LINKAGES UPDATE - an e-update of new additions to IISD’s Linkages website - 22 September 2004

UPCOMING MEETINGS COVERED BY THE EARTH NEGOTIATIONS BULLETIN


Rotterdam Convention (PIC) INC-11 and COP-1: 18 September and 20-24 September, Geneva
International Ecoagriculture Conference and Practitioner's Fair: 27 September - 1 October, Nairobi
UNFCCC Workshop on innovative options for financing the development and transfer of technologies:
  27-29 September, Montreal
SAICM PrepCom2: 4-8 October, Nairobi
CITES COP-13: 2-14 October, Bangkok
 

RECENT MEETINGS COVERED BY THE ENB


Left to Right: Co-Chair Tim Rollinson; Co-Chair Andrea Alban Durán; and Peter Csoka, UNFF Secretariat

FOREST EXPERTS DISCUSS NEW INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENT ON FORESTS
7-10 September 2004 | UNHQ, New York
The United Nations Forum on Forests Ad Hoc Expert Group on Consideration with a View to Recommending the Parameters of a Mandate for Developing a Legal Framework on All Types of Forests met recently to consider a new international arrangement on forests (IAF). Many participants found that the meeting provided an open exchange of views and generated momentum regarding the development of a new IAF. Experts found several areas of common ground and points of convergence regarding the objectives and content of a new IAF, most underlining the need to strengthen the IAF and concerning the implementation of prior commitments. With this in mind, experts identified developing the existing IAF and negotiating a convention or a protocol as options to be considered by UNFF-5 in May 2005. The Earth Negotiations Bulletin report.
 

COUNTRIES’ EMISSIONS FORECASTS CONSIDERED
6-8 September 2004 | Bonn, Germany
Projections of future greenhouse gas emissions from the industrialized world and countries of the former Soviet Bloc were the focus of the recent Workshop on Emissions Projects of Annex I Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Participants discussed the methods, assumptions, indicators and parameters for estimating future emissions in Annex I countries (a group representing the most industrialized countries and newly-industrializing economies). For many participants, it was the first opportunity to consider emissions projections in detail with other Parties to the UNFCCC. The Earth Negotiations Bulletinreport.

GOVERNMENTS CONSIDER STRATEGIC PLAN FOR TECH SUPPORT AND CAPACITY BUILDING
2-4 September 2004 | Nairobi, Kenya
Delegates to the second session of the UNEP High-level Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on an Intergovernmental Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity Building (IGSP) met recently to consider a Chair’s “building blocks” paper, with the aim of producing a negotiating text for the third session of the working group, scheduled for December 2004. The meeting was held in a cooperative atmosphere, with almost no negotiation of proposed text, and the general feeling was that Nairobi presented a good opportunity to explore the “philosophy” of a strategic plan, while “serious bargaining” will begin in Bali. The ENB report.
 

RECENT MEETINGS


UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY CLOSES 58TH SESSION
13 September 2004 | UNHQ, New York
The UN General Assembly concluded its 58th session on Monday, 13 September 2004. In his closing address to the Session, outgoing General Assembly President, Julian Hunte of St. Lucia noted that during the Session, the Assembly had made real headway on such issues as sustainable development, revitalizing the body’s work and reform of the Security Council. The final session of the Assembly concluded consideration of 35 items on its agenda, including follow-up to the outcome of the Millennium Summit, environment and sustainable development, information and communication technologies for development, and the situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security, and deferred 29 of them to the 59th GA session. The session also submitted to the forthcoming session the provisional agenda as well as the programme of work for the Assembly’s plenary meetings. The Assembly further adopted a resolution, approving the draft Relationship Agreement between the International Criminal Court and the UN. More.

 

UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY OPENS 59TH SESSION
The UN General Assembly opened its 59th session on 14 September 2004 at UN Headquarters in New York. In his opening address, President of the General Assembly, Jean Ping, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Gabon, said under the current international outlook marked by the resurgence of terrorist activity and devastating natural disasters, escalating debt and lagging development assistance, the world was looking increasingly to the UN and particularly its General Assembly, to help find responses to global challenges.

Among the highlights of this session will be a presentation by the UN Secretary General’s a High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change on initial recommendations on streamlining the UN to meet the challenges of the future, of which a key feature remains the reform of the Security Council. The session will address preparations for the UN’s 60th anniversary and the 2005 review of the Millennium Declaration and outcomes of major international conferences. The General Assembly will also consider the “Cardoso Report” of the Secretary-General’s Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society Relations
.

For the first time, the Assembly’s agenda is organized under headings corresponding to the priorities of the Organization as contained in the medium-term plan for the period 2002-2005. Those priorities are: 
*maintenance of international peace and security;
*promotion of sustained economic growth and sustainable development in accordance with the resolutions of the Assembly and recent United Nations conferences;
*development in Africa;
*promotion of human rights;
*effective coordination of humanitarian assistance efforts;
*promotion of justice and international law; disarmament;
*drug control, crime prevention and combating international terrorism in all its forms and manifestations; and
*organizational, administrative and other matters, which also contains cross-cutting issues.

Click here for IISD's briefing on the elements of GA-59's Programme of Work relating to sustainable development.
 

WORLD LEADERS COMMIT TO COMBATING POVERTY AND HUNGER
20 September 2004 | UNHQ, New York

Over 50 world leaders attended this high-level meeting that sought to galvanize political support for the implementation of innovative global financing mechanisms to eradicate poverty and hunger. The event was organized by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil with the support of his fellow members of the “Quintet against Hunger,” namely the Presidents of France, Chile and Spain, as well as UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Meeting on the eve of the UN General Assembly’s annual debate, the Summit witnessed the commitment of over 110 governments to combat hunger and poverty and increase financing for development through the adoption of the New York Declaration on Action against Hunger and Poverty. More.
 

WORLD LEADERS MEET TO DISCUSS FAIR GLOBALIZATION
20 September 2004 | UNHQ, New York
World leaders came together on 20 September in New York to launch a new global discussion on the need for fair globalization in ensuring peace, prosperity and security for all. Convening under the theme “A Fair Globalization: Implementing the United Nations Millennium Declaration,” the meeting, which took place on the eve of the opening the UN General Assembly’s annual debate, was hosted by the Presidents of Finland and Tanzania and moderated by the Director-General of the International Labour Organization. Over a dozen Heads of State, along with the President of the UN General Assembly and the UN Secretary-General were in attendance. More.

WORLD URBAN FORUM STRENGTHENS HABITAT AGENDA
13-17 September 2004 | Barcelona, Spain
Organized by UN-HABITAT, the second session of the World Urban Forum convened under the theme – Cities: Crossroads of cultures, inclusiveness and integration? During the session, UN-HABITAT signed agreements with a number of organizations to advance the human settlements agenda. More.

UN CONFERENCE FOCUSES ON OVERCOMING OBSTACLES TO REALIZING THE MDGs
8-10 September 2004 | UNHQ, New York
Overcoming obstacles to reaching the MDGs and the role of North/South partnerships in this regard were the center of discussions at the 57th annual UN DPI/NGO Conference, which convened recently under the theme “MDGs: Civil Society Takes Action.” More.
 

CDM BOARD EXAMINES WORKING GROUPS’ PROGRESS
1-3 September 2004 | Bonn, Germany
The Executive Board of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism gathered recently to consider a range of issues ahead of the next major UN climate change conference in December 2004. More.

EMG FOCUSES ON CAPACITY BUILDING, SUSTAINABLE PROCUREMENT
1 September 2004 | Nairobi

The main focus of the eighth meeting of the Environmental Management Group (EMG) was on the Group’s work in the area of environment-related capacity building, including its contribution to the development of the IGSP. More.
 

FAO REVIEWS PORT STATE MEASURES TO COMBAT IUU FISHING
31 August - 2 September 2004 | Rome, Italy
During this meeting of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), delegates discussed measures to strengthen port state controls and crackdown on illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU) fishing. A model scheme was elaborated upon that essentially contains a checklist of “best practices.” More.
 

FSC CELEBRATES ITS FIRST DECADE AND DISCUSSES ITS NEXT TEN YEARS
10-13 September 2004 | Bonn, Germany

More than 250 representatives from the social, environmental and economic sectors joined in the Forest Stewardship Council’s (FSC) three-day celebration of its first ten years and discussions to define its next decade. More.

SPREP APPROVES NEW STRATEGIC APPROACH, ENDORSES NEW NAME
13-17 September 2004 | Pape’ete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
The 15th South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) Meeting of Officials met from 13-16 September, and the fifth SPREP Environment Ministers’ Meeting met on 17 September to endorse a new strategic approach for the regional intergovernmental organization for the period 2005-2009. The new approach departs from its previous organizational arrangement of having five key result areas, establishing instead two new long-term strategic programmes. The SPREP meetings also approved a new name for the organization – the Pacific Regional Environment Programme, though the organization plans on holding onto its old acronym. More.
 

LINKAGES UPDATE


Linkages Update is our means of keeping you informed of what’s new on IISD Reporting Services' Linkages website. This page is updated on a fortnightly basis, while the website continually posts new information provided by our contributing writers. If you wish to submit relevant materials or subscribe to Linkages Update, e-mail prisna@iisd.org.

Linkages provides updates on:
Recent meetings
Upcoming meetings
Media reports
Key publications, online resource
Comings and goings

Click here for the online version and archives of Linkages Update.
 

COMINGS AND GOINGS


Appointments and departures


JIM WILLIS TO LEAVE UNEP CHEMICALS FOR US EPA

Jim Willis, Director of UNEP Chemicals, will depart in October to serve as Director of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Chemical Control Division. Willis has been Director of UNEP Chemicals since 1995, where he has served as Executive Secretary for the Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions.

RICUPERO RETIRES FROM UNCTAD
Rubens Ricupero, the Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), has left the organization after nine years in the top job. He was the fifth person to lead UNCTAD in its 40-year history. Ricupero marked his departure with a speech in which he reflected on both UNCTAD’s past and possible future, urging that the “central concern of UNCTAD must be with the ethical and human dimensions of development.” While a permanent replacement has yet to be named, Carlos Fortín of Chile has been appointed acting Secretary-General.

HEPWORTH TAKES OVER AS NEW CMS EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
Robert Hepworth, former Head of Global Wildlife in the UK at the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and former Deputy Director of UNEP’s Division for Environmental Conventions, is the new Executive Secretary of the Convention on Migratory Species. Robert Hepworth is replacing former CMS Executive Secretary Arnulf Müller-Helmbrecht, who retired from UN service at the end of July 2004 to return to the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.

NEW COMMUNICATIONS OFFICER JOINS MEDWET
Sofia Syprou has joined the MedWet Coordination Unit as the new Communications Officer based in the Ramsar Convention’s office in Athens, Greece.

AYRE LEAVES STAKEHOLDER FORUM FOR DEFRA
Georgina Ayre will be leaving Stakeholder Forum for Our Common Future, where she was Head of Policy and Research, to join DEFRA as a Policy Advisor.

Vacancies

UNEP SEEKS SENIOR PROGRAMME OFFICER FOR POPs
The position involves developing and coordinating new GEF activities in the area of POPs. P-5 position;
Nairobi; applications due 8 October.

CBD SEEKS INFORMATION OFFICER
The Convention on Biological Diversity is looking for an information officer. P-3; Montreal; 30 October.


CCD SEEKS FACILITATION UNIT PROGRAMME OFFICER FOR ASIA
The UN Convention to Combat Desertification Secretariat is looking to hire a Programme Officer for its Facilitation Unit for Asia. P-4; Bonn; 29 October.

UNEP-WCMC SEEKS DIRECTOR
UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) is looking for a Director to be responsible for the strategic management of the WCMC. D-1; Cambridge, UK; 22 October.

UNEP ENVIRONMENTAL LAW BRANCH SEEKS LEGAL OFFICER
UNEP, Environmental Law Branch, Division of Policy Development and Law, is looking for a legal officer.
P-4; Nairobi; 28 September.

UNEP DEWA SEEKS PROGRAMME OFFICER
The Global Environment Outlook section of UNEP’s Division of Early Warning and Assessment is seeking a Programme Officer. P-4; Nairobi; 25 September.

INEA JOURNAL SEEKS SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS
The International Environmental Agreements Politics, Law and Economics Journal (INEA) is seeking individuals to sit on the journal’s Scientific Advisory Board. Board members are responsible for reviewing two to three articles per year. Interested persons are invited to submit their CVs to Joyeeta Gupta, INEA Editor-in-Chief, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam.

Click here for complete postings on appointments, departures and vacancies.
 

MEDIA REPORTS


UN agencies and intergovt organizations

EC AND UNEP BOLSTER COOPERATION THROUGH MOU, EC AND FAO JOIN FORCES TO COMBAT POVERTY AND HUNGER
The European Commission and UNEP recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with a view to reinforce cooperation, increase effectiveness of their environmental activities and strengthen international environmental governance. The EC has also recently signed a strategic partnership with FAO aimed at strengthening and further consolidating their joint efforts towards alleviating poverty and achieving the MDGs. More.

ASEAN AND UNU AGREE TO COOPERATE ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and United Nations University (UNU) recently signed an MoU to strengthen their cooperation on sustainable development activities and projects. More.

Biodiversity and wildlife

CITES UPDATE: HIGH VALUE FISH AND TIMBER ON THE BANGKOK AGENDA, BLACK SEA STURGEON EXPORT QUOTAS AUTHORIZED, STUDY CONFIRMS CO-EXTINCTION OF AFFILIATED SPECIES
Delegates to the upcoming 13th Conference of the Parties (COP-13) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) are expected to consider proposals on marine and plant species of high trade value, including the humphead wrasse, the great white shark, and a number of medicinal plants. More.

“DEVELOPMENT AGENDA” TO BE PROPOSED AT WIPO’S GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia have informally circulated a proposal to establish a “development agenda” at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). More.
 


Climate, energy and atmosphere

TÖPFER WEIGHS IN ON METHYL BROMIDE EXEMPTIONS
Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Executive Director, has urged governments to cut down on their use of methyl bromide, a pesticide that damages the ozone layer. More.

BLAIR, HOWARD PUSH KYOTO AGENDA
The leaders of Britain’s two largest political parties have both revealed ambitious new policies and targets on climate change. 
More.

EU MINISTERS APPROVE EMISSIONS ‘LINKING’ LAW
Foreign ministers representing the European Union’s member states have signed-off on a directive formally linking the EU’s new emissions trading scheme to the Kyoto Protocol. 
More.

U.S. ACCUSED OF BLOCKING ARCTIC REPORT
The Bush administration has been accused of trying to block a report recommending urgent action to deal with global warming in the Arctic.
More.

CHINA BOOSTS AFRICAN SOLAR PROGRAMME
China has announced plans to develop a major initiative to train over 10,000 experts from Africa and other parts of the Third World in applying solar energy technologies.
More.

MEXICO, AUSTRALIA ANNOUNCE ENERGY PACT
Australia and Mexico are set to sign an energy cooperation agreement on technology exchange and the sale of coal and gas.
More.


Trade, finance and investment in SD

GLOBAL TAX OPTIONS PRESENTED TO FINANCE DEVELOPMENT AID
Taxing financial transactions and arms sales were among the options presented in a key report recently released by France, Brazil, Chile and Spain at the UN General Assembly. The report, which seeks to contribute to the ongoing fight against world hunger and poverty, is the output of a Technical Group on Innovative Financing Mechanism, which explored feasible and politically-acceptable alternatives to financing development aid.
More.

U.S. PUSHES DEBT WRITE-OFF
The United States is supporting plans to give billions of dollars of debt relief to some of the world’s least developed nations, according to news sources.

World Bank Lending Safeguards Queried:
Meanwhile, environment and conservation group Friends of the Earth has accused the World Bank of planning to water down its environmental and social criteria for lending money to the private sector. More.

Water, wetlands, oceans, coasts

WORLD WATER MONITORING DAY World Water Monitoring Day will take place this year on 18 October. The annual monitoring day encourages citizens of the global community to take actions that positively impact the health of rivers, lakes, estuaries and other waterbodies. More.

UPCOMING WATER AWARDS
Nominations for the 2005 international Stockholm Water Prize and the Wetland Conservation Awards are now being requested.
More.

UN LAUNCHES WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN INDIA
Under UN-Habitat's Water for Asian Cities Programme, the Asian Development Bank has accorded US$20 million to six Indian cities to improve their water supply and sanitation facilities. More.

KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES


Sustainable development

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REPORT OF THE PANEL OF EMINENT PERSONS ON UNITED NATIONS–CIVIL SOCIETY RELATIONS

(UN, 2004) This report was prepared in response to the report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations-Civil Society Relations, which was chaired by the former President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso and referred to as the Cardoso Panel. It “offers comments on some of the Panel’s recommendations from the perspective of the UN Secretariat and, in some cases, includes specific suggestions regarding their implementation, which the General Assembly may wish to take into account.”

In the report, Secretary-General Annan states, among others, that: he will create a single trust fund to provide financial support for travel and accommodation of representatives from accredited NGOs from developing countries to attend intergovernmental meetings; he is requesting DPI to consider how its work with NGOs could be better linked to the priorities of the intergovernmental organs so as to enhance its relevance and impact; and he will establish a trust fund to enhance the capacity of NGOs at the country level and to finance additional capacity in the office of the Resident Coordinator.


TEN DAYS IN JOHANNESBURG – A NEGOTIATION OF HOPE
(UNDP and South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2004) Written by Pamela Chasek and Richard Sherman and edited by Chris Spence, this book was compiled as a comprehensive reference guide to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg in 2002. The book documents key events leading up to the Summit, outlines its preparatory process, and analyzes important negotiations, activities and outcomes of the Summit. Each chapter includes a comprehensive account of what took place, including who said what, and when and where they said it. The chapters also include a photo history of what took place, and provide reference sections with sources of publicly available information, including official UN documents, government reports, statements, speeches and press releases, global state of implementation reports, UN agency responses, Major Groups’ papers and academic papers.

ENDING HUNGER IN AFRICA: PROSPECTS FOR THE SMALL FARMER
(IFPRI, 2004)
This new issue brief from the International Food Policy Research Institute examines the role of agriculture and smallholder farming in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. This publication looks at recent trends in poverty, malnutrition and growth; outlines challenges to boosting agricultural growth; and presents case studies of agricultural success in a number of Sub-Saharan countries. 

AFRICA’S FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY SITUATION: WHERE ARE WE AND HOW DID WE GET HERE?
(IFPRI, August 2004) This five-chapter discussion paper by Todd Benson covers the current status and trends of food and nutrition security in Africa and necessary actions to address and advance food and nutrition security. Food and nutrition security represent fundamental challenges for Africa’s human welfare and economic growth. To respond to this challenge, this paper highlights a number of actions and objectives that national governments should lead or secure. The text also highlights the important role that local level actors play in ensuring food and nutrition security and suggests that the central government should give broad direction to local efforts and facilitate those efforts through resource allocation, provision of needed expertise and institutional support. The paper further notes the important role of advocacy to inform policymakers at all levels of the critical role improved nutrition plays in development and poverty alleviation.

ENERGY SUBSIDIES: LESSONS LEARNED IN ASSESSING THEIR IMPACT AND DESIGNING POLICY REFORMS
(UNEP, reprinted September 2004) This report, which was first released in 2003, was commissioned by the Economics and Trade Branch (Division of Technology, Industry and Economics) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It builds on presentations and discussions held during a series of regional workshops on reforming energy subsidies, organized jointly by UNEP and the International Energy Agency in 2000 and 2001. The nine country and region case studies demonstrate that the economic costs of energy subsidies can be significant as they can place a heavy burden on government finances, weaken the foreign trade balance and stunt the potential of economies. The report notes that, whatever the precise design of reform policies, politicians need to communicate clearly to the general public the overall benefits of subsidy reform to the economy and to society as a whole, and consult with stakeholders in formulating reforms to counter political inertia and opposition.

SEMINAR REPORT: PREPARATIONS FOR THE 13TH MEETING OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(Norwegian Ministry of the Environment and SIWI, September 2004) This report details the proceedings of a half-day seminar that the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment and the Stockholm International Water Institute convened during the August 2004 World Water Week in Stockholm. The seminar focused on “Preparations for the 13th Meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development” and took as its starting point the challenges identified by Ministers at CSD-12. Participants highlighted the need to bring to the attention of political leaders the importance of access to water and sanitation for domestic and productive use as an engine of growth, and how water and sanitation (within human settlements) can contribute to poverty alleviation, improved health, gender equality and livelihoods. Participants felt that the broad participation of all stakeholders contributed to the success of CSD-12 and should continue at CSD-13.

Millennium Declaration review and MDGs

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM DECLARATION
(UN, September 2004) This 2004 report finds progress in the implementation of the UN Millennium Declaration. Poverty reduction, access to primary education, and hunger are some of the areas that have seen improvements in developing countries around the world, particularly in Asia, northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and West Asia. However, the least developed countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not fared as well, with few of these countries seeing progress and some experiencing reversals in development trends. According to the report, the MDGs, which were derived from the Millennium Declaration in a 2001 Secretary-General report, have transformed the face of global development cooperation and reshaped development strategies. The UN has also produced a chart - 2004 Status on the MDGs - that illustrates the progress of different regions in reaching the MDGs.


NGLS’ MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS INTERNET PORTAL
The UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS) has developed an MDG Internet Portal. It offers information specific to each of the eight MDGs as well as introductory information on the MDGs, information and links regarding action by United Nations agencies and bodies, civil society groups and country-regional actors. A “tools” link provides links to reports, critical analyses, statistics and articles produced by international organizations, academia and media outlets along with educational resources for the classroom. A “links and listservs” list directs the user to related sites maintained by civil society organizations, governments and international organizations.

FIRST8 MDG WEBSITE
Launched in September in the Netherlands, this website provides a visual tour of the MDGs. It seeks to raise people’s awareness of their own responsibility and inspire them to take action in the struggle against poverty and the achievements of the MDGs.


Human development

STATE OF WORLD POPULATION 2004 REPORT: CAIRO CONSENSUS AT TEN: POPULATION, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND THE GLOBAL EFFORT TO END POVERTY

(UNFPA, September 2004) This UNFPA flagship report examines the progress that countries have made in implementing the agenda adopted at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The 11 chapters of this report address issues relating to: population and poverty; population and the environment; migration and urbanization; gender equality and women’s empowerment; reproductive health and family planning; maternal health; HIV/AIDS prevention; adolescents and youth; and reproductive health for communities in crisis. The final chapter discusses the role of partnership in promoting better reproductive health and efforts to achieve the goals of ICPD and the MDGs, and outlines priority actions.

The report finds that while significant gains have been achieved since the Cairo Conference in the areas of protecting the rights of girls and women, integrating reproductive health services into primary healthcare, adopting national HIV/AIDS strategies and addressing gender issues, many challenges still remain, particularly regarding the significant gap between the rich and poor in access to health services. The report highlights how that lack of resources is impeding further progress, noting that donor response has not met the increasing reproductive health needs of developing countries.

STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2004/2005 – GLOBALIZATION AND URBAN CULTURE
(UN-HABITAT, September 2004) Launched at the second World Urban Forum in Barcelona, this flagship UN-HABITAT report charts the trends, progress and challenges faced in our rapidly urbanizing world. The report forecasts that 60 percent of the world’s population will be living in cities by 2030 and that almost of this growth will be absorbed by the world’s least developed regions. It tackles issues such as migration, multiculturalism, globalization and the feminization of poverty to name a few. First published in 2001, the SOWC report is now released every two years.

Climate

DOES THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION’S CLIMATE POLICY MEAN CLIMATE PROTECTION?
(EPE, 2004) This article provides a perspective on US climate policy from two experts – Odile Blanchard of the French Department of Energy and Environmental Policy, and Chicago-based consultant James F. Perkaus. The paper considers two key parts of the Bush administration’s climate policy, namely its emission intensity target and its technology focus. The authors conclude that these policies do not guarantee emissions reductions that are likely to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at a level that is considered safe in the long term. They suggest that the administration’s approach gambles too heavily on securing a major technological breakthrough in the coming years. However, the authors also speculate that US policy on climate protection could well strengthen due to growing concern in Congress and at the state, corporate and civil society levels.


GLOBAL WARMING AND YOUR MUTUAL FUND
A new website has been launched to allow mutual funds investors to assess whether their investments are endangered by the financial risks posed by global warming. This free service is provided by Results for America, a non-profit group that monitors companies’ performance on climate change. The site, which covers the top 24 mutual funds in the US, allows investors to check if a specific company or mutual fund has a poor record in responding to climate change. This includes monitoring how individual companies compare with their rivals in taking climate change into account in their long-term strategies.


Biodiversity and wildlife

INTEGRATING DEVELOPMENT INTO WIPO ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES: STRATEGIES FOR THE 2004 WIPO ASSEMBLIES

(South Centre, August 2004) This analytical note has been prepared by the South Centre and the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) to assist developing countries to address the various issues on the agenda of the 2004 WIPO Assemblies. It reviews the status of the various issues in the individual WIPO committees and other bodies, and outlines some substantive as well as strategic and political questions that developing countries need to address. It does not address the entire agenda of the Assemblies, but focuses on matters regarding: the Substantive Patent Law Treaty negotiations; issues on genetic resources and traditional knowledge, including the request by the CBD to WIPO; the possible diplomatic conference on the protection of broadcasting organizations; the reform of the Patent Cooperation Treaty; the WIPO Policy Advisory Commission; and the WIPO Advisory Committee on Enforcement.


AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DATABASE(USDA, Economic Research Service, August 2004) This database identifies and describes US utility patents on inventions in biotechnology and other biological processes that are used in food and agriculture, with issue dates between 1976 and 2000. It also provides information on the ownership of these patents, whether patents are held in the public or private sector, and changes in patent ownership due to firm mergers, acquisitions, and spin-offs. It includes: agricultural biotechnology utility patents; patent ownership information; and a system of technology classification.

Trade, finance and investment

WORLD INVESTMENT REPORT 2004

(UNCTAD, September 2004) This annual report considers the latest trends in foreign direct investment, both globally and regionally. The report, which was produced by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), points to changes in investment patterns at a regional level. The latest report looks in particular at changes in the service sector, including the recent trend towards shifting corporate services offshore – usually from the industrialized world to developing countries. Finally, the report also analyzes national and international policies on foreign direct investment, noting that sound national policies are important if the benefits of inward investment are to be maximized. The new report is scheduled for release on 22 September 2004.

TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2004(UNCTAD, September 2004) The latest annual UNCTAD Trade and Development Report considers recent trends in the world economy, and particularly the linkages between the international trading system and the international monetary system. It argues that the systems need to be genuinely multilateral on both counts if developing countries are to benefit fully from globalization. The report also considers other relevant issues, including the rising US deficit, expanding demand across much of Asia, and currency and exchange rate issues.

Intergovernmental organizations

G-20 WEBSITE LAUNCHED
This website was launched on 20 August 2004 to mark the first anniversary of the creation of the G-20 group of developing countries. The site offers information on the group’s members and their work, including statistics, press releases, statements, proposals and links to other relevant websites. The G-20 was established prior to the 5th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) that was held in Cancún in September 2003, with a view to bringing together countries with an interest in eliminating trade distortions in agricultural products.


Water, wetlands, oceans, coasts

WHO GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY, 3RD EDITION

(WHO, September 2004) According to the World Health Organization, these updated guidelines for drinking water quality represent a “paradigm shift” in advice on how to manage the provision of drinking water. The guidelines recommend a holistic, systematic approach from source to tap towards water quality regulation and management in order to prevent water-related disease, including preventive measures such as ensuring that water reservoirs or local wells are not at risk from contamination. The traditional approach to managing drinking water quality involved testing water samples for levels of contaminants, but this method is remedial rather than preventative. The new guidelines reflect reviewed and revised recommended values for chemical limits, and sets out practical approaches to discount some chemicals and prioritize others. The updates guidelines also include applications for emergencies and disaster situations.


FLOODS AND THE POOR - REDUCING THE VULNERABILITY OF THE POOR TO THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF FLOODS
(ABD, 2004) This Asian Development Bank publication examines water-related disasters from the perspective of affected poor households, and proposes ways to help them cope with floods. The online version was released in January, while the hardcopy version was released in September.


Forests, d
eserts and land degradation

GOVERNMENT BAROMETER

(WWF, September 2004) WWF has updated its ratings of EU governments’ commitments and actions to combat illegal logging and trade. This newest rating includes seven of the new EU member states, bringing the total to 19 EU countries examined in WWF’s effort to draw attention to EU governments’ actions against illegal logging and forest crime. While most countries are still failing to take effective action on illegal logging at a national level, the report indicates that 16 of 19 countries are ready to outlaw illegal logging Europe-wide and 15 governments are ready to tackle illegal logging in the new member states and candidate countries. Only the UK was rated as “satisfactory” on domestic measures to tackle illegal logging and related trade. Since the last evaluation in April, Germany has made “significant improvement” and the UK, Denmark and France have made “slight improvement.”

THE IAF AT THE CROSSROADS: TOUGH CHOICES AHEAD
(WWF Forests for Life Program, September 2004) Bill Mankin authored this discussion paper in preparation for the UNFF’s Ad Hoc Expert Group on Consideration with a View to Recommending the Parameters of a Mandate for Developing a Legal Framework on All Types of Forests, which met in September 2004. Mankin reviews strengths and weaknesses of the existing International Arrangement on Forests (IAF), with successes including inter-sessional meetings and initiatives and the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) and failures including the UNFF’s mandate to facilitate the implementation of the IPF/IFF Proposals for Action, major group participation and reporting. He urges governments to be open-minded and creative as they explore options to revitalize the IAF and presents a number of ideas for their consideration, including: shifting an important part of the central Forum’s work to regional and country-led initiatives; holding sessions of the central Forum outside of New York and Geneva; facilitating broader and more substantive involvement by major groups; drawing key national-level actors into all parts of the IAF process; restructuring central Forum sessions so they convene once every two years, with negotiations taking place once every four years; facilitating more effective, creative and collaborative reporting; and exploring the establishment of an IAF financial mechanism or a more formal link with the GEF.

FOREST INVESTMENT FORUM REPORT
(PROFOR, July 2004) This text stems from a meeting that took place from 22-23 October 2003 in Washington, DC that explored opportunities for private sector companies, the World Bank, the IFC and other financial institutions to invest in sustainable forest enterprises in developing and economic transition countries and to create an enabling environment for responsible private sector investment. The meeting report includes the forum organizers’ outcome statement, a summary of discussions, and an analysis of opportunities and key constraints to environmentally and socially responsible private sector investment in the forest sector. The meeting recognized the primary importance of sustainable forests management in realizing the potential of forests in poverty alleviation, sustainable development, protection of environmental services of both local and global importance, and providing products that improve quality of life. The meeting agreed that containing illegal logging operations and forest corruption are essential prerequisites to achieving sustainability, and recognized the importance of involving both local communities and governments to ensure that initiatives being discussed contribute to National Forest Development Plans.

POLICY ADVICE ON OPTIONS FOR A LEGALLY BINDING INSTRUMENT FOR ALL FORESTS
(University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna and RIIA, May 2004) The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality commissioned this paper with the objective of assisting delegates to further develop their position in the ongoing intergovernmental discussions on a legally binding instrument for all types of forests. The paper’s authors were asked to offer a legal analysis of a specified number of types of legally binding instruments (LBI) (treaty, convention, framework convention, protocol, regime, agreement), analyze a range of specified existing legal instruments in terms of their history as well as their legal and institutional differences (CBD, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, UNFCCC, UNCCD, Ramsar Convention, CITES, ITTA, IPF/IFF/UNFF process, and WTO), and identify choices and options and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

The authors find that there is no intrinsic legal hierarchy between the types of LBI, but suggest that what is important are the details negotiated and agreed between governments. They find that there is no clear guidance on how an international instrument should be structured, indicating that negotiators have a wide latitude in developing institutions, contents and procedures as they feel appropriate. On the question of forests, the authors highlight three strategic choices that negotiations should make, ideally prior to decisions on a number of functional options that they also outline. The strategic choices encompass the instrument’s main aim, content and scope. The functional options concern the type of instrument to use, institutions and auxiliary bodies to choose as well as procedural mechanisms to agree on.

EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES IN ARID AND SEMI-ARID ZONES: ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
(IUCN and UNCCD, 2003)
This publication, edited by Joachim Gratzfeld, offers environmental planning and management guidance on extractive industries development activities in arid and semi-arid zones. The first four chapters offer operational guidance on extractive industries development activities. Chapter 5 identifies key guiding principles that will help government officials, environmental NGOs, and executives of extractive industries to consider ecosystem conservation needs of exploration and exploitation activities in arid and semi-arid lands to promote long-term sustainable development and is organized in three sections: planning and management of natural resources; policies, laws, and institutions; and monitoring.

This study was first called for by the African Group at the third Conference of the Parties to the CCD in Recife, Brazil, in November 1999. This interest was reiterated by the members of IUCN at the second IUCN World Conservation Congress in Amman, Jordan, in October 2000, where the members approved a resolution calling on the IUCN Secretariat to prepare and adopt guidelines for oil, gas and mineral exploration and exploitation in arid and semi-arid zones.
 

NEW UPCOMING MEETINGS


Announcements: Change of dates

AFRICAN REGIONAL PREPARATORY CONFERENCE FOR CRIC-3:
Bamako, Mali. The African regional conference preparatory to the third session of the CCD’s Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC-3) will convene in Bamako, Mali. This meeting was scheduled for December, but has been postponed without a set date. For more information contact: UNCCD Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-2802; fax: +49-228-815-2898; e-mail: secretariat@unccd.int; Internet: http://www.unccd.int/main.php

Click here for a complete listing of upcoming meetings

The following are upcoming meetings recently added to Linkages website:

Sustainable development

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES CONFERENCE 2004:
27 September 2004 - 5 October 2004. Boulder, Colorado, USA. This “International Forum Connecting People with Hands-on Solutions to World Poverty” will host over 230 presentations and 40 keynote speeches in a multi-disciplinary, grassroots conference on sustainable development, technology, and resource use. The main conference will convene from 30 September to 2 October, while pre-conference events will take place from 27-29 September and post-conference events from 3-5 October. For more information contact: Sustainable Resources, 717 Poplar Avenue, Boulder, CO 80304, USA; tel: +1-303-998-1323; fax: +1-303-449-1348; e-mail: info@sustainableresources.org; Internet: http://www.sustainableresources.org/sr2004/index.html

FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GREEN PURCHASING: 6 October 2004 - 7 October 2004. Sendai, Japan. This meeting is hosted by Sendai City and Japan’s (GPN), in cooperation with ICLEI, the Global Ecolabelling Network, and Nippon Keidanren, and in collaboration with DESA and UNEP. The event aims to share the latest information on green purchasing and discuss its future direction, and establish a network that promotes global collaboration on efforts towards green purchasing. For more information contact: Yuri Mito, Secretariat for International Affairs, GPN,; e-mail: ymito@net.email.ne.jp; Internet: http://www.ics-inc.co.jp/icgps/index1_e.html

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PRIZE CEREMONY AND SYMPOSIUM 2004: WATER AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
7 October 2004 - 8 October 2004. Giessen, Germany. The Developing Countries Prize has been awarded biannually since 1982. This year’s prize will be awarded for scientific work on “Water and sustainable development.” A symposium will take place in connection with the award ceremony during which award winners will present their research. For more information contact: Matthias Höher, Managing Director, Center for international Development and Environmental; tel: +49-641-99-12700; fax: +49-641-99-12709; Internet: http://www.uni-giessen.de/dcp

FIFTH MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 2005:
24 March 2005 - 29 March 2005. Seoul, Republic of Korea. Ministerial conferences on environment and development in Asia and the Pacific have been held every five years since 1985. The 2005 Conference will review progress in implementation of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the Regional Platform on Sustainable Development for Asia and the Pacific. For more information contact: UNESCAP Information Services; tel: +66-2-288-1234; fax: +66-2-288-1052; e-mail: unisbkk.unescap@un.org; Internet: http://www.unescap.org/esd/subcommittee/english/SESD_5E.pdf

Biodiversity and wildlife

CONFERENCE ON BUSHMEAT AND LIVELIHOODS:
23 September 2004 - 24 September 2004. London, UK. This conference is organized by the Overseas Development Institute and the Zoological Society of London. It will consider the state of existing knowledge on wild meat from a livelihoods perspective, in order to recommend ways forward for both policymakers and practitioners concerned with its sustainable management. For more information contact: David Brown; tel: +44-20-7922-0300; fax: +44-20-7922-0399; e-mail: d.brown@odi.org.uk; Internet: http://www.odi-bushmeat.org/conference_overview.html

FIRST MEETING OF THE EXPERT GROUP ON THE TERMS OF THE STANDARD MATERIAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT:
4 October 2004 - 8 October 2004. Brussels, Belgium. This meeting is organized by the FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA). Its outcome will be presented at the 2nd meeting of the CGRFA acting as the Interim Committee for the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. For more information contact: Alvaro Toledo; tel: +39-6-5705-2753; fax: +39-6-5705-6347; e-mail: Alvaro.Toledo@fao.org; Internet: http://www.fao.org/ag/cgrfa/docsmta1.htm

MEETING ON MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY: TECHNICAL AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS IN THE NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA REGION:
14 December 2004 - 16 December 2004. Beirut, Lebanon. This meeting is organized by the Team on Technology for Sustainable Development at the UN Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) in cooperation with FAO. The meeting aims to provide policy and decision-makers in the region with the current state of knowledge on applications of biotechnology and genetic engineering, their challenges and opportunities, and a status of the institutional and enabling frameworks in the region. For more information contact: Omar F. Bizri; tel: +961-1-978506; e-mail: bizri@un.org; Internet: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetings/events/2004/14-16dec/main.html

Climate and atmosphere

TENTH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE UNFCCC:
6 December 2004 - 17 December 2004. Buenos Aires, Argentina. The tenth Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will continue negotiations relating to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. The previous COP took place in Milan in December 2003. COP-10 will be preceded by a number of preparatory workshops. These include meetings on financing the transfer of technologies (27-29 September in Montreal, Canada); fourth national communications from Annex I Parties (30 September to 1 October in Dublin, Ireland); national greenhouse gas inventories for the Latin America and the Caribbean region (25-29 October in Panama City); and vulnerability and adaptation assessments for the African region (dates and venue to be confirmed). For more information contact: UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49-228-815-1999; e-mail: secretariat@unfccc.int; Internet: http://www.unfccc.int

CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES: LEARNING FROM THE LEADERS:
13 January 2005 - 14 January 2005. New York, NY. This conference seeks to: bring leaders of the corporate, financial and legal sectors together with some of the world's foremost experts on climate change policy to discuss the legal and practical implications of the problem for U.S. businesses; consider the experience of the major companies that have taken �early action� to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and discuss steps companies can take to develop an effective and profitable strategy for contributing to climate change mitigation. For more information contact: Robyn Stewart, Center for Economic and Environmental Partnership, Inc., New York; tel: +1-518-432-6400; e-mail: robyn@ceepinc.org; Internet: http://lists.iisd.ca:81/read/messages?id=22315

SOLAR WORLD CONGRESS 2005:
6 August 2005 - 12 August 2005. Orlando, Florida, USA. This event is expected to bring together researchers, scientists, engineers, architects, designers and other renewable energy professionals to discuss solar energy issues. In particular, the Congress will consider linkages between solar and water issues under the theme, �Bringing Water to the World.� The 2005 Congress also marks the 50th anniversary of the first major solar conference, which was held in Arizona in 1955. To mark the occasion, the 2005 Congress will include a special session on the History of Solar Energy and the International Solar Energy Society. The organizers have requested those interested in submitting papers on these subjects to contact them by 15 November 2004. For more information contact: Becky Campbell-Howe, American Solar Energy Society; tel: +1-303-443-3130 ext.103; fax: +1-303-443-3212; e-mail: bchowe@ases.org; Internet: http://www.swc2005.org

Forests, deserts, land

SEVENTEENTH SESSION OF THE FAO COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY (COFO):
15 March 2005 - 19 March 2005. Rome, Italy. This 17th biennial session of COFO will convene at FAO headquarters, bringing together heads of forest services and other senior government officials to identify emerging policy and technical issues and advise FAO and others on appropriate action. For more information contact: Douglas Kneeland, FAO Forestry Department; tel: +39-06-5705-3925; fax: +39-06-5705-5137; e-mail: douglas.kneeland@fao.org; Internet: http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/2962/en

Trade, finance and investment in SD

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FINANCING MUNICIPALITIES AND SUBNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS:
30 September 2004 - 1 October 2004. Washington DC, US. This conference is sponsored by the International Association of Development Funds (IADF), in collaboration with USAID, the International Private Water Association, the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. Participants will discuss ways to improve the financing of capital improvement in emerging market cities and towns, with focused dialogues on new-pooled financing approaches being developed in Asia and Latin America. For more information contact: Steve Thomas, Executive Director; e-mail: sthomas@developmentfunds.org; Internet: http://www.developmentfunds.org/fall04.htm

Water, wetlands, oceans, coasts

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PRIZE CEREMONY AND SYMPOSIUM 2004: WATER AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
7 October 2004 - 8 October 2004. Giessen, Germany. The Developing Countries Prize has been awarded biannually since 1982. This year's prize will be awarded for scientific work on �Water and sustainable development.� A symposium will take place in connection with the award ceremony during which award winners will present their research. For more information contact: Matthias H�her, Managing Director, Center for international Development and Environmental; tel: +49-641-99-12700; fax: +49-641-99-12709; Internet: http://www.uni-giessen.de/dcp

2004 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES:
12 October 2004 - 14 October 2004. Beijing, China. The theme of this conference is �Harmonious development with human, water and nature.� For more information contact: Liu Yankai, Secretary General, Beijing Hydraulic and Engineering Society; e-mail: liuyk@bjwater.gov.cn; Internet: http://www.riverbasin.org/ev_en.php?ID=3159_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON IMPACT OF LARGE DAMS:
27 October 2004 - 29 October 2004. Istanbul, Turkey. This workshop seeks to evaluate the benefits and costs of dams that have been operational for some years, and also the nature of the beneficiaries of such projects. For more information contact: Cecilia Tortajada, Third World Centre for Water Management; e-mail: thirdworldcentre@att.net.mx; Internet: http://www.thirdworldcentre.org/turkeyw.PDF

SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WETLANDS AND SHALLOW LAKES CONFERENCE:
28 October 2004 - 30 October 2004. Friedrichshafen, Germany. Organized by the Global Nature Fund (GNF), this conference will focus on the implementation of a wetlands restoration project, its measures and activities, as well as successes and problems. For more information contact: Udo Gattenlohner, GNF; tel: +49-77-32-999-580; fax: +49-77-32-999-588; e-mail: info@globalnature.org; Internet: http://www.globalnature.org/docs/02_vorlage.asp?id=20267&domid=1011&sp=E&addlastid=&m1=11089&m2=11103&m3=19379&m4=20267

SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS MANAGEMENT:
16 November 2004 - 19 November 2004. Tucson, Arizona, US. Organized by the Sustainability of Semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA), this symposium will address, inter alia: quantity and water quality management; impacts of climate fluctuations; market-based allocation approaches; ecological conservation; and the need for greater hydrologic literacy among decision-makers. Keynote speeches and panel discussions will address a range of topics critical to improved transboundary waters management. For more information contact: Rannie Fox, SAHRA; tel: +1-520-626-6974; e-mail: rannie@sahra.arizona.edu; Internet: http://www.sahra.arizona.edu/twm/

MEETING TO CREATE A WATER COOPERATION FACILITY:
25 November 2004 - 26 November 2004. Delft, the Netherlands. This meeting follows up on UNESCO Director General Koichiro Matsuura's announcement made at the 3rd World Water Forum to create a Water Cooperation Facility, which would be an alliance of institutions already active in the management of shared water resources that would collectively provide distinct and complementary services to aid transboundary water governance. This event is organized by UNESCO and the World Water Council for all institutions interested in joining the initiative as Facility Partners. For more information contact: From Potential Conflict to Co-operation potential, UNESCO Division of Water Sciences; tel: +33-1-45-684-180; fax: +33-1-45-685-811; e-mail: pccp@unesco.org; Internet: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/pccp/events.shtml

CORAL REEF CONSERVATION SYMPOSIUM:
16 December 2004 - 17 December 2004. London, UK. Organized by the Zoological Society of London and Fisheries Conservation Foundation, this symposium will bring together experts with a diverse set of interests in coral reef conservation, ranging from ecologists concerned with extinction of coral reef species to economists concerned with the well-being of people who depend on reefs. The aim is to develop a broad multidisciplinary perspective on problems and solutions in coral reef conservation. For more information contact: Deborah Body, Scientific Meetings Coordinator; tel: +44-207-449-6227; e-mail: deborah.body@zsl.org; Internet: http://www.zsl.org/press/pml_0000001642.html
 

Linkages is provided by the International Institute for Sustainable Development, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin.
It is designed to be an electronic clearing-house for information on past and upcoming international meetings
related to environment and development policy.