Go to IISD's website

IISD Reporting Services - Linkages
bringing you the latest news, information and analysis from
international environment and sustainable development negotiations

 

 Sustainable Development

 2005 review

 Biodiversity and Wildlife

 Chemicals Management

 Climate and Atmosphere

 Forests, Deserts, Land

 Human Development

 Intergovernmental Orgs

 Trade and Investment

 Water, Wetlands, Coasts

 

LINKAGES UPDATE


 Recent Meetings

  Media Reports

  Comings and Goings

  Upcoming Meetings

  Key publications and
online resources

  Links to other resources
 

  Return to Linkages Site

  IISD.org

 

 

KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES

BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE

This page was updated on: 01/12/10

 

2003

 

Biodiversity and Wildlife Key Publications and Online Resources Archives: 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005; 2004; 2002

 

STATUS AND TRENDS OF BIODIVERSITY OF INLAND WATER ECOSYSTEMS
(CBD Secretariat Technical Series No. 11, December 2003) Written by Carmen Revenga and Yumiko Kura of the World Resources Institute, this technical report covers: the condition of and threats to inland water ecosystems; a review of inland water species richness, distribution and conservation status; inland water ecosystems and habitats identified as high conservation priorities; and data gaps and information needs. It also includes a review of 18 ongoing assessments of water resources and inland water biodiversity, including those by IUCN, BirdLife, WWF, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and others. It is available online at: http://www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/cbd-ts-11.pdf

 

AMERICAN PATENT POLICY, BIOTECHNOLOGY, AND AFRICAN AGRICULTURE: THE CASE FOR POLICY CHANGE
(Resources for the Future, December 2003) Written by Michael R. Taylor and Jerry Cayford, this report examines current patent policy in the US and shows how it may impede the use of agricultural biotechnology advances in developing countries. The authors recommend a set of policy changes to help African farmers access these new technologies, while leaving intact the structure of the patent system and not undercutting the innovation incentives it provides. The report.


THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY: A RECORD OF THE NEGOTIATIONS
(CBD/FIELD, September 2003) Compiled by the Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD) as requested by the CBD Secretariat, this report provides an article by article negotiating history of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, until the final adoption of its final text in January 2000.
The report.

 

DEMOCRATISING BIOTECHNOLOGY: GM CROPS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(Institute for Development Studies, 2003) As part of a project under the title “Democratising Biotechnology – GM crops in developing countries,” 13 briefings were produced on a series of issues, including: corporate dominance and agricultural biotechnology: implications for development; intellectual property rights, biotechnology and development; GMOs and the politics of international trade; harmonization, diversity and uncertainty in international biosafety regulation; regulating biotechnology for the poor?; science, policy and biotechnology regulation; from risks to rights: challenges for biotechnology policy; and power-reversals in biotechnology: experiments in democratisation. The briefings are based on research carried out in China, Kenya, India and Zimbabwe, under research projects that investigated national and international biotechnology policy and regulatory processes. The briefings are available online at: http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/env/biotech/pubsBriefings.html

 

US BILATERAL AGREEMENTS ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
(Études internationales, vol. 34, no 3, December 2003, p. 537-562) Written by Jean-Frédéric Morin, this article in French, titled “Le droit international des brevets: entre le multilatéralisme et le bilatéralisme américain” portrays 39 bilateral agreements on intellectual property rights (IPR), concluded by the US with developing countries. These agreements allow the US to bypass multilateral negotiations currently held at the World Trade Organization. The author argues that the US is shaping a web of bilateral IPR agreements wider than the TRIPS Agreement, as many countries that sign bilateral agreements are not WTO members or take advantage of the TRIPS’ transitional periods. Highlighting also that bilateral agreements often set higher IPR standards especially those related to the patentable subject matters, the author notes that the potential gains that developing countries could obtain during the Doha Round need to be put in the perspective of these bilateral agreements. This publication is available at: http://www.iisd.ca/whats_new/US_bilateral_IPR.pdf

 

BIOPROSPECTING AGREEMENTS AND CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES
(Revue de droit de l’ Université de Sherbrooke, vol. 34, no 1, November 2003, p. 307-343) Authored by Jean-Frédéric Morin, this article in French titled “Les accords de bioprospection facorisent-ils la conservation des ressources génétiques?” looks at certain bioprospecting agreements and argues that their analysis indicates that benefit-sharing arrangements regarding monetary benefits and technology transfer rarely contribute to biodiversity conservation. Noting that those arrangements are used instead to foster local economic development, users’ public relations and the providers’ integration into the biotechnology industry, the writer stresses the need to strengthen the environmental aspects of benefit-sharing arrangements, using the Bonn Guidelines on Access and Benefit-sharing as a first step to that regard. The publication.

 

AFRICAN ELEPHANT STATUS REPORT
(IUCN, 2003) The new African Elephant Status Report (AESR) has recently been published by experts from the IUCN Species Survival Commission’s African Elephant Specialist Group (AfESG). According to the report, between 400,000 and 660,000 elephants are currently thought to roam in African forests and savannas. The AESR estimates Southern Africa to have the largest populations of elephants, with numbers ranging from a definite 246,000 to a speculative 300,000. Eastern Africa follows, with at least 118,000 elephants and speculatively as many as 163,000. Central Africa may harbor between 16,500 and 196,000 elephants, while the smallest and most fragmented populations are found in West Africa, ranging from a definite 5,500 to a speculative 13,200 elephants. Overall, the population figures in the AESR are higher than those reported in 1999, when the previous AESR was published. This is partly due to reported increases in elephant populations in countries such as Botswana, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, which have high concentration of elephants in protected areas. The report’s authors also point out that the estimates cover a much larger area than five years ago, which can explain differences in numbers. Despite the current limitations of data quality and availability, the AESR provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the current status of African elephants throughout their range, and will be valuable for wildlife managers and policy makers to develop long-term strategies for the conservation of elephants and their habitats. The AESR is available at: http://iucn.org/afesg/aed/aesr2002.html

 

IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS ON PESTICIDE USE IN THE UNITED STATES: THE FIRST EIGHT YEARS
(Northwest Science and Environmental Policy Center, November 2003) Authored by Charles Benbrook, this report is the first comprehensive study of the impacts of all major commercial GE crops on pesticide use in the United States over the first eight years of the commercial use of the GE crops (1996-2003). Being the sixth in a series of technical papers prepared for AgBioTech Info Net, the report draws on official data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture on pesticide use by crop and state. Its conclusions include a reduction of insecticide use by 2-2.5 million pounds annually for GM crops engineered to produce the natural insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and an increase in herbicide use on HT crop acres, which far exceeds the reductions in insecticide use. The report is available at: http://www.biotech-info.net/Technical_Paper_6.pdf

 

ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING (ABS): AN INSTRUMENT FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION. PROPOSALS FOR AN INTERNATIONAL ABS REGIME
(German Development Institute, November 2003) Prepared by Gudrun Henne, Klaus Liebig, Andreas Drews and Thomas Plän, this study has been distributed to the Second Meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on ABS of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The authors argue that ABS can contribute to poverty alleviation if the international community develops an ABS regime that supports the goals of the CBD. More information.

 

DIALOGUE ON COHERENCE BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROCESSES AND A PRO-DEVELOPMENT AGENDA ON IPRS
The papers and a report from the “Strategic Dialogue on Coherence between Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Processes on Intellectual Property and a Pro-Development Agenda on IPRs” are available online. The Dialogue was organized by the UNCTAD-ICTSD Project on IPRs and Sustainable Development and took place at the University of Miami on 20 November 2003. The proceedings.

 

CONSERVATION FINANCE GUIDE CD-ROM
The Conservation Finance Alliance has released a CD-ROM version of its Conservation Finance Guide, a replica of their website at http://www.conservationfinance.org. The Conservation Finance Alliance is made up of a number of intergovernmental and governmental agencies and NGOs dedicated to increasing awareness of the range of finance mechanisms available. It includes the Ramsar Convention, UNDP, IUCN, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, the Wildlife Conservation Society, Conservation International, USAID and Germany’s GTZ, among others. Copies of the CD-ROM can be obtained free of charge by contacting Ramsar’s Senior Trade and Development Advisor Alain Lambert at: lambert@ramsar.org

 

2003 IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES
(IUCN, November 2003) IUCN–The World Conservation Union has recently released its updated Red List, regarded as the world’s most reliable inventory of the conservation status of flora and fauna. With over 2,000 entries added and 380 taxa reassessed since the release of the previous year’s list, the Red List currently records over 12,000 species threatened with extinction. 762 plants and animal species are already logged as “extinct.” The list finds that invasive species are an overriding threat to global biodiversity, threatening to undermine populations of native plants and animals on islands and continents. All known conifer species have been reassessed, and the 2003 list sees new entries of over 1,000 Ecuadorian plants, 125 Hawaiian plants, over 300 cycads and 35 Galapagos Island snails. IUCN will undertake a major analysis of the Red List in 2004, the results of which will be presented to the 3rd IUCN World Conservation Congress in
Bangkok in November 2004. The 2003 Red List is available as a searchable database at: http://www.redlist.org/

 

ACCESS TO GLOBAL ONLINE RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE (AGORA)

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) launched a new website on 14 October 2003 to provide students, researchers and academics in developing countries free or low-cost access to scientific literature. The Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) project will allow participants to access more than 400 journals in food, nutrition, agriculture and related biological, environmental and social sciences. The AGORA website is located at: http://www.aginternetwork.org/en/

 

INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES TOOLKIT

An online toolkit of best prevention and management practice of invasive alien species was developed using comments and experiences of participants in various workshops. Although the authors state that the toolkit will need to be locally adapted for different countries or regions, it is intended to have global applicability. The toolkit.

 

SYMPOSIUM ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

The papers from the Symposium on Intellectual Property Rights in Plant Biotechnology held on 24 October 2003 in Geneva, and organised by the World Intellectual Property Organisation and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, Geneva, are available online: http://www.upov.int/en/documents/Symposium2003/index1.htm

 

DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS CONCERNING GENETIC RESOURCES AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
(WIPO, 2003) This paper is prepared by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) Secretariat at the request of the CBD for COP-7.

 

ONE GLOBAL PATENT SYSTEM? WIPO’S SUBSTANTIVE PATENT LAW TREATY
(GRAIN, October 2003) GRAIN’s new briefing addresses WIPO’s attempts to promote a substantive patent law treaty. Authors argue that such a treaty would remove most of the remaining national flexibility in patent systems and pave the way for a future world patent granted directly by WIPO. Such developments would appeal to transnational corporations and developed countries, but would result in developing countries losing even the limited freedom left by TRIPS to adjust patent systems to national development goals. This issue is available at: http://www.grain.org/publications/wipo-splt-2003-en.cfm

 

ESA WORKING PAPERS
(FAO, 2003) FAO’s Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Economic and Social Department (ESA) has prepared a variety of papers related to agriculture, food security and poverty alleviation. Topics include: diversification in South Asian agriculture; land use change, carbon sequestration and poverty alleviation; armed conflicts and food security; agricultural export performance in Africa; biotechnology R&D: policy options to ensure access and benefits for the poor; the economics of agricultural biotechnology research; and an overview of smallholder contract farming in developing countries. The papers are available at: http://www.fao.org/es/ESA/pub_esa_2003_en.htm

 

COMMUNITY CONSERVED AREAS AND CO-MANAGED PROTECTED AREAS
(IUCN’s Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy, 2003) The report of the IUCN Theme on indigenous and local communities, equity and protected areas for the Ecosystem, Protected Areas and People project, authored by Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, is available online at: http://www.iucn.org/themes/ceesp/Wkg_grp/TILCEPA/community.htm#synthesis
 

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND BIODIVERSITY: PROCESS AND SYNERGIES
(ICTSD and IUCN, September 2003) Prepared by Manuel Ruiz, David Vivas-Eugui and Maria Fernanada Espinosa for the workshop on TRIPS and the CBD that took place during the 18th Session of the Global Diversity Forum, this paper aims to overview the key processes where discussions on protecting traditional knowledge and on intellectual property rights are held and to assess the most critical matters concerning these issues. The paper is available at:
http://www.gbf.ch/Session_Administration/upload/Background%20paper%20Final.doc

 

AGROBIODIVERSITY STRATEGIES TO COMBAT FOOD INSECURITY AND HIV/AIDS IMPACT IN RURAL AFRICA
(FAO, 2003) Authored by J.A. Gari, this paper demonstrates, on the basis of participatory field research conducted in different rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, that agrobiodiversity and the associated indigenous knowledge are relevant forces to combat food insecurity and the HIV/AIDS crisis. The paper argues that development of these agrobiodiversity components would expand the options and means available at the rural level to improve nutrition, cope with labor constrains and enhance sustainable agriculture. The paper is available at:
http://www.developmentgateway.org/download/204068/agbdv_prelim.pdf
 

MEGADIVERSE WEBSITE
The Group of Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries, consisting of Bolivia, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Malaysia, Peru, Philippines, South Africa and Venezuela, have a new website that updates visitors on the Group’s activities. This resource is available in both Spanish and English, and is located at: http://www.megadiverse.org

 

SCIDEV.NET BIODIVERSITY QUICK GUIDE
SciDev.Net has launched a “Quick Guide” on biodiversity where visitors can find information on the biodiversity challenges facing developing countries. This resource considers the issues surrounding the need to protect global biodiversity and promote social and economic growth in developing countries. The guide includes: news stories from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East; descriptions of key reports and new research findings; links to relevant organizations; and an events section listing major conferences and workshops. The quick guide is located at: http://www.scidev.net/dossiers/biodiversity

 

BIOSPHERE RESERVES: SPECIAL PLACES FOR PEOPLE AND NATURE
(UNESCO, 2002) Launched in the 1970s as part of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme, the biosphere reserve concept is both a concept and a practical tool that seeks to balance conservation of biodiversity and biological products with their sustainable use. This book reviews the concept and its implementation, describing its evolution and highlighting its application in conserving biological and cultural diversity and in sustainable development. Filled with images and illustrations, the book brings together case studies from around the world to describe the achievements, challenges and impacts of biosphere reserves. More information is available at: http://www.unesco.org/mab/publications/BRbook/BRbook.htm

 

US VS. EU: AN EXAMINATION OF THE TRADE ISSUES SURROUNDING GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
(Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, August 2003) Issued by the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, this paper, originally published in June 2002, was updated in August 2003 to reflect recent activities relating to the trade dispute between the US and the EU on genetically modified food. It summarizes the history of the GM food issue in Europe, the recently adopted legislation, impacts on US-EU agricultural trade and other background issues dividing the US and the EU on the topic. The paper can be accessed online at: http://pewagbiotech.org/resources/issuebriefs/europe.pdf

 

PAPERS FROM DIALOGUE ON INTERNATIONAL PROCESSES ON GENETIC RESOURCES AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
An open dialogue on “International Processes on Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Which Way Forward?” was organized by ICTSD, IUCN and SPDA in Geneva, on 12 July 2003. Two papers from this event can be found online at: http://www.ictsd.org/dlogue/2003-07-11/11-07-03-docu.htm   

 

SEEDLING
(GRAIN, July 2003) The July 2003 issue of GRAIN’s publication, Seedling, focuses on the 50th anniversary of discovery of the structure of DNA. The editorial and articles stress how the Watson and Crick ideas are now the guiding principles for most agricultural research and development. It includes an editorial titled “Blinded by the gene,” and articles on: unravelling the DNA myth, the Bt gene failure in India, public research, and the promise of participation. It also includes an interview with Johnson Ekpere on agricultural research in Africa. The publication can be accessed online at: http://www.grain.org/seedling/seed-03-07-1-en.cfm
 

GM SCIENCE REVIEW: FIRST REPORT
(GM Science Review Panel, July 2003) Requested by Margaret Beckett, the UK’s Secretary of State for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, and prepared by a panel of experts, this report contains the results of an independent review of current scientific knowledge on GM crops and foods. The report emphasizes that modern biotechnology is not a single homogeneous technology and that its applications need to be considered on a case-by-case basis. It also underscores the importance of regulation keeping pace with scientific developments. It identifies areas where more scientific research is needed, including allergenicity, soil ecology, farmland biodiversity and consequences of gene flow. A follow up report, to be published in the autumn, will consider further scientific developments, and comments from the public together with the results of the UK’s GM public debate. The deadline for comments on this first report is 15 October 2003. The report can be downloaded at: http://www.gmsciencedebate.org.uk/report/default.htm

 

IUCN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW PROGRAMME 2003 NEWSLETTER
(IUCN, 2003) The 2003 edition of IUCN’s ELP Newsletter focuses on implementation. It contains articles on the major themes embodied in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, reports on the meetings held during the “Law Week,” which preceded the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and information and updates on selected specialist groups of the IUCN Commission on Environmental Law. The newsletter can be downloaded at: http://www.iucn.org/themes/law/pdfdocuments/Newsletter1_2003_en.pdf

 

FOOD SAFETY, FOOD SECURITY AND TRADE: HOW TO END THE CONFLICTS
(IFPRI, June 2003) The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Johns Hopkins University SAIS Center for Transatlantic Relations held a high-level consultation on food safety, food security and trade on 21 June 2003. The outcomes of the consultation are available at: http://www.ifpri.org/events/seminars/2003/20030621_consultation.htm

 

CITES INVITES PARTIES TO SUBMIT INFORMATION FOR JUDICIARY REFERENCE KIT
The CITES Secretariat is currently compiling a reference kit that will provide members of the judiciary, prosecutors and legal advisors with an introduction to CITES and examples of its administrative, civil and criminal enforcement throughout the world. The reference kit will contain outlines of a number of cases that will serve as examples of how certain legal issues related to the enforcement of CITES have been addressed. The Secretariat would be grateful to receive information on any court cases of particular interest, and copies of the full texts of the judgments or information on where they may be found. CITES Parties and interested organizations are invited to send this information by 15 August 2003 to the following address: yoriko.otomo@unep.ch

 

BIOFILMS IN MEDICINE, INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS, ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
(IWA Publishing, May 2003) Edited by P. Lens, V. O’Flaherty, A.P. Moran, P. Stoodley, and T. Mahony, this book introduces readers to biofilms, which are important for beneficial technologies such as water and wastewater treatment and bioremediation of groundwater and soil, but which can also bring about  problems such as bacterial infections, accelerated corrosion in industrial systems, oil souring and biofouling. The book presents the structure and function of biofilms as determined by recent research, and highlights their applications in medicine, industry and environmental biotechnology. More information is available online at: http://www.iwapublishing.com/template.cfm?name=isbn1843390191

 

CMS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The CMS Information Management System brings together the information provided by the Parties to CMS through their national reports, the knowledge generated within CMS and other biodiversity-related agreements, and the data from various expert organizations. It includes information on: animals listed in the CMS appendices; animal groups of special interest to the CMS; information about Parties to the CMS; and information provided by Parties on specific themes. This resource is available at: http://www.wcmc.org.uk/cms/nw150603_CMS_IMS_launched.htm

 

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: NE