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Volume 208 Number 10 - Thursday, 11 April 2013
SUMMARY OF THE HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON ENERGY AND THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA
9 APRIL 2013

The High Level Meeting on Energy and the Post-2015 Development Agenda was held on 9 April 2013 in Oslo, Norway, and brought together ministers, representatives of international organizations, the public and private sectors, financial institutions, civil society and academia to examine potential global energy objectives for the post-2015 development agenda. Hosted by the Government of Norway and co-hosted by the Governments of Mexico and Tanzania, the meeting was attended by over 175 people.

The meeting was part of the Global Thematic Consultation on Energy, one of eleven thematic consultations to inform the design of the post-2015 development agenda. The energy consultation is coordinated by UN Energy and the UN Secretary-General’s Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. The process is co-led by the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) and World Bank, with support from the UN Development Programme (UNDP).  

Participants took stock of the online and regional consultations on energy, and finalized a common vision to be set forth as a set of recommendations to the UN Secretary-General’s High Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (HLP). They engaged in discussions on how energy challenges can be addressed via the post-2015 development agenda, including by ensuring: the roles of women are meaningfully addressed; youth and education play central roles; joint energy-related goals are developed in collaboration with other post-2015 consultations to ensure their multi-sectoral support; and the private sector is included as a key actor in delivery of goals.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GLOBAL CONSULTATIONS IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA

At the High-level Plenary Meeting of the 65th Session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), held in New York in September 2010, governments called for acceleration of progress towards achieving the MDGs, and for consideration of ways to advance the UN development agenda beyond 2015. In response, the UN undertook several initiatives aimed at developing this agenda, including: setting up a UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda (UNTT); launching a High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (HLP); appointing a Special Advisor on Post-2015 Development Planning; and launching national and global thematic consultations.

In addition to the above, other processes that will feed into the Post-2015 discussions include: the work of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (OWG), a 30-member group mandated by the outcome document of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD or Rio+20) to prepare a proposal on sustainable development goals (SDGs) for consideration by the UNGA at its 68th session; regional consultations by the Regional Economic Commissions, which will result in a report on regional perspectives on the post-2015 development agenda; inputs from the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, set up by the UN Secretary-General in August 2012 to support global problem solving in ten critical areas of sustainable development; and input from businesses and the private sector through the UN Global Compact.

In order to ensure coherence across these different work streams, an informal senior coordination group of four Assistant Secretary-Generals (ASGs) was established, which includes the ASG for Economic Development at DESA, ASG for Development Policy at UNDP, ASG for Policy and Programme at UN Women, and the Special Advisor on Post-2015 Development Planning. A “One Secretariat” has also been established to facilitate coordination and coherence across the work streams.

UN System Task Team: UNTT, which includes over 60 UN entities and agencies and other international organizations, was set up to assess ongoing efforts within the UN system, consult all relevant stakeholders and define a system-wide vision and roadmap to support deliberations on the post-2015 development agenda. UNTT presented its report “Realizing the Future We Want for All” in June 2012, which called for an integrated policy approach to ensure inclusive economic development, social progress and environmental sustainability, and for a development agenda that responds to the public’s aspiration for a world free of want and fear. The report, which recommended that the post-2015 vision be built on the principles of human rights, equality and sustainability, will serve as a reference for additional, broad and inclusive consultations on the post-2015 development agenda.

UNTT, which is co-chaired by DESA and UNDP, will provide technical support to the OWG. It also aims to support the multi-stakeholder consultations being led by Member States on the post-2015 agenda by providing analytical inputs, expertise and outreach.

High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda: The UN Secretary-General launched the HLP in June 2012, and appointed President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia and Prime Minister David Cameron of the UK as co-chairs. The HLP includes leaders from civil society, the private sector and governments. The Panel, which reports to the UN Secretary-General and is not an intergovernmental process, is expected to publish its report in May 2013, outlining its vision and recommendations on a post-2015 global development agenda. This report will feed into the Secretary-General’s report to Member States at the UN’s Special Event to Follow-up on Efforts Made Towards Achieving the MDGs in September 2013.

Special Advisor on Post-2015 Development Planning: In June 2012, Amina J. Mohammed of Nigeria was appointed as ASG and Special Advisor on Post-2015 Development Planning to coordinate, on behalf of the Secretary-General, the process of developing and building consensus among Member States, UN actors and key external actors. Mohammed also serves as ex-officio member on the HLP, represents the Secretary-General in the Post-2015 debate and advises him on related matters.

National and Global Thematic Consultations: The UN Development Group (UNDG) initiated national and global thematic consultations on the post-2015 development agenda aimed at bringing together a broad range of stakeholders to review progress on the MDGs and to discuss options for a new framework. The national consultations are taking place online and offline in more than 70 developing and developed countries, with national stakeholders exchanging information and providing their inputs for a shared global vision of “The Future We Want.”

At the global level, the UNDG initiated 11 multi-stakeholder thematic consultations on: hunger, nutrition and food security; energy;  inequalities; governancehealth; population dynamicsconflict, violence and disasters; educationenvironmental sustainability; and water, including on water resources management, wastewater management, and water quality.

Each thematic consultation is co-convened by two or more UN agencies with support from governments, working together with representatives from civil society, the private sector and academia. The consultations, which seek online contributions at The World We Want 2015 website, aim to explore the role each theme could play in a new framework, the various ways in which they can best be addressed, and the linkages among them. A high-level meeting is being held for each thematic area, to consider the results and recommendations of the consultations.

In addition, UNDP, the UN Millennium Campaign, the Overseas Development Institute and the World Wide Web Foundation developed and are facilitating an options survey called “MY World” that allows citizens to vote online and offline for issues that they believe would make the most difference to their lives. This survey aims to gather public opinions on development priorities.

Global Consultation on Energy and the Post-2015 Development Agenda: The thematic consultation on energy, which aims to collect stakeholder views on lessons learned from the MDGs and the post-2015 development agenda, consists of three phases: a global online discussion; regional African, Asian and Latin American consultations; and the high-level meeting held in Oslo, Norway on 9 April 2013 that is summarized in this report.

More than 3,700 registered users visited The World We Want 2015 web platform during the ten-week online consultation from January to March 2013, commenting on the following issues: why does energy matter, what are the challenges/opportunities, and what can we do about it; the “energy nexus” and solutions to the energy challenge; and how can we effectively integrate energy issues into the post-2015 development framework.

The online discussion resulted in widespread agreement on, inter alia: the critical need for universal energy access and sustainable energy for all; the importance of coherent and consistent legal frameworks and policies that build institutional capacity and attract investment; engaging the public and private sectors and multilateral development banks in financing greater energy access; the need for countries to choose pathways most suited to their needs; and the strong inter-linkages among all thematic consultations. There was lack of agreement on market-driven solutions to energy access, primarily due to differences of opinion on the motivations of businesses.

The regional consultations took place in: New Delhi, India on 1 February 2013; Phnom Penh, Cambodia from 16-18 March 2013; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on 19 March 2013; and Mérida, Mexico on 20-21 March 2013. Participants in these consultations highlighted, inter alia: the need for a “simple and aspirational” goal on energy; the role of energy access in economic growth, social equity and preservation of the environment; the need to redirect energy subsidies to those who need them the most; the role of communities in decision-making related to energy, and the need for international support to build on national ownership and complement local efforts; the need for indicators, particularly gender indicators, and monitoring; and integration with other sectors such as education and health. 

REPORT OF THE HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON ENERGY AND THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA

The meeting was opened by Crown Prince Haakon of Norway, who welcomed participants and noted that 1.3 billion people are without electricity, and over 2.6 billion are without clean, safe energy for cooking. He said that in his role as Goodwill Ambassador for UNDP, he often witnessed the immense importance of energy in achieving the MDGs. Haakon closed by stressing it is vital youth voices are heard in this consultation.

Ahmad Alhendawi, UN Secretary-General’s Envoy on Youth, highlighted the importance of youth engagement and stressed the agenda should be a contract with responsibilities for everyone. Noting links between climate change and development, Alhendawi emphasized the need for an energy revolution unlike anything the world has ever seen, with a focus on renewables, energy efficiency and universal access to energy as set out in the SE4ALL initiative.

Heikki Eidsvoll Holmås, Minister of International Development, Norway, recalled the story of a Guatemalan carpenter whose work was revolutionized upon gaining access to electricity. He cautioned however, that enabling access must be accomplished sustainably, as the average Norwegian currently emits 105 times the carbon dioxide of an average citizen of Niger, where serious negative impacts from climate change are already being felt. He concluded by noting that decoupling growth from emission is a necessity.

OPENING REMARKS BY COUNTRY FACILITATORS AND MINISTERS

Pedro Joaquin Coldwell, Minister of Energy, Mexico, described the importance of energy for development and how it has shaped human history. Noting that energy is the driver of economic prosperity, he stressed the need for improved access, the importance of energy in facilitating the achievement of health, education, poverty and other development goals, and the need for clean energies that respect nature.

Describing his country’s interest in the energy consultation, Sospeter Muhongo, Minister of Energy and Minerals, Tanzania, noted the importance of energy for health, transportation and education, and for socioeconomic development more broadly.

Heidi Hautala, Minister of International Development, Finland, said reducing inequalities is critical and noted links between inequalities and access to energy. She added that energy security is integral for development, lamenting that no fragile states have achieved any MDGs.

Christian Friis Bach, Minister for Development Cooperation, Denmark, underscored the importance of gender considerations when working towards energy for all and recounted the experience of a village in Nepal now successfully using multiple sources of renewable energy to create jobs and improve livelihoods.

B.K. Chaturvedi, Planning Commission, India, said for his country, eradication of poverty is paramount, and stressed the need to improve access nationally and locally to clean and efficient energy technologies.

Kandeh Yumkella, Director-General, UNIDO, listed the three SE4ALL initiative targets for 2030: ensuring universal access to modern energy services; doubling the rate of improvement in energy efficiency; and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. He noted the need for two more targets: reducing by half the number of premature deaths due to indoor and outdoor air pollution; and providing modern energy services to 400,000 primary healthcare service providers in developing countries. He closed by sharing that he will be transitioning away from UNIDO this summer to become the UN Secretary General’s Special Representative, and Chief Executive Officer, of SE4ALL.

HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE REGIONAL WEB AND FACE-TO-FACE CONSULTATIONS

Alejandro Amerena Carswell, Ministry of Energy, Mexico, summarizing the consultation in Mérida, Mexico, described recommendations on social sensitivities, regional and cultural factors and local needs. Jacob Mogendi, Youth of United Nations Association of Tanzania (YUNA), on the consultation in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, described calls for engagement of youth and the need to better organize the biomass sector to improve efficiency and reduce deforestation. Rajendra Pachauri, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), emphasized the need for youth engagement and recommended the addition of an objective as part of any energy goal to increase the availability and use of cooling technologies for, inter alia, medical and food storage purposes in developing countries. Leena Srivastava, TERI, described calls for improved access to energy and decentralized provisioning of energy in the New Delhi consultation. She noted the importance of increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy both as goals and as means for improving energy access.

Richenda van Leeuwen, UN Foundation, noted calls for investment in the energy sector, increasing energy availability to the poor and ensuring energy is affordable and sustainable over the long term. She said energy saves lives and there is a need for local and community-based energy policy development.

DIALOGUE PART I – ENERGY AND THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA

Olav Kjørven, ASG, UNDP, listed lessons learned from the MDGs: accelerating progress on MDGs is dependent on energy; there is a critical nexus between poverty, energy and climate change; and many solutions are already available for alleviating energy poverty.

Maria Neira, Director, Public Health and Environment, World Health Organization, lamented that while climate change discussions focus heavily on health issues, actions on the ground do not. She said illnesses from indoor air pollution are expensive to treat, and result in more deaths of women and children annually than HIV AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and malnutrition combined.

Sheila Oparaocha, ENERGIA International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy, said the successes of SE4ALL partners should be quickly built upon, with a focus on women’s empowerment and education. She underscored that while women may often be victims of energy poverty, they also represent the solution.

On education, Chaturvedi said modern, online education is inaccessible without modern energy services. Mogendi stressed the need for education on energy use to ensure efficient use of energy resources. Isabel Studer, Global Institute for Sustainability, called for a focus on enabling environments for youth education in the post-2015 world. Meru Prasetyo, National Project Director for REDD+, Indonesia, said youth, health and energy cannot be separated from other post-2015 development agenda consultations. Pachauri noted that perverse subsidies work against clean energy needed to improve health, education and livelihoods.

Narasimha Rao, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), said discussions must not focus only on personal energy use but also on communal and national energy access, and that targets should be aimed at multiple levels.

On energy and job creation, Samantha Smith, WWF International, noted that while India is a thriving example of a country moving forward on energy transition with huge potential for job creation, international trade concerns over policies promoting renewable energy may hinder policy progress on deployment. Vivien Foster, World Bank, said when interviewing companies on barriers to investment in developing countries, industrial energy access and high energy costs are routinely indicated. Gyan Chandra Acharya, UN Under-Secretary-General and High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and the Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), said for the poorest of the poor, access to modern energy services can revolutionize productivity and livelihoods.

Noting the issue of climate justice, Holmås said development requires greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and developing countries should be allowed to emit more; but growth should be as low carbon as possible.

Pachauri stressed the impacts of climate change and the need for adequate energy availability for adaptation. He added that access to energy can be achieved sustainably and that it would only cost US$5 billion to provide a solar lantern to every person currently without access to clean lighting.

Silje Lundberg, Young Friends of the Earth Norway, stressed the need for political will and the importance of a focus on the use of clean renewable energy. Rao emphasized that the GHG impacts of providing universal access to energy would be minimal.

Evgeniy Nadezdhin, Russian Energy Agency, expressed reservations concerning Yumkella’s proposal to extend the SE4ALL objectives, noting that other objectives such as energy security must also be considered if the objectives are to be reopened.

Michael Gerber, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, described the nexus between water and energy, projecting that by 2030 water demand for energy production will double. He stressed that water and energy are two sides of the same coin. Franz-Birger Marré, Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, stressed the importance of avoiding a silo-based approach and emphasized the need for a holistic approach on the water, energy and food sectors.

Omar Bashir Wani, Aligrah Muslim University, India, supported improving education on nuclear energy and called on governments to transfer words into action.

Cilia Indahl, Norwegian Youth Delegate to Rio+20, stressed the need to take synergies and interdependencies of goals into account, and the need for a strong international commitment to take action.

DIALOGUE PART II – HOW ENERGY CHALLENGES CAN BE ADDRESSED

Bach stressed the importance of energy pricing in sending the right signals to markets for developing the technology needed to meet energy targets. He noted the need for feed-in tariffs and higher subsidies for renewables. Chaturvedi stressed the need for removal of adverse subsidies and the need to bring down renewable energy prices.

Muhongo discussed the relationship between energy and economic growth, explaining that plans to quickly double the energy supply in Tanzania are aspirational but realistic. Romanus Ishengoma, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, said energy in Tanzania is 90% biomass-based, causing 342 hectares of deforestation every day. He called for separate energy goals for different energy use-types to ensure their relevance for all national contexts.

Srivastava said stakeholders have high expectations of what the energy goal will deliver, and participants must outline solutions and commit to delivering on them. Van Leeuwen noted that rather start an energy revolution, the one already underway must be accelerated by looking at where local markets and small and medium sized enterprises can be developed further.

Marré recounted experiences with off-grid communities who are aware of clean, efficient cooking technologies but are skeptical about changing cooking habits. He said education is the only way to make new technologies viable for those who need it most. Gerardo Ruiz de Teresa, Ilumexico, Mexico, cited a further example of people using traditional cookstoves over newer technologies because they needed both heat and cooking services, which the new cookstove could not provide.

Mwangi Waituru, Beyond 2015, stated the need to move from a supply-side perspective to a  demand-side perspective of energy needs. Hautala  agreed, noting that the question is not how much energy is on offer, but to what extent consumers can satisfy their energy needs with it.

Rao explained that energy must not only be affordable, but also reliably supplied, as both factors heavily impact productivity and income.

Jan Hartke, Clinton Climate Initiative, US, said one renewable resource not discussed thus far is leadership. He stressed that interlinkages with other consultation streams need to be explicitly mentioned. Vandana Gombar, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, said in many contexts renewables are now cost competitive with newly constructed coal and gas generation. She said because most conventional energy sources are still subsidized, renewable energy targets and incentive programs help significantly in fostering deployment. Smith said a tripling of deployed renewables is possible by 2030, based on current price trends.

Hege Marie Norheim, Statoil, Norway, said energy goals are only achievable with massive private sector investment not only because of the amounts of money in question, but because they involve operating and maintaining the energy sector over decades. She said this support has yet come forward because investors require inter alia: no corruption; rule of law; appropriate legislation and transparent frameworks; and reasonable fiscal terms allowing for profits to be made.

Øistein Andersen, Statkraft, Norway, said significant hydropower opportunities still exist in emerging markets but are not receiving enough attention, noting that longer-term payback periods for hydropower represent risks for private investors. He also said feed-in-tariffs will not address the energy needs of the poorest of the poor, who need specific and targeted policies and programmes of their own.

Lisa Jacobson, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, said the SE4ALL energy objectives are attainable and important operationally as they focus stakeholders on real targets, leverage public funds and bring resources to the table. Audun Garberg, Ministry of Environment, Norway, emphasized the role of governments in creating enabling frameworks, with comprehensive energy and climate change plans to guide investment, political courage that looks beyond the next elections, and wiser use of subsidies. Holmås stressed the need for strong leadership on energy issues, reduction of fossil fuel subsidies, and full cost pricing of energy and the engagement of stakeholders.

On the practicality of the SE4ALL objective to double the rate of energy efficiency, Studer stressed the need to create enabling conditions. She emphasized the need for training, the use of energy auditors, and the transfer of technologies and know-how to developing countries.

Arild Underdal, Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO), Norway, noted the danger of improved energy efficiency leading to increased use of energy-consuming technologies and resulting in little, if any, reductions in energy consumption. Daniel Pillai, Tata Steel Europe, added that significant energy is consumed in the heating and cooling of buildings and that much can be done to make buildings more efficient. Jacobson said building codes and standards are important for promoting greater energy efficiency and partnerships between utilities, municipalities and others are critical. Svend Søyland, Bellona Foundation, Norway, called for means to share the costs and benefits of retrofits between landlords and tenants. He stressed the need for energy efficiency requirements in building codes and said governments must lead by example. Lundberg noted that energy efficiency in buildings is an important issue in both developed and developing countries. Waituru said energy efficiency policies must be crafted so that they do not create poverty or result in the imposition of trade sanctions.

Noting growth in the use of renewable energy, Khalid Al-Nafisee, Ambassador of Saudi Arabia to Norway, stressed the importance of research and development in renewable energy, and highlighted the need for government investment.

MEETING SUMMARY BY NISHA PILLAI

Meeting moderator Nisha Pillai summarized messages coming out of the meeting, including the ‘catalytic intertwining of energy and development’ linking energy to health, education, poverty and other goals, the need to avoid compartmentalization of issues, and the means to deliver sustainable energy.

AN ENERGY GOAL ON THE NEW DEVELOPMENT AGENDA

Noting that simplicity is the key for people to relate to goals, Yumkella proposed that there be only one energy goal in the post-2015 development agenda on sustainable energy for all, with sub-targets on access, renewable energy and energy efficiency. He also called for energy targets to be made in collaboration with other post-2015 thematic areas to improve the prospects of their implementation.

During the ensuing discussion, Waituru urged public participation in formulating the goals. Muhongo stressed the need for the use of specific targets to support planning and implementation. Acharya stressed the value of sustainable energy in empowering women and enhancing economic growth in rural areas. Chaturvedi said energy goals and targets must be set in accordance with national capabilities and resources.

Kjørven said the goals must not be only for developing countries, and flexibility is needed to ensure countries can create context-appropriate measures. Noting the importance of good governance, he stressed the need for addressing challenges of “short-termism” in political processes, hurdles caused by vested interests, and difficulties experienced by governments in working across ministries and sectors.

Foster noted the need for measurement of progress and the importance of fine-tuning targets to suit national circumstances. Bach used Denmark’s renewables targets as an example of high aspirations being achievable as long as they are attached to stable, long-term frameworks. Prasetyo said any energy goal must take into account transport needs, which are important for all aspects of health and wellbeing.

Lundberg said stakeholders need measurable goals in order to hold governments accountable. Foster added that what “doesn’t get measured doesn’t get done” and described the Global Tracking Framework for SE4ALL, to be launched at the Vienna Energy Forum on 28 May 2013.

CLOSING REMARKS

In her closing remarks, Patricia Espinosa, Member of the HLP, noted that energy is at the centre of all areas of development, and said the HLP is taking energy issues seriously. She highlighted the need for a people-centered approach to ensure better living conditions, and to avoid silos by maintaining linkages among goals and targets. Stating that unsustainable patterns of development are no longer an option, she stressed the need for a focus on implementation and nationally appropriate measures. Espinosa also highlighted the need for an open process with participation of business and civil society, to generate impetus for adequate coordination at the national and international levels. She stressed the importance of taking multilateral approaches to global development issues.

Holmås said this meeting was “the end of the beginning” of energy in the post-2015 development agenda. He suggested using a single energy goal in the post-2015 development agenda as the core message of a draft report to be submitted to the HLP. Holmås explained that the draft report he presented would be updated using using inputs from the meeting. He said the report calls for the establishment of a “global friends for SE4ALL” network, and said any goal would fail without meaningful private sector involvement. He thanked the participants and organizers, and closed the meeting at 4:25 pm.

After the close of the meeting, a four-year bilateral agreement between Norway and Tanzania was signed to support the Rural Energy Fund of Tanzania’s Rural Energy Agency, with additional funds provided by the EU, Sweden and the World Bank.

Upcoming Meetings

B4E Global Summit 2013: Under the theme “Emerging Market Leadership for Global Green Growth,” the 7th annual Business for the Environment (B4E) Global Summit will examine the role of emerging markets in driving the world’s transition to a global green economy. The Summit will bring together world leaders, senior executives and industry experts to share ideas on green business models, innovation in finance and technology, and to make industry commitments to action. dates: 15-16 April 2013 venue: The Ashok Hotel, Chanakayapuri location: Delhi, India contact: Roshilah Atan e-mail: roshilah.atan@globalinitiatives.com www: http://www.b4esummit.com/

Water Storage and Hydropower Development for Africa: This conference will address hydropower in Africa including: civil engineering; electromechanical equipment and engineering; water resources management; environmental and social aspects; and finance and economics. Crosscutting issues include adapting to climate change, transboundary water and integrated water resources management. The conference will be held under the patronage of the Ethiopian Ministry of Water and Energy, and supporting organizations include the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). dates: 16-18 April 2013 venue: African Union Headquarters location: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia contact: Margaret Bourke e-mail: africa2013@hydropower-dams.com www: http://www.hydropower-dams.com/africa-2013.php?c_id=89

Fourth Clean Energy Ministerial: The fourth Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM4) will bring together ministers from more than 20 participating countries under the theme of “Technology and Business Innovation”. Topics that will be discussed include: progress by the 13 clean energy initiatives of CEM; enhancing cooperation between CEM governments; and the development of public-private partnerships to support clean energy development. CEM4 will also hold an Innovation Showcase Pavilion that will be open to the public to highlight 40 groundbreaking clean technologies from 16-18 April. dates: 17-18 April 2013 location: New Delhi, India contact: CEM Secretariat www: http://www.cleanenergyministerial.org/events/cem4/index.html

Clean Energy Financing Forum for Central America and the Caribbean: The Clean Energy Financing Forum for Central America and the Caribbean (CEFF-CAC) is being sponsored by the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI), the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT). CCEF-CAC will seek to bring together screened clean technology proposals from the region that offer environmental and social benefits with potential investors. date: 26 April 2013 location: San Pedro Sula, Honduras contact: Fernando Alvarado e-mail: fernando.alvarado@flexenergygroup.com www: http://cti-pfan.net/events_detail.php?eventsid=43

The Asian and Pacific Energy Forum (APEF 2013): The UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is convening the Asian and Pacific Energy Forum (APEF 2013) to promote regional cooperation for enhanced energy security and the sustainable use of energy. It is expected that a Ministerial Declaration and Regional Plan of Action will be agreed, addressing access, efficiency and renewables and trade. dates: 27-30 May 2013 location: Vladivostok (Primor’Ye), Russian Federation contact: APEF 2013 e-mail: apef@un.org www: http://www.unescap.org/apef

Vienna Energy Forum 2013: The third Vienna Energy Forum (VEF 2013) will focus on the energy dimension of the Rio+20 outcome document. The Forum is aimed at enhancing understanding of how sustainable energy fits into the broader post-2015 development framework. The event, organized by UNIDO, the Austrian Federal Ministry for European and IIASA, will bring together heads of State, ministers, energy experts, representatives of international and non-governmental organizations, academia, civil society and the private sector. dates: 28-30 May 2013 venue: Hofburg Imperial Palace location: Vienna, Austria contact: UNIDO e-mail: vef2013@unido.org www: http://www.unido.org/media-centre/upcoming-events/vienna-energy-forum-2013.html

GLOSSARY
ASG
CICERO
DESA
GHG
HLP
IIASA
MDGs
OWG
SDGs
SE4ALL
TERI
UNCSD
UNDG
UNDP
UNGA
UNIDO
UNTT
YUNA
Assistant Secretary-General
Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Greenhouse gas
High Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
Millennium Development Goals
Open Working Group on SDGs
Sustainable Development Goals
UN Secretary-General’s Sustainable Energy for All
The Energy and Resources Institute
UN Conference on Sustainable Development
UN Development Group
UN Development Programme
UN General Assembly
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UN System Task Team
Youth of United Nations Association of Tanzania
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The Post-2015 Development Agenda Bulletin is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) <info@iisd.ca>, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin © <enb@iisd.org>. This issue was written and edited by Aaron Leopold and Hugh Wilkins. The Digital Editor is Mike Muzurakis. The Editor is Anju Sharma <anju@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in the Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD. Excerpts from the Bulletin may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of the Bulletin are sent to e-mail distribution lists (in HTML and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at <http://www.iisd.ca/>. For information on the Bulletin, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>, +1-646-536-7556 or 300 East 56th St., 11D, New York, New York 10022, USA.
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