2010. The report.

FARMERS RIGHTS.ORG
(Fridtjof Nansen Institute, 2008)
Developed as a tool for decision makers, practitioners and others involved in the realization of farmers’ rights, this website was launched in the framework of the Farmers’ Rights Project of the Fridtjof Nansen Institute in Norway. It includes information on the history, legal status and contents of farmers’ rights, a comprehensive database on legislation and policies, and concrete recommendations on implementation. The website.

INTERNATIONALLY FUNDED TRAINING IN BIOSAFETY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY - IS IT BRIDGING THE BIOTECH DIVIDE?
(UNU-IAS, 2008)
On the basis of a global assessment undertaken from 2004-2007, and seeking to examine whether capacity-building activities deliver to developing countries the capacity to make and implement choices about biosafety and biotechnology, this report has concluded that the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has provided a focus and catalyst for various capacity-building initiatives. The study found, however, that there remains a significant lack of capacity in the majority of developing countries, which are unable to manage modern biotechnology and implement their national biosafety frameworks. The report stresses that the capacity deficiencies are so pervasive and broad that there is no effective international biosafety system at the moment. The report.

THE 2010 BIODIVERSITY TARGET IN EU DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
(WWF, 2008)
This paper aims to provide a brief analysis of the progress made by the EU towards the 2010 biodiversity target in its external development cooperation policy, with a focus on policies and programmes for Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries and Asian and Latin American countries. Progress made is assessed in light of the political commitments and instruments adopted and their implementation. The paper focuses on the initiatives and undertakings made by the European Commission in its development cooperation policy to foster the achievement of the 2010 biodiversity target outside Europe. The paper.

NONTARGET EFFECTS OF GENETIC MANIPULATION
(The Nature Institute, 2008)

This website is designed to set the public debate about genetic engineering upon a more accessible scientific foundation. The purpose of the project is to make the evidence about the wide-ranging and never wholly predictable effects of genetic engineering readily accessible to citizens, policy makers and scientists. The website.

ECOSYSTEM-BASED ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING TRAWL SELECTIVITY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
(WWF Mediterranean, April 2008)

This
report encourages the switch from the unselective diamond-mesh nets currently used by bottom-trawlers in the Mediterranean to more selective square-mesh nets, sooner than the obligatory deadline of 2010 stipulated under European legislation (EU Council Regulation 1967/2006). The WWF report is based on new ecosystem-based management analyses that use computer models to assess the effects of square-mesh nets on marine ecosystems and fishing fleets. Results show that square-mesh nets will make trawling more selective – meaning the capture of less immature juveniles and non-target species, and reducing discards – and thus allowing the Mediterranean’s fragile marine life to begin recovery. The report.

CHALLENGES TO MANAGING ECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABLY FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION: SECURING WELL-BEING IN THE ANDES/AMAZON
(Iniciativa Amazônica, WWF, King’s College London, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, The Nature Conservancy, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, May 2008)
As part of the Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation Programme, this report is a “situation analysis” of ecosystem services and poverty in the Amazon basin and the eastern Andean slopes. It focuses on, inter alia, the benefits that local populations derive from using ecosystem services, and options to manage ecosystem provision in ways that also prevent or help to alleviate poverty. The report.

EUROPEAN FORESTS – ECOSYSTEM CONDITIONS AND SUSTAINABLE USE
(European Environment Agency, May 2008)
The report identifies the state, trends and major pressures on the forest ecosystems across Europe and suggests needed actions and capacity-building for sustainable forest management and safeguarding biodiversity. The report.

BIODIVERSITY: DELIVERING RESULTS
(UNDP-GEF, May 2008)

This publication features the UN Development Programme’s (UNDP’s) biodiversity work around the world, including the achievements and results from projects undertaken by UNDP’s network of 132 country offices and its specialized environment team. It highlights projects funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to mainstream biodiversity issues, build institutional capacity, and support the implementation of the Programme of Work on Protected Areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity. The publication.

CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED WATER STRESS AND ITS IMPACTS ON NATURAL AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS
(Ecologic, IEEP and SYKE, 2008)
This study explores which ecosystems will be most impacted and analyzes how the effects of climate change act as causes of additional emissions, thereby reinforcing global warming in a positive feedback loop. The paper was prepared for the European Parliament by Ecologic jointly with the Institute for European Environmental Policies (IEEP) and the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). The study also highlights existing policy and management approaches, identifies gaps in the regime and concludes with sector-specific policy recommendations. The study.

INTRODUCING A GENETICALLY MODIFIED BANANA IN UGANDA: SOCIAL BENEFITS, COSTS, AND CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS
(IFPRI, 2008)

This resource, authored by Enoch Kikulwe, Justus Wesseler and Jose Falck Zepeda, examines potential social welfare impacts of adopting genetically modified (GM) bananas in Uganda, with three objectives. First, the paper suggests and applies an approach to calculate reversible and irreversible benefits and costs of introducing GM banana. Second, it suggests an approach for assessing producer/consumer preferences and willingness to pay for introducing a GM banana. Finally, the paper discusses the main implications for biosafety decision making for GM crops in Uganda. Results of MISTICs estimation (maximum incremental sociaResults imply that although GM bananas promise vast benefits, realization of those benefits depends on consumers' perceptions and attitudes and the willingness to pay for the GM technology. The resource.

Biofuel and global biodiversity
(Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, April 2008)

This paper, written by D. Keeney and C. Nanninga, analyzes how biofuels are changing land-use patterns in many regions around the world. The paper suggests that the impacts of biofuels are more symptomatic of inappropriate agricultural production systems and policies, and recommends protecting native ecosystems and indigenous lands, making sustainability a priority for all biofuel production, and taking advantage of this opportunity to redesign the agricultural and energy sectors. The paper.

PLANT CONSERVATION REPORT
(CBD Secretariat and Botanic Gardens Conservation International, 2008)
The Plant Conservation Report outlines progress in implementing the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. It highlights the urgent challenges and some priorities for further implementation up to 2010, as well as providing a background and rationale for further global initiatives in plant conservation beyond 2010. The report.

FORESTS AND THE BIODIVERSITY CONVENTION
(Global Forest Coalition, 2008)
This report includes the summary of 22 independent monitoring reports on the implementation of the expanded programme of work on forest biodiversity of the CBD, in 22 different countries. The report.

CROP WILD RELATIVE GLOBAL PORTAL
(UNEP/GEF and BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL)
This portal provides access to information and data resources important for the conservation and utilization of crop wild relatives. It has been developed over the past four years in the framework of a UNEP/GEF project entitled “In situ conservation of crop wild relatives through enhanced information management and field application,” and executed by Bioversity International in collaboration with five partner countries. The portal.

THE GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY ASTRAZENECA PARTNERSHIP FOR NATURAL PRODUCT DISCOVERY
(UNU-IAS, 2008)
Authored by Sarah Laird, Catherine Monagle and Sam Johnston, this study presents an access and benefit-sharing case study, the Natural Product Discovery partnership between Griffith University in Australia and the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. The study.

THE CORPORATE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES REVIEW
(WRI, Meridian Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2008)
The Corporate Ecosystem Services Review consists of a methodology that helps managers develop strategies to manage business risks and opportunities arising from their company’s dependence and impact on ecosystems. The review.

THE VALUE OF NATURE: ECOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC, CULTURAL AND SOCIAL BENEFITS OF PROTECTED AREAS
(CBD Secretariat, 2008)
This brochure seeks to illustrate the ecological, economic, social and cultural benefits of protected areas, in order to generate a stronger call to action for policy-makers and other stakeholders. The brochure.

PLANTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: WHICH FUTURE?
(Botanic Gardens Conservation International, 2008)
Written by Belinda Hawkins, Suzanne Sharrock and Kay Havens, this report seeks to demonstrate the linkages between plant diversity and climate change and why it is crucially important to care for the world’s natural plant diversity. The report

TRADING NATURE: THE CONTRIBUTION OF WILDLIFE TRADE MANAGEMENT TO SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS AND THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
(TRAFFIC and WWF, May 2008)
Edited by Dilys Roe, this report indicates that well-managed wildlife trade has the potential to deliver significant development benefits for the world’s poor. The report examines case studies on the wild meat trade in East and Southern Africa, the trade in Peccari and Caiman skins and Vicuña wool in Latin America and the trade in Asian coastal fisheries products. The report.

FRESHWATER ECOREGIONS OF THE WORLD
(WWF and Nature Conservancy, May 2008)

Launched in May 2008, this collaborative project displays biodiversity in all the world’s freshwater ecosystems. Including a map and a database, the project was designed: to be a
tool for underpinning global and regional conservation planning efforts, particularly to identify outstanding and imperiled freshwater systems; for serving as a logical framework for large-scale conservation strategies; and for providing a global-scale knowledge base for increasing freshwater biogeographic literacy. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World website.

GENDER AND EQUITY ISSUES IN LIQUID BIOFUELS PRODUCTION - MINIMIZING THE RISKS TO MAXIMIZE THE OPPORTUNITIES
(FAO, 2008)
This paper on gender and equity issues in liquid biofuels production was prepared at the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) by the UN in Gender Equity and Rural Employment Division. The paper discusses the potential gender-differentiated risks of large-scale liquid biofuels production in developing countries, particularly in terms of food security, and suggests research and policy strategies to better understand and address these risks. The paper.

DEMOCRATIZING TECHNOLOGY CHOICES? EUROPEAN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN AGBIOTECH ASSESSMENTS
(IIED, 2008)

This paper examines four European country case studies of participatory technology assessments (TAs) of “agbiotech” to explore: how and why state bodies sponsored participatory TA of agbiotech; the various aims in designing, managing and using such exercises; why they matter for efforts to democratize choices of technology designs and priorities; and how we can democratize technology choices or at least hold governments accountable for their technology policies. The
paper.

THE MULTILATERAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT CONTEXT FOR BIOFUELS
(IIED, December 2007)
This paper looks at the multilateral trade and investment context for biofuels, particularly the agricultural crops that are being converted into liquid fuel on a commercial scale – ethanol and biodiesel. It summarizes some of the factors driving the rapid expansion in biofuel production and use, analyzes trade and investment issues for biofuels and issues on developing standards, and offers proposals for how governments, particularly small and medium-sized economies, might develop appropriate trade and investment rules to support a fair and sustainable biofuels sector. The
paper.

BRING ON THE RIGHT BIOFUELS
(IHT, 23 April 2008)

In this opinion piece published in the International Herald Tribune and New York Times, Roger Cohen considers the current heated debate over biofuels. He argues that biofuels – which until recently were hailed by some as the “answer to everything” and are now dismissed by critics as “the worst thing since the Black Death” – can be a part of the solution. He dispels as a myth the claim that growth in biofuel production is the main cause of recent global food price rises, and argues that the solution lies in supporting the right kind of biofuel, such as sugar-based ethanol, rather than corn ethanol. The
article.

THE MULTILATERAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT CONTEXT FOR BIOFUELS: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
(Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy and International Institute for Environment and Development, 2008)
This paper, authored by Sophia Murphy, outlines the different interests of the largest global players in the biofuel market, including the US, EU and Brazil, and analyzes biofuel trade within the context of World Trade Organization rules governing agriculture, environmental goods, services, patents and investment. The resource.

Economic Valuation of Large Marine Ecosystems
(IUCN, 2008)
This report offers proceedings from an IUCN workshop that took place in Cape Town, South Africa, from 29-30 July 2007, on the economic valuation of large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The workshop provided an overview of economic valuation as a tool in LME management, and profiled several cases of LME valuations worldwide, including for the Benguela Current, Caspian Sea, and Yellow Sea. The report.

BUILDING BIODIVERSITY BUSINESS
(Shell International, IUCN, 2008)

Authored by J. Bishop, S. Kapila, F. Hicks, P. Mitchell and F. Vorhies, this report calls for policy reforms to increase the commercial rewards for conserving biodiversity, increased penalties for biodiversity loss and better information on the biodiversity performance of business. The authors suggest that business will conserve biodiversity only if it becomes profitable, and identify pro-biodiversity business opportunities that can generate profits, as well as benefits for nature. The report.

CROSS-SECTORAL TOOLKIT FOR THE CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY
(Convention on Biological Diversity, 2008)
Edited by I. Thompson and T. Christophersen, this technical series publication summarizes information on policy approaches that aim to minimize the negative impacts of other sectoral policies on forests and forest biodiversity. The toolkit.

Coping with water scarcity in developing countries: What role for agricultural biotechnologies?
(FAO, 2007)

This document provides a summary of the moderated e-mail conference, hosted by the FAO Biotechnology Forum from 5 March to 1 April 2007, on the role agricultural biotechnologies can play in helping developing countries cope with water scarcity. The summary outlines the main issues discussed during this e-mail conference, namely the application of biotechnologies to develop crops with improved drought resistance or water-use efficiency; the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi in water-limited conditions; and the use of biotechnology in wastewater treatment. The summary.

PROTECTED LANDSCAPES AND AGROBIODIVERSITY VALUES
(IUCN, 2008)
Edited by Thora Amend, Jessica Brown, Ashish Kothari, Adrian Phillips and Sue Stolton, this book presents case studies from around the world on the role of protected landscapes in sustaining agricultural biodiversity and related knowledge and practices. The volume is the first in a series on the Values of Protected Landscapes and Seascapes, a project of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas Protected Landscapes Task Force in cooperation with several partners. The book.

BIOFUELS: MAKING TOUGH CHOICES
(IIED, February 2008)
Authored by Sonja Vermeulen, Annie Dufey and Bill Vorley, this opinion piece looks at the serious trade-offs involved in the production and use of biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. It provides a “decision tree” to guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development. The paper.

BIODIVERSITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND POVERTY: EXPLORING THE LINKS
(IIED, February 2007)
Authored by Hannah Reid and Krystyna Swiderska, this IIED Brief explores the links between biodiversity, climate change and poverty. It unpicks these strands to show that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. It suggests that, compared with activities such as forest conservation and afforestation, biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. The paper argues that this relative neglect must be addressed, and that “urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.” The paper.

PROTECTING FARMERS' RIGHTS IN THE GLOBAL IPR REGIME: CHALLENGES AND OPTIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(SAWTEE, 2007)

Authored by Regine Andersen and published by South Asia Watch on Trade, Economics & Environment (SAWTEE), this policy brief addresses challenges with regard to implementation of farmers’ rights, including upholding and developing legal space for farmers, customary practices related to agro-biodiversity, and creating support mechanisms for farmers’ contributions to the global pool of genetic resources. The author suggests policy options that developing countries in particular have in protecting farmers’ rights in the context of a global intellectual property rights regime. The policy brief.

UNDG GUIDELINES ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ ISSUES
(UNDG, February 2008)
The UN Development Group (UNDG) Guidelines on Indigenous Peoples Issues entered into force on 1 February 2008. The guidelines aim to mainstream indigenous issues across programmatic areas of UN agencies, while providing a normative framework to operational work in the field. The next step is for UNDG to adopt a 5-7 year plan of action that will roll out these Guidelines and provide support on the ground. The guidelines.

GLOBAL STATUS OF COMMERCIALIZED BIOTECH/GM CROPS 2007
(ISAAA Brief 37-2007)
In their annual report, the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) concludes that biotech crops are still gaining ground: in 2007, GM crop area grew by 12 percent to reach 114.3 million hectares. The executive summary of the report.

WHO BENEFITS FROM GM CROPS? THE RISE IN PESTICIDE USE
(Friends of the Earth International, January 2008)
The 2008 edition of the “Who Benefits from GM crops?” report series concludes that genetically modified crops on the market today have, on the whole, caused an increase rather than a decrease in toxic pesticide use, and have failed to tackle hunger and poverty. The report.

WHAT IS THE REAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CBD WORKING GROUP ON ACCESS AND BENEFIT SHARING AND WIPO AND THE WTO?
(South Centre, Center for International Environmental Law, Intellectual Property Quarterly Update, 2007)
This article examines the elements of the relationship between the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Intellectual Property Organization and the World Trade Organization. It also asks whether the CBD Working Group on Access and Benefit-sharing should seek to strengthen their linkages. The article.

GMOS IN AFRICA: FOOD AND AGRICULTURE STATUS REPORT 2007
(African Centre for Biosafety, December 2007)
Authored by Shenaz Moola and Victor Munnik, this book provides an overview of the current status of GMOs in Africa’s agriculture and food systems, including a synopsis of the overall current situation in Africa, an analysis of the key issues and trends, regional overviews and country by country status reports. The book.

BIOPIRACY: IMITATIONS NOT INNOVATIONS
(Gene Campaign, 2007)
Authored by Suman Sahai, Prasmi Pavithran and Indrani Barpujari, this book argues that the current intellectual property rights regime system is turning into a tool for the unjust exploitation of biological resources and associated indigenous knowledge of the rural and indigenous communities. The book includes an overview of biopiracy cases. The book.

THE TIGER TRADE REVISITED IN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
(TRAFFIC, 2008)

This report concludes that laws protecting the critically endangered Sumatran Tiger have failed to prevent the marketing of tiger body parts, and recommends that resources and effort should concentrate on effective enforcement to combat the trade by arresting dealers and suppliers. The report.

THE WORLD’S MANGROVES 1980-2005
(FAO, 2007)
Based on national and subnational data sets from 124 countries, this study reports a 20 percent loss of mangrove cover worldwide since 1980, a large part of which is due to large-scale conversion of mangrove areas to aquaculture and tourism infrastructure. The study calls for regular updating of information on the extent and condition of mangroves, to aid policy- and decision-making for the conservation, management and sustainable use of the world’s remaining mangrove ecosystems. The study.

PLANTS FOR LIFE: MEDICINAL PLANT CONSERVATION AND BOTANIC GARDENS
(Botanic Gardens Conservation International, January 2008)
Authored by Belinda Hawkins, this report outlines the key trade, livelihood and conservation issues surrounding medicinal plants, highlights the relevance of botanic gardens to their conservation, and recommends focus areas for future work. The report.  

NIGHT TIME SPINACH: CONSERVATION AND LIVELIHOOD IMPLICATIONS OF WILD MEAT USE IN REFUGEE SITUATIONS IN NORTH WESTERN TANZANIA
(TRAFFIC, 2007)
Authored by George Jambiya, Simon Milledge and Nangena Mtango, this report outlines why enforcement of wildlife laws and regulations cannot address the drivers of unsustainable wild meat use in refugee hosting areas. It argues that positive incentives, whether via equitable market frameworks for wild meat or through provision of alternative sources of protein or livelihoods, may better reconcile refugee needs, local development imperatives and wildlife management objectives. The report.

THE FUTURE CONTROL OF FOOD: A GUIDE TO INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS AND RULES ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, BIODIVERSITY AND FOOD SECURITY
(Earthscan, 2008)
Edited by Geoff Tansey and Tasmin Rajotte and launched during the sixth meeting of the Working Group on Access and Benefit-sharing of the Convention on Biological Diversity, this book is a guide to the issues of intellectual property and ownership, genetics, biodiversity and food security. Its chapters cover negotiations and instruments in the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, Food and Agriculture Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants and other international bodies. More information.

BERN CONVENTION STANDING COMMITTEE REPORT
(Bern Convention, 2007)

The report of the annual meeting of the Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention), held from 26-29 November 2007, in Strasbourg, France, is available online. The meeting agreed on a number of recommendations to the contracting parties, covering, among other issues, invasive alien species, the European sturgeon and a European Charter on Hunting and Biodiversity. The report.

ABS-MANAGEMENT TOOL: BEST PRACTICE STANDARD AND HANDBOOK FOR IMPLEMENTING GENETIC RESOURCE ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING ACTIVITIES
(IISD, Stratos Inc. and Swiss Confederation, January 2008)

The ABS-Management Tool (ABS-MT) was developed by IISD,
Stratos Inc. and Jorge Cabrera on behalf of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs, Swiss Confederation. It is a best practice standard and a handbook that provides guidance and tools on access and benefit-sharing (ABS) practice to help companies, researchers, local and indigenous communities, and governments ensure compliance with the Bonn Guidelines and ABS requirements under the Convention on Biological Diversity. It provides users and providers of genetic resources with a structured process for participating in�and making decisions about�ABS negotiations and the implementation of ABS agreements for access to and agreed use of genetic resources. The resource in English - Fran�ais - Espa�ol.

WATER IMPLICATIONS OF BIOFUELS PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES
(National Research Council, 2007)

This study was written by a US National Research Council committee that was convened to look at how shifts in US agriculture to include more energy crops, and potentially more crops overall, could affect water management and long-term sustainability of biofuel production. Among its findings, the committee found that agricultural shifts to growing corn and expanding biofuel crops into regions with little agriculture, especially dry areas, could change current irrigation practices and greatly increase pressure on water resources in many parts of the US. The study.

BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION: A QUALIFIED ANALYSIS AND UNQUALIFIED SUGGESTIONS 
(ANPED, 2008)
This report compares the place biodiversity and consumption hold in the overall sustainable development discourse, and focuses on the known reasons for biodiversity loss and how they could be influenced by sustainable consumption. The report concludes that the discussion about biodiversity policy must no longer be restricted to the levels of nature protection efforts, but should address the drivers behind the pressures leading to biodiversity loss. The report.

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: THE CASE OF INDIA, BANGLADESH, INDONESIA, AND THE PHILIPPINES
(IFPRI, December 2007)
Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they also pose risks for market access losses in sensitive importing countries. This new paper from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) examines the potential economic effects of trade-related regulations on the adoption of new GM food crops resistant to biotic or abiotic stress (such as drought resistant rice) in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The simulation results show that the gains associated with GM food crops largely exceed the potential trade losses these countries may incur. Segregation of non-GM food for exports can help reduce potential commercial risk for countries willing to adopt GM crops. Adopting GM crops also allows net importing countries to greatly reduce their imports. The Discussion Paper.

SCIDEV.NET SPOTLIGHT ON BIOFUEL R&D
(SciDev.Net, December 2007)

This resource looks at biofuels research and development in the developing world. The resource.

TROUBLE IN PARADISE: TOURISM AND INDIGENOUS LAND RIGHTS - TOGETHER TOWARDS ETHICAL SOLUTIONS: THE IMPACT OF ECOTOURISM ON INDIGENOUS RIGHTS
(Minority Rights Group International, 2007)
This briefing paper argues that many indigenous communities who traditionally occupied current ecotourism destinations have been evicted in order to create these spaces, thus limiting their access to ancestral land and undermining their traditional livelihoods. The paper concludes that ecotourism stakeholders must strive to ensure that global standards are established, monitored and met, to ensure that those affected by ecotourism may benefit. The briefing paper.

Potential and challenges of payments for ecosystem services from tropical forests  
(Overseas Development Institute, December 2007)
This briefing, written by Michael Richards and Michael Jenkins, summarizes current potential and challenges facing the development of payments for ecosystem services as a means of promoting the sustainable management or conservation of tropical forests. The briefing.

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recently published documents and online resources,
send a message to
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