IISD Reporting Services -
KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE
This page was updated on: 01/12/10
(UNCTAD, 2004) Edited by S. Twarog and P. Kapoor, this book consists of a collection of papers emanating from an expert meeting held in October 2000. Papers address: the role of traditional knowledge in healthcare and agriculture; national actions, regional initiatives and international dimensions of traditional knowledge protection; and harnessing traditional knowledge for development. The book takes a broad view of the subject, addressing issues ranging from the importance of traditional knowledge for communities, countries and the global economy to means of preserving and protecting it as well as harnessing its potential for development and ensuring equitable distribution of economic benefits derived from traditional knowledge.
(World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2004) Edited by J. M. Finger and P. Schuler, this book contains contributions from several authors, and aims to highlight a broader range of knowledge that has commercial potential in developing countries. Rather than addressing legal issues, the book brings an economic dimension into the consideration of traditional knowledge, demonstrating that the best “answer” is sometimes a commercial one. The book contains chapters on: Kuyujani Originario: The Yekuana Road to the Overall Protection of Their Rights as a People, by N. Arvelo-Jiménez; Handmade in India: Traditional Craft Skills in a Changing World, by M. Liebl and T. Roy; Enhancing Intellectual Property Exports through Fair Trade, by R. Layton; The Africa Music Project, by F. J. Penna, M. Thormann, and J. M. Finger; Preventing Counterfeit Craft Designs, by B. J. Fowler; Bioprospecting Agreements and Benefit Sharing with Local Communities, by K. ten Kate and S. A. Laird; Biopiracy and Commercialization of Ethnobotanical Knowledge, by P. Schuler; Prevention of Misappropriation of Intangible Cultural Heritage through Intellectual Property Laws, by D. Wurger; and Making Intellectual Property Laws Work for Traditional Knowledge, by C. J. Visser.
(IUCN, 2004) Authored by G. Borrini-Feyerabend, A. Kothari, G. Oviedo et al., this report provides guidance on policy and practice for co-managed protected areas and community-conserved areas, exploring approaches and models that see conservation as fully compatible with human communities. Drawing on recent experiences and best practices from around the world, the authors offer a menu of options that stakeholders can choose from and adapt to their circumstances. The report includes chapters on: the necessary background to understanding the evolving relationship between communities and protected areas; co-managed protected areas that are established with the approval of governments and subject to co-management regimes that involve indigenous and local communities; community conserved areas that are established and managed by indigenous and local communities; and the policy context for protected areas.
(World Bank, October 2004) Authored by R. R. Ortiga, this paper discusses indigenous land rights with the aim of informing policy and legislative developments. The paper addresses the existence of land rights and land titling systems across Latin America, demonstrating that land is not only a physical asset with economic and financial value, but also an intrinsic dimension and part of peoples’ lives and belief systems. It contains chapters on: the history of indigenous legal treatment in Latin America; land tenure regimes in selected countries of Latin America; common problems in the legal framework for recognition of indigenous lands; and case studies in indigenous land tenure and implications for natural resources.
MEASURING GLOBAL TRENDS IN THE STATUS
OF BIODIVERSITY: RED LIST
(PLoS Biology, December 2004) Researched and authored by Stuart Butchart et al., this paper presents a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status of the world’s bird species from 1988 to 2004. In doing so, it provides a way to monitor progress towards achieving the 2010 target of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. Meanwhile, in a recent article published in Nature magazine, “Conservation biology: biodiversity barometers,” Brooks and Kennedy stress that “the Red List Index proposed by Butchart et al. fills a portion of ‘biodiversity indicator space’ that complements the indicators already being tested. The index measures changes in overall extinction risk for all species, worldwide, in an entire class of organisms … It therefore has both fine ecological resolution and comprehensive geographical representativeness.”
Brooks and Kennedy, Conservation biology: Biodiversity barometers, Nature 431, 1046-1047
BIRDS IN EUROPE
(BirdLife International, 2004) This is a second review of the conservation status of all wild birds in Europe. Published ten years after the first report, the latest review identifies species needing priority attention to improve their status. It considers species across the entire continent, with the increased political stability in the Balkans and the Caucasus allowing data to be collected from all European countries for the first time. The report concludes that 226 of the 524 species assessed, or 43% of the European avifauna, have an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. One of the review’s key messages is that birds in Europe continue to be threatened by widespread environmental change, while the ongoing decline in the numbers of so many species sends clear signals about the state of European biodiversity and the health of the environment. More.
GLOBAL STATUS AND TRENDS IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CLAIMS: GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
(UK Economic and Social Research Council’s Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics, 2004) Authored by Paul Oldham from the Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics, this paper considers the development of an international regime on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity. It provides a review and assessment of the implications of trends in relation to genomics, proteomics and biotechnology for the development of an international regime. The first section of the paper examines the challenges and potential opportunities presented by the growth of bioinformatics and international electronic transfers of genetic data for the development of an international regime. In section two, the author examines the challenges involved in tracking intellectual property claims in relation to genetic material at the global level, while section three considers the complexity and scope of intellectual property claims in relation to biological and genetic material in the context of the rise of genomics, proteomics and biotechnology.
Oldham concludes that the genomes and proteomes of biological organisms constitute a significant gap within the existing international policy framework, noting that genomes and proteomes may extend beyond individual countries, regions, population groups and, ultimately, even generations. He proposes that genomes and proteomes could usefully be seen as “global public goods.” This, he says, may best be achieved by recognizing the legitimate rights and interests of indigenous and local communities, and of countries, as well as the need to promote research and innovation that advances implementation of the CBD and wider international policy goals. The paper.
INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN GMOS: LEGAL FRAMEWORKS AND DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONCERNS
(UNCTAD, November 2004) Written by Simonetta Zarrilli of UNCTAD, this report examines different regulatory approaches to genetically modified organisms (GMOs), recognizing that the proliferation of domestic biosafety schemes is likely to further complicate international trade in agro-biotechnology products and to indirectly affect international trade in conventional agricultural products. The report suggests that agricultural biotechnology is particularly challenging for developing countries. It argues that they could be the main beneficiaries if agricultural biotechnology “keeps its promises,” but warns that they could also become the main losers if it negatively affects biodiversity or if patented biotechnology makes access to seeds more difficult or changes the structure of food production systems. The report.
WHO OWNS THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY? POLITICAL ORGANISING BEHIND TRIPS
(The Corner House, November 2004) In this paper, Peter Drahos and John Braithwaite argue that when the World Trade Organization's agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) was signed in 1994, the US, Europe and Japan dominated the world’s software, pharmaceutical, chemical and entertainment industries. The rest of the world had little to gain by agreeing to these terms of trade for intellectual property. They did so, say the authors, because a failure of democratic processes nationally and internationally enabled a small group of men within the US to capture the US trade-agenda-setting process, to draft intellectual property principles that became the blueprint for TRIPS and to crush resistance through US trade power. The paper.
PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING REGARDING GMOS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: HOW TO EFFECTIVELY INVOLVE RURAL PEOPLE
(FAO, December 2004) This FAO document provides a brief overview of the current status regarding GMOs in crops, forests, fisheries, livestock and agro-industry; discusses the decision-making areas where the public could be involved; provides a brief overview of some relevant international agreements; and discusses some of the specificities regarding information access and participation for people in rural areas in developing countries. It was published as the background document for an upcoming FAO e-mail conference of the same title (see upcoming meetings section). Details or contact email@example.com to request a copy of the report.
PUBLICATIONS LAUNCHED AT THE 3RD IUCN WORLD CONSERVATION CONGRESS
A number of publications and resources were launched during the 3rd IUCN World Conservation Congress, some of which are available online.
2004 IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES
Produced by the IUCN Species Survival Commission the latest version of the Red List indicates that a total of 15,589 species face extinction. The Global Species Assessment, which is based on and was released in conjunction with the Red List, evaluates the status of the world’s biodiversity. The Assessment includes complete evaluations of amphibians, cycads and conifers, as well as regional case studies. It highlights species that are at greatest risk of extinction and the threats facing them. The complete Assessment and Red List
THE WORLD DATABASE ON PROTECTED AREA CD-ROM 2005
Managed by UNEP/WCMC in partnership with the World Commission on Protected Areas and the World Database on Protected Areas Consortium, this database contains information on the status, environment and management of individual protected areas. Details.
MEETING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS – MANAGING NATURE’S WEALTH FOR SOCIETY’S HEALTH
Produced by IIED and edited by Dilys Roe, this book includes chapters on: biodiversity and human health; climate change – biodiversity and livelihood impacts; markets for ecosystem services to benefit the poor; reconciling global and local priorities; sustainable landscapes; mainstreaming biodiversity into business; scaling-up community efforts to reach the MDGs; and linking biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction to achieve the MDGs. The book.
SHARING POWER: LEARNING BY DOING IN CO-MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
A joint publication by IIED and IUCN/CEESP, this book is designed to support professionals and other citizens who are trying to understand collaborative management regimes and develop and enhance them in practice. Details.
HANDBOOK OF MARKET CREATION FOR BIODIVERSITY: ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTATION
Published by the OECD, this handbook shows how public policy in the form of market creation can be used to internalize biodiversity loss. More information.
SECURING PROTECTED AREAS IN THE FACE OF GLOBAL CHANGE: ISSUES AND STRATEGIES
Prepared by the World Commission on Protected Areas and edited by Charles Barber, Kenton Miller and Melissa Boness, this report reviews patterns of global socio-economic, biophysical and institutional change, and addresses challenges for protected areas managers, and tools and opportunities to overcome them. The Executive Summary.