LINKAGES UPDATE - an e-update of new additions to IISD’s Linkages website - 1 August 2004

ONGOING MEETINGS COVERED BY THE EARTH NEGOTIATIONS BULLETIN


UN CONFERENCE FOR NEGOTIATION OF A SUCCESSOR AGREEMENT TO ITTA, 1994 DECIDES TO RECONVENE IN 2005
26-30 July 2004 | Geneva, Switzerland
The United Nations Conference on the Negotiation of a Successor Agreement to the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994 was held recently in Geneva under the auspices of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Over the course of the five-day meeting, delegates met in two working groups, one dealing specifically with the Preamble and Chapters I-IV and the other with Chapters V-XI of the draft working document. The negotiations proceeded amicably, although it became clear by Friday morning that more time would be needed to finalize the terms of the new agreement. The main issues that needed further discussion concerned the objectives of the successor agreement and the financial arrangement. During the closing plenary, delegates decided that the Conference would reconvene from 14-18 February 2005, in Geneva. Click here for the Earth Negotiations Bulletin coverageof the meeting.
 


L-R: Manoel Sobral Filho, ITTO Executive Director; Jan McAlpine and Alhassan Attah, ITTC-36 Chair and Vice-Chair; Pekka Patosaari, Coordinator and Head of the UNFF

International Tropical Timber Council CONVENES FOR 36th Session
20-23 July 2004 | Interlaken, Switzerland
Delegates to the 36th session of the International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC-36) discussed a range of issues, including: preparations for negotiating a successor agreement to the 1994 International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA, 1994); progress reports on the study of forest law enforcement and governance in Malaysia and Honduras; phased approaches to certification; developments in UN Framework Convention on Climate Change /Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change discussions regarding forests; and the promotion of sustainable forest management in the Congo Basin. At the conclusion of the meeting, delegates approved 11 projects and seven pre-projects and pledged US$5.7 million in new project funding.

Overall, ITTC-36 can be characterized as a successful meeting. Many delegates noted the significance of the Civil Society Advisory Group (CSAG)/Trade Advisory Group (TAG) joint workshop on illegal logging and illegal trade as an historic opportunity for these two groups to work collaboratively on an issue of mutual concern (see recent meeting story below).
Click here for ENB's coverage of ITTC-36.
 

RECENT MEETINGS


ECOSOC 2004 SUBSTANTIVE SESSION CONCLUDES
28 June – 23 July 2004 | New York
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) held its 2004 substantive session in New York from 28 June to 23 July 2004. The session included a High-Level Segment (28-30 June), a coordination segment (1-7 July), an operational activities segment (7-12 July), a humanitarian segment (12-14 July), a general segment (15-22 July) and a concluding session (23 July). Deliberations during the session addressed and adopted text on a range of sustainable development related issues, including rural development, information and communication technologies for development, human settlements, and protection against products harmful to health and the environment.

High-level segment: The three-day high-level segment’s general debate devoted its deliberations to the theme of mobilizing resources and creating an enabling environment for poverty eradication in the context of the implementation of the 2001 Brussels Programme of Action for the LDCs.
Coordination Segment: The Coordination Segment focused its panel discussions and roundtables on two themes this year. The first theme, which followed from last year’s high-level segment theme, considered the coordinated and integrated UN system approach to promoting rural development in developing countries, particularly LDCs. The second theme of the coordination segment reviewed the implementation of agreed conclusions adopted in 1997 on mainstreaming gender perspectives into all policies and programmes in the UN system, and explored ways to align the framework of the 1997 agreed conclusions with the outcomes of other conferences held since 1997, including the Millennium Summit. More.
 

COUNTRIES CONSIDER FATE OF WORLD’S WHALE POPULATIONS
19-22 July 2004 | Sorrento, Italy
Pro- and anti-whaling nations once again clashed on the fate of the world’s whale populations at the annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC). While the Commission’s 18-year long moratorium on commercial whaling is still in place, calls to establish new whale sanctuaries in the South Pacific or the South Atlantic were rejected.

On conservation issues, the IWC discussed the development of its new Conservation Committee. While some delegates argued that the IWC should not focus on conservation, the Commission maintained that it has a clear mandate for the conservation of whales.
The IWC also unanimously endorsed the report of its Scientific Committee describing the Sakhalin oil and gas development project in the Russian Far East as a threat to the survival of the critically endangered Western North Pacific gray whale, and adopted a resolution calling for urgent measures to be taken to protect this critically endangered whale population.

On the IWC’s Revised Management Procedure (RMP), the Commission said it would not set catch limits for commercial whaling until it has agreed and adopted a complete Revised Management Scheme (RMS). More.
 

FIRST AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK WATER WEEK FOCUSES ON BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS
1-3 July 2004 | Tunis, Tunisia

Under the theme “Building Partnerships for Water in Africa,” the African Development Bank brought together
17 African Water Ministers from the Executive Council of the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) and more than 400 water sector practitioners recently to discuss issues of water security and sanitation, as well as to promote water resources development in Africa to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). During the week, the Bank also launched its Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI) and the African Water Facility. More.

TRADE AND CIVIL-SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS RECOMMEND STEPS FOR ITTO TO ADDRESS ILLEGAL LOGGING AND TRADE
19-20 July 2004 | Interlaken, Switzerland
Representatives of the tropical timber trade, under the banner of the ITTC’s Trade Advisory Group, and of civil-society organizations within the ITTC’s Civil Society Advisory Group, agreed that illegal logging and illegal trade are major concerns during a recent Workshop on Illegal Logging and Illegal Trade held concurrently with ITTC-36. Participants recommended that additional support be given to ITTO’s existing initiatives on trade statistics’ discrepancies and that country-level projects be encouraged to promote transparency in the tropical timber trade and access to information. More.

 

CDM GROUPS REPORT PROGRESS
July 2004 | Bonn, Germany
Two recent meetings of groups reporting to the Clean Development Mechanism’s Executive Board have reported progress in their discussions on forestry issues and on methodologies. A meeting of the Afforestation and Reforestation Working Group, which met from 12-13 July in Bonn, Germany, agreed to forms for submitting new proposed methodologies, and guidelines to complete project design documents that had been agreed at a recent meeting of the full CDM Executive Board.

The CDM Methodology Panel also met recently from 7-9 July in Bonn. The panel considered a wide range of proposed methodologies ranging from methane gas capture in Moldova to energy efficiency improvement in municipal water utilities in India. More.
 

“LARGEST INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PROJECT” PROVIDES PLATFORM FOR
AMAZON RESEARCH

27-29 July 2004 | Brasilia, Brazil
The Third Science Conference of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) has been called the largest international environmental research project ever. It studies the interaction between the Amazon rainforest and regional and global weather patterns and involves more than 1,000 scientists and specialists from over 100 research institutions.

Among the research results presented during the Third LBA Conference were studies concerning the effects of deforestation on the Amazon River and greenhouse gas emissions. More.

 MDG SPOTLIGHT


Media report

SACHS STRESSES NEED FOR GREATER COOPERATION TO ACHIEVE MDGS
Jeffrey Sachs, Special Advisor to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan on the MDGs, recently briefed the UN Economic and Social Council on “The Emerging Recommendations of the Millennium Project: A Global Business Plan to Achieve the MDGs.” More.

Publication

THE TROUBLE WITH THE MDGS: CONFRONTING EXPECTATIONS OF AID AND DEVELOPMENT SUCCESS
(Center for Global Development, 2004) Written by Michael A. Clemens, Charles J. Kenny, and Todd J. Moss, this working paper analyzes the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a larger development context. It cautions against the current development focus on the MDGs, stating that the unprecedented levels of development progress over recent decades are being obscured by concerns that the MDGs will not be achieved. The authors also warn that the MDGs, which for some countries are unrealistic, may create unnecessary pessimism by labeling development successes and relatively wise government policies as failures if the goals are not met. Pointing to evidence that illustrate a weak relationship between volume of development aid and rate of development, the paper highlights the misconception that aid alone is sufficient for achieving the MDGs and underscores the importance of factors such as national capacity to productively absorb and utilize funds. The paper concludes by suggesting that the next round of international development goals should: be country-specific and flexible; take historical performance into account; focus more on intermediate targets than outcomes; and be considered benchmarks to spur action in cases where assistance is not working, rather than technically feasible goals. The paper.

Upcoming meeting

E-DISCUSSION ON YOUTH PARTICIPATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MDGS
26 July 2004 - 16 August 2004. e-discussion. Moderated by the Global Youth Action Network, this moderated discussion seeks to gather content for a ‘youth MDG paper’ that will develop a framework for involving youth in operational strategies for achieving the MDGs, complement various UN reports on achieving the MDGS, and provide input to the report of the UN Millennium Project. In particular it will outline specific ways in which youth and youth organizations can contribute to the design and implementation of MDG-based poverty reduction strategies. Anyone who is interested in the role of youth in the MDGs is welcome to participate. For more information contact: Global Youth Action Network; tel: +1-212-661-6111; fax: +1-212-661-1933; e-mail: mdgconsultation-subscribe@groups.takingitglobal.org; Internet: http://groups.takingitglobal.org/mdgconsultation
 

LINKAGES UPDATE


Linkages Update is our means of keeping you informed of what’s new on IISD Reporting Services' Linkages website. This page is updated on a fortnightly basis, while the website continually posts new information provided by our contributing writers. If you wish to submit relevant materials or subscribe to Linkages Update, e-mail prisna@iisd.org.

Linkages provides updates on:
Recent meetings
Upcoming meetings
Media reports
Key publications, online resource
Comings and goings

Click here for the online version and archives of Linkages Update.
 

COMINGS AND GOINGS


Appointments

CHANGES AT UNEP-WCMC
Current UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Director Mark Collins will be transferred to UNEP headquarters in Nairobi to guide the development of UNEP’s overall biodiversity strategy and a new UNEP-WCMC Director will be recruited. Meanwhile Kaveh Zahedi, UNEP DEWA’s Regional Coordinator for Latin America and the Caribbean, will act as Officer in Charge and serve as the Centre’s interim director. (See media report on UNEP's new biodiversity strategy below.)

NAFTA ARBITRATION BOSS QUITS
The head of the US State Department’s North American Free Trade Agreement arbitration division has resigned to return to the private sector. Barton Legum, who led the defense of arbitrations against the US under the NAFTA’s investment chapter, is set to rejoin Debevoise & Plimpton LLP, an international dispute resolution practice. Legum worked at the company for 12 years before joining the US Government. He is expected to join the firm’s Paris office. Andrea J. Menaker replaces Legum at the NAFTA arbitration division.

Vacancies

UN DPI SEEKS CHIEF OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
UN Department of Public Information seeks Public Relation Section Chief; P-5 position; New York; applications due 25 September 2004.

UNDP/GEF/SMALL GRANTS PROGRAMME SEEKS DEPUTY GLOBAL MANAGER
UNDP/GEF/Small Grants Programme seeks Deputy Global Manager; L-5 position; New York; 31 August.

WWF-NORWAY SEEKS FISHERIES OFFICER
WWF-Norway’s Marine Program seeks Fisheries officer; Oslo; 25 August.

IGES ANNOUNCES TWO RESEARCH VACANCIES FOR BUSINESS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY PROJECT
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) advertises two researchers for Business for Sustainable Society Project; Hyogo, Japan; 22 August.

RAMSAR SEEKS CONVENTION DEVELOPMENT OFFICER
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands seeks a Convention Development Officer; Gland, Switzerland; 20 August.

UNEP GEF SEEKS PROJECT MANAGER
UNEP’s Division of Global Environment Facility Coordination is hiring a Project Manager to manage a capacity building project in Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; 18 August.

UNDP SEEKS WATER GOVERNANCE ADVISOR
UNDP is looking to hire a Water Governance Advisor; New York; 16 August; post number 10186.

OHRLLS SEEKS ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH OFFICER
The Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, LLDCs and SIDS is looking to hire an Advocacy and Outreach Officer; P-4 position; New York; 15 August.

ICTSD SEEKS EDITOR FOR BRIDGES WEEKLY TRADE NEWS DIGEST
The International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) is looking to hire an Editor for its Bridges Weekly Trade News Digest; Geneva; 15 August.

ICIMOD SEEKS SENIOR SOCIAL SCIENTIST FOR CULTURE, EQUITY, GENDER AND GOVERNANCE PROGRAMME
The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is hiring a senior social scientist/programme manager for its culture, equity, gender and governance programme; Kathmandu, Nepal; 15 August.

UNDP SEEKS GEF REGIONAL COORDINATORS ON BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE FOR EAST, SOUTHEAST ASIA/PACIFIC
UNDP is seeking applicants for the positions of GEF Associate Regional Coordinator/Regional Coordinator on Biodiversity and GEF Regional Coordinator on Climate Change for East and Southeast Asia/Pacific. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 7 August 2004. Click for more information on the biodiversity position and the climate change position.

UNEP/GRID SEEKS GEO-SCIENTIST, LEGAL ADVISOR AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANT
UNEP/GRID-Arendal is looking to fill three positions for the establishment of a UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) facility that will support the needs of developing countries and small island states; Arendal, Norway; 1 August.

Click here for complete postings on appointments, departures and vacancies.
 

MEDIA REPORTS


TRADE TALKS SEAL DEAL ON DOHA FRAMEWORK
Key trade talks in Geneva have ended in a deal that will revive the stalled Doha round of negotiations – but only after a marathon negotiating session that ran 24 hours beyond the agreed deadline.
Agriculture pact praised: The deal includes a crucial agreement on proposals to cut the subsidies farmers receive in wealthy nations such as the United States and those in the European Union. More.

UN TO CONSIDER GLOBAL TAXES
The United Nations is studying proposals for global taxes as a means to generate innovative sources of financing for development. The proposals to be considered include a carbon tax on fuel use, a tax on currency transactions, an arms sales tax, a global lottery and a tax on international airline travel. More.

BWI CELEBRATE 60TH ANNIVERSARY
The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) recently celebrated their 60th anniversary. More.

UN PANEL TARGETS AFRICA’S ECONOMY
A new United Nations panel has been established to look at levels of international support for Africa’s development. More.

UN SEATING ORDER SELECTED
Following established practice, the UN Secretary-General drew lots on 20 July 2004 to determine which Member State would occupy the first desk on the General Assembly floor. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was drawn and will therefore sit at the first desk to the right of the President, with other countries following in the English alphabetical order. The same order will be observed in the Main Committees.

COUNTRY VIEWS ON THE PROPOSED GEF PBA FRAMEWORK
Written comments forwarded to the GEF to date caution against a performance-based allocation (PBA) framework that would hamper delivery of assistance that the GEF is mandated to deliver. More.


MASSIVE OIL INDUSTRY LOBBYING EXPOSED
The US oil and gas industry has spent nearly half-a-billion dollars lobbying politicians on Capitol Hill in recent years, according to a new report. More.

EUROPE RECORDS EMISSIONS DROP
The European Union has registered a small drop in greenhouse gas emissions, but is still not on track to meet its emissions targets under the Kyoto Protocol, according to the European Environment Agency. More.

CARBON EMISSIONS TRANSFORMING OCEANS,
SAY SCIENTISTS

The increase in carbon dioxide emissions over the past two centuries is causing a hidden transformation in the chemistry over our oceans, according to new research.
That sinking feeling: Meanwhile, sea-level rise could drown London, New York and New Orleans, according to Britain’s chief scientific adviser. More.

ILLARIONOV RISKS ANGLO-RUSSIAN RIFT
A row has erupted in the Russian media over alleged anti-British comments made by Andrei Illarionov, an adviser to President Putin. More.

CIDA ISSUES RFPs FOR CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY PROJECTS
The Canadian International Development Agency has issued a request for proposals for climate change policy projects. More.

UNEP TO RESTORE IRAQ’S GARDEN OF EDEN
UNEP will invest US$11million to restore the marshlands of southern Iraq, considered by some to be the site of the Biblical Garden of Eden. More.

BIOSCIENCES FACILITY FOR EASTERN AND CENTRAL AFRICA SLATED TO BEGIN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN NOVEMBER
A biosciences facility for eastern and central Africa is expected to begin its research activities on 1 November 2004. More.
 


UNEP DEVELOPING NEW BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY
In light of increasing recognition of the role of biodiversity in meeting international development goals and in view of the need to better manage global biodiversity resources and meet the 2010 target of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss, UNEP is working with key stakeholders to expand its biodiversity activities and develop its overall biodiversity strategy. More.

PROJECT AIMS TO DEVELOP VACCINE-BEARING GM PLANTS
A five-year research project involving 11 EU countries and South Africa, funded by the EU, will explore the use of GM plants in disease treatment. More.


BIOTECH STAKEHOLDERS SHOW SUPPORT FOR FAO REPORT
Over 30 civil society stakeholders involved in agricultural issues have sent an open letter in support of FAO’s recently released report on “Agricultural Biotechnology: Meeting the needs of the poor?” More.

BRITISH “FROZEN ARK” TO PRESERVE DNA FROM ENDANGERED SPECIES
Frozen Ark – the first tissue bank aiming to preserve genetic material from endangered species around the world has been established in the United Kingdom. More.

CITES UPDATE: AFRICANS SEEK PROTECTION FOR CACTUS SPECIES, IUCN/TRAFFIC REVIEW OF LISTING PROPOSALS AVAILABLE ONLINE, THAI OFFICIAL TRANSFERRED OVER TIGER SCANDAL
South Africa, Botswana and Namibia have proposed including the Hoodia cactus in Annex II of the CITES in an effort to limit and control its trade. IUCN’s Wildlife Trade Programme and TRAFFIC have completed technical reviews of all the listing proposals submitted for CITES COP-13. More.
 

KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES


Sustainable development

NATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES, APPROACHES AND INNOVATIONS IN STRATEGIC AND CO-ORDINATED ACTION BASED ON A 19-COUNTRY ANALYSIS
(IISD and GTZ, July 2004) Through a study of 19 developed and developing countries, this publication identifies key challenges concerning the strategic management aspects of national sustainable development strategies (NSSDs), including leadership, planning, implementation, monitoring and review, coordination, and participation. Based on a collaborative project between IISD, GTZ, CIDA and others, the report presents innovative approaches and tools observed in the 19 countries, creating a pragmatic toolbox for government sustainable development managers and policymakers. Countries studied were Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Germany, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, Poland, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the European Union. Also featured throughout the publication are examples of strategic and coordinated actions related to national strategies for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The similarities identified in process and timing provide a basis for further investigation of the potential for cross-learning and coordination between NSSDs and national IWRM strategies.

ASSESSING REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA
(UNECA, May 2004) Prepared by the UN Economic Commission for Africa, this report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of Africa’s integration process, highlighting where efforts have succeeded or failed and illustrating the debilitating effects of the lack of convergence of macroeconomic policy and infrastructure. The publication is divided into two parts, the first of which looks at opportunities, challenges and the necessity of integration and recommends priority actions for accelerating integration. Part II provides an evaluation of integration efforts in the sectors of: trade; money and finance; transport, communications and energy; natural resources and production; and human resources and labor mobility. A chapter also focuses on cross-cutting issues such as peace and security, HIV/AIDS, gender and the private sector.

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT: INDUSTRIALIZATION, ENVIRONMENT AND THE MDGS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
(UNIDO, July 2004) This report addresses the challenges faced by Sub-Saharan African countries in advancing efforts towards poverty reduction in the context of the internationally-agreed development goals, targets of the Millennium Declaration and national poverty reduction strategies. The report is divided into two parts, the first of which identifies the opportunities and policy options available for Sub-Saharan African countries to reduce poverty through structural change, productivity growth and diversification. The report also outlines policy approaches to industrial development that take advantage of environmentally sound and advanced technologies. The second part of the report contains the Industrial Development Scoreboard, which benchmarks a set of industrial performance and capability indicators. This report is part of the Industrial Development Report series, which aims to build on development policy experience, provide guidance to policymakers and assist both public and private stakeholders to formulate, implement and monitor national strategies for poverty reduction. 

UNDERSTANDING URBAN POVERTY: WHAT THE POVERTY REDUCTION PAPERS TELL US

(International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 2004) This paper is part of a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries. In it, Diana Mitlin reviews 23 Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) to “consider how they define and measure urban poverty and thereby assess the extent to which they consider urban poverty.” She finds that many countries believe their poverty estimates do not fully capture the level of urban poverty. “Pockets of poverty” within urban areas may be increasing and inequality may be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Mitlin points to the reliance on income-based poverty lines to define who is poor as a reason for the difference in opinion regarding the scale and depth of urban poverty in the PRSPs. The single poverty line fails to take into account the higher monetary income required to avoid poverty in some areas, such as larger or more prosperous cities.

SIGNPOSTS 2004
(Worldwatch, July 2004) Signposts 2004 allows users to track trends, study data, and create presentations on a range of environmental and social topics. Available as a CD-ROM, this new edition contains 238 datasets on environmental and social trends - 138 updated from the previous 2003 version and 100 new datasets. The resource also includes a timeline of major environmental milestones, PowerPoint slides for instructional purposes, and the complete versions of Worldwatch’s flagship publications - State of the World 2001-2004, Vital Signs 2001-2003 and Good Stuff.

CIVIL SOCIETY DATABASE PROVIDES PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND EIA RESOURCES
Launched recently by the Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA) and the Calabash Project Team, the Calabash website provides resources that can be applied to public participation requirements in environmental impact assessments, poverty reduction and development planning. Information is grouped under three broad categories: SADC, Africa and International. Under each of these 3 headings, viewers can find information related to Public Participation Guidelines, EIA Guidelines, Case Studies, Training, International Conventions, Agreements and Protocols and Key Contacts. The site also presents a draft Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Evaluation tool, which seeks to assist in the analysis of how well environment has been integrated into PRSPs or other higher level planning processes.
 


Human development

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2004: CULTURAL LIBERTY IN TODAY’S DIVERSE WORLD

(UNDP, July 2004) This year’s edition of the UNDP Human Development Report underscores the need to mainstream issues of culture into development thinking and practice and to foster multicultural policies that recognize and support ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity. The report urges multiethnic or religious countries to establish “asymmetric” federalist structures that would allow different groups to maintain their own identity and foster a sense of belonging to the nation. It challenges conventional beliefs surrounding diversity and unity, discrediting myths that trade-offs need to made between fostering cultural diversity and ensuring state unity and peace, or promoting other human development priorities and democracy. A section on globalization highlights the threat that globalization poses to diversity and traditional cultures, but also recognizes that it provides opportunities for disadvantaged groups to tap into global markets. The Human Development Indicators section provides country specific data for various development indicators, including: water, sanitation and nutritional status; public spending on health and education; literacy and enrolment rates; technology diffusion and creation; debt relief and trade; flows of aid, private capital and debt; energy and the environment; and gender- and labor-related data. This edition also features special contributions by Shirin Ebadi, Nelson Mandela, Hamid Karzai, John Hume and Ole Henrik Magga.

Water, wetlands, oceans, coasts

WATER AS A HUMAN RIGHT?
(IUCN, July 2004) This IUCN publication provides a legal review of international conventions and agreements concerning human rights and water. Authored by John Scanlon, Angela Cassar and Noemi Nemes, the paper begins with an overview of existing instruments and notes that while the human right to water does exist, this right has not been clearly defined in international law, nor has it been explicitly recognized as a fundamental human right. The authors provide reasoning for linking water and human rights, and offer possible terminology, content and scope for a rights-based approach to water. The paper concludes that implementing the internationally-agreed goals on water provide a framework for the right to water to be realized.

FRESHWATER AND TOURISM IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
(WWF, July 2004) According to a new report by WWF on freshwater and tourism in the Mediterranean, the expansion of the tourism industry in the Mediterranean is destroying valuable wetlands, including Ramsar sites of international importance, and contributing to the depletion of the water resources that local communities and the tourism industry depend on. The report adds that the expected tourism boom over the next 20 years - with tourist numbers expected to reach 655 million people annually by 2025 - will further strain water resources. France, Greece, Italy and Spain have already lost half of their original wetland areas.

PRIORITIES FOR RESEARCH ON THE OCEAN IN A HIGH-CO2 WORLD
(Science, July 2004) According to research presented recently at a symposium organized by UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the International Council for Science’s Committee on Oceanic Research, the world’s oceans are absorbing an unprecedented amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). This, according to the report, increases oceans’ acidity and could possibly threaten the long-term survival of many marine species, especially calcifying organisms such as corals, shellfish and phytoplankton.

COMPETITION BETWEEN MARINE MAMMALS AND FISHERIES: FOOD FOR THOUGHT
(HIS, May 2004) This report, published in part by the Humane Society International (HIS) and presented at the 56th annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission shows there is no evidence that food competition between marine mammals and fisheries is a global problem as many in the pro-whaling camp believe. According to the authors of the report, Daniel Pauly and Kristin Kaschner of the University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre, there is little basis to blame marine mammals for the crisis world fisheries are facing today and even less support for the suggestion that reducing marine mammal populations will solve any of the world fisheries’ problems. The report adds that the continuation of fisheries mismanagement and the export of fisheries products from developing countries - not whales - endanger global food security.

Trade, investment and financing sustainable development

2003 ANNUAL REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BANK SUPPORT FOR POLICY REFORM
(World Bank, 2004) This review examines the effectiveness of the World Bank’s support to help borrower countries put in place policies that the Bank considers as necessary for enabling sustainable poverty reduction. Focusing primarily on the period from 1999 to 2003, the report finds, inter alia, that while support has paid off in most cases, the Bank has been less successful in countries where the environment for reform was uncertain or in countries where it had no or weak track records. The report indicates that good results come from different policies and institutions, supported by different combinations of instruments and tailored to country preferences and circumstances. It suggests that the Bank should primarily undertake large-scale lending in situations where policy reform is underway and that it may need to adapt its processes and instruments, particularly those concerning managing the risks associated with policy reform.

PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN OPEN ECONOMIES
(ECLAC, June 2004) The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean has produced a book on the region’s experiences over the past two decades in pursuing economic liberalization and responding to globalization. The review highlights various achievements, while also exposing areas where the region is “lagging behind” or has “unfinished business.” It argues that the focus on “more market and less State” prevalent in many countries should give way to an emphasis on properly functioning markets and quality in governance.
 


Biodiversity

CIPIH ONLINE DISCUSSION FORUM LAUNCHED
The Secretariat of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH) has launched the CIPIH Online Discussion Forum to solicit stakeholder perspectives on the work of the Commission. Participants are invited to contribute their views to a Framework Paper that describes the range of issues that the Commission considers important in addressing its terms of reference. The working language of the forum is English, though contributions can also be made in French and Spanish.

EUROPE JOINING FORCES TO REACH THE 2010 BIODIVERSITY TARGET - THE NEED FOR COORDINATED MONITORING
(ECNC, July 2004) This report presents the outcomes of a seminar on biodiversity monitoring and reporting that took place on 23 March 2004. Organized by the European Centre for Nature Conservation (ECNC), the European Environment Agency and the European Parliament, the seminar was first activity held in the framework of the Countdown 2010 initiative.

HOW IS YOUR MPA DOING? A GUIDEBOOK OF NATURAL AND SOCIAL INDICATORS FOR EVALUATING MARINE PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS
(IUCN, WWF and NOAA, 2004) Produced by IUCN’s World Commission for Protected Areas, WWF and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this book provides a step-by-step process for planning and evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs), and includes 42 indicators specifically for MPAs.

IGNORANCE IS NOT BLISS
(Nature 430, 385, 22 July 2004) This Nature editorial stresses that “we remain scandalously ill informed about the processes that give rise to biodiversity, and the consequences of its loss.” Noting that ecologists are currently unable to make specific predictions that could help inform decisions about development and conservation, it calls for field work and government support to reinvigorate taxonomy.

Forests

WHO CONSERVES THE WORLD’S FORESTS? COMMUNITY-DRIVEN STRATEGIES TO PROTECT FORESTS AND RESPECT RIGHTS
(July 2004, Forest Trends and Ecoagriculture Partners) This paper’s authors, Augusta Molnar, Sara J. Scherr and Arvind Khare, pooled research from scientists and found that local communities are spending at least US$1.2 billion to US$2.6 billion per year on forest management and conservation activities, which is approximately the annual budget that developing countries spend on protected areas and two to three times the amount of ODA for conservation of protected forests worldwide. The authors argue that this situation creates opportunities to achieve biodiversity conservation through pro-poor policies and forest based livelihood activities, suggesting that indigenous peoples and other residents in regions of great biodiversity should be given a larger role in policymaking and greater recognition for their contributions to conservation, as well as strengthened rights to produce and sell forest products. The authors suggest that, “With a modest level of financial and other support, community conservation efforts could be increasingly effective and sustained with a very high return to the planet.”

Forest Trends released this paper during the 26-30 July 2004 negotiations of the renewal of the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA). The ITTA 1994 carries a reference encouraging member governments to consider the interests of local communities in developing their timber industry. However that reference had been dropped going into the July 2004 negotiations, and negotiations for the successor agreement are taking place against the backdrop of a policy shift that has seen a more than doubling of the amount of land under ownership or management of local communities over the last 15 years.

Climate change

THE INVESTOR GUIDE TO CLIMATE RISK
(CERES, July 2004) A new guide for investors outlining strategies to address the financial risks and investment opportunities posed by climate change has been published. Commissioned by the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES), a coalition of investment funds and environmental organizations, the guide focuses on actions that pension plans, fund managers and companies can take to address climate risk. The report aims to assist investors in implementing the recommendations of the Investor Call for Action on Climate Risk – an agreement signed by a number of leading public and labor pension funds and other groups owning more than US$800 billion in assets. The guide focuses on assessing and disclosing risk, as well as in investing in solutions.

Chemicals management

CONSOLIDATED LIST OF PRODUCTS WHOSE CONSUMPTION AND/OR SALE HAVE BEEN BANNED, WITHDRAWN, SEVERELY RESTRICTED OR NOT APPROVED BY GOVERNMENTS
(DESA, 2004) This 921-page publication brings together information on regulated chemicals with the aim of helping governments keep abreast of decisions taken by other countries and of helping inform regulatory actions. It includes regulatory information, listed by chemical and country, as well as commercial information on chemical production. Information is provided by more than 70 governments on over 600 substances, including agricultural chemicals, industrial chemicals, and consumer products. The list includes substances subject to the Rotterdam Convention as well as the Stockholm Convention, and includes notifications received under the Rotterdam Convention’s Prior Informed Consent procedure for import and export of hazardous substances.

NEW UPCOMING MEETINGS


Announcements

CALL FOR MAJOR GROUPS’ INPUT TO CSD-13
The CSD Secretariat has requested input from major groups in the preparation of the Secretary-General’s reports for the 13th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-13). Information submitted by major groups will be collected, analyzed and considered in the preparation of official published reports. CSD-12, which took place in April 2004, reviewed the state of implementation of water/sanitation/human settlements goals and targets provided for in Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. The outcome of CSD-12 was a Chair’s Summary, which identified constraints and obstacles to, and continuing challenges for, the implementation of water/sanitation/human settlements goals and targets. This Chair’s Summary provides the substantive basis for the preparation of Secretary-General’s reports, which will focus on policy options and possible actions to overcome the constraints and obstacles and meet the challenges identified by CSD-12. Major groups wishing to contribute to these reports should submit their inputs by 17 September 2004. For more information visit http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/mgroups/csd_13/input_sgreports.htm

INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS ON THE MAURITIUS SIDS INTERNATIONAL MEETING:
7 October 2004 - 11 October 2004. New York, US. The second round of SIDS informal consultations will take place on 7,8 and 11 October 2004 at UN headquarters in New York. Organized by Don MacKay, Permanent Representative of New Zealand to the United Nations, these informals will address remaining pending issues in relation to the outcome document of the International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS. For more information contact: New Zealand Mission to the UN; tel: +1-212-826-1960; fax: +1-212-758-0827; e-mail: nzmissionny@earthlink.net; Internet: http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/En/lateste.pdf

Click here for a complete listing of upcoming meetings

The following are upcoming meetings recently added to Linkages website:

Sustainable development

E-DISCUSSION ON YOUTH PARTICIPATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MDGS
26 July 2004 - 16 August 2004. e-discussion. Moderated by the Global Youth Action Network, this moderated discussion seeks to gather content for a ‘youth MDG paper’ that will develop a framework for involving youth in operational strategies for achieving the MDGs, complement various UN reports on achieving the MDGS, and provide input to the report of the UN Millennium Project. In particular it will outline specific ways in which youth and youth organizations can contribute to the design and implementation of MDG-based poverty reduction strategies. Anyone who is interested in the role of youth in the MDGs is welcome to participate. For more information contact: Global Youth Action Network; tel: +1-212-661-6111; fax: +1-212-661-1933; e-mail: mdgconsultation-subscribe@groups.takingitglobal.org; Internet: http://groups.takingitglobal.org/mdgconsultation

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY - USHERING IN THE SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION: 10 August 2004 - 12 August 2004. New Delhi, India. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in partnership with the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Application (ISAAA) and the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) is organizing this international conference, which will discuss global and country experiences and best practices in agricultural biotechnology. For more information contact: Bhagirath Choudhary, Biotechnology Division, FICCI, Federation House, Tansen Marg, New Del; tel: +91-11-3093-3389; fax: +91-11-2332-0714; e-mail: biotech@ficci.com or bhagirath@ficci.com; Internet: http://www.ficci.com/ficci/events/events-ahead/aug/aug10-agri.htm

INTERNATIONAL YOUTH DAY CELEBRATION AT THE WORLD YOUTH FESTIVAL: 12 August 2004. Barcelona, Spain. The UN Division for Social Policy and Development of UN DESA will celebrate International Youth Day 2004 at the World Youth Festival that is scheduled to take place from 8-14 August in Barcelona. This year’s theme is “Youth in an Intergenerational Society,” corresponding to the 10th anniversary of the International Year of the Family, celebrated in 2004. For more information contact: Charlotte van Hees, UN Division for Social Policy and Development; tel: +1-917-367-4053; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/iyouthday/index.html

REGIONAL FORUM ON REINVENTING GOVERNMENT IN EAST AND SOUTHEAST ASIA: 21 August 2004 - 23 August 2004. Penang, Malaysia. This Forum is being organized by the UN Division for Public Administration and Development Management of UN DESA and UNDP, in partnership with University Sains Malaysia. The Forum’s objectives are to: review best practices and innovative approaches dealing concerning public sector capacity to cope with and benefit from globalization and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals; examine critical factors accounting for the success or failure of the programme to reinvent government; provide a venue for a network of universities and training and research institutions and government representatives to share their respective experiences; and identify areas of common concern and a framework for regional and national cooperation in East and Southeast Asia. For more information contact: Nahleen Ahmed, UN Division for Public Administration and Development Management; tel: +1-917-367-5012; Internet: http://esa.un.org/techcoop/highlights.asp

INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS ON THE MAURITIUS SIDS INTERNATIONAL MEETING: 7 October 2004 - 11 October 2004. New York, US. The second round of SIDS informal consultations will take place on 7,8 and 11 October 2004 at UN headquarters in New York. Organized by Don MacKay, Permanent Representative of New Zealand to the United Nations, these informals will address remaining pending issues in relation to the outcome document of the International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS. For more information contact: New Zealand Mission to the UN; tel: +1-212-826-1960; fax: +1-212-758-0827; e-mail: nzmissionny@earthlink.net; Internet: http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/En/lateste.pdf

Biodiversity and wildlife

BIOTECHNOLOGY TOWARDS RAINFOREST CONSERVATION WORKSHOP:
14 December 2004 - 17 December 2004. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Organized by Forest Research Institute Malaysia, this workshop seeks to provide theoretical knowledge concerning the utilization of modern biotechnology for plant conservation, and hands-on knowledge regarding recent biotechnology techniques for plant conservation. For more information contact: Norifiza Mat Riffin; tel: +60-3-6279-7621; fax: +60-3-6280-4614; e-mail: noyee@frim.gov.my; Internet: http://www.frim.gov.my/pdf/seminar2004/BioTech2004.pdf

COHAB 2005 - THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY TO HUMAN HEALTH: 23 August 2005 - 25 August 2005. Galway, Ireland. This event seeks to link human health and biodiversity and raise awareness on the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem health to the Millennium Development Goals. In addition to the main conference, a workshop will be held on 25 August entitled “CBD Indicators for Health and Biodiversity,” which will focus on the development of indicators for measuring the status of species and ecosystems of particular importance to the production and security of food and medical resources, as included in CBD COP-7 Decision vii/30. For more information contact: Elizabeth Dippie; tel: +353-9176-5640; fax: +353-9176-5641; e-mail: info@cohab2005.com; Internet: http://www.cohab2005.com/summary.htm

Chemicals management

SECOND ANNUAL EU SUSTAINABLE CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE:
12 October 2004 - 14 October 2004. Brussels, Belgium. The conference focuses mainly on the REACH policy and seeks to provide a definitive answer as to how businesses are going to be affected by the legislative changes that it brings. The event also includes a full day workshop, and addresses Global Chemical Management Systems and Green Chemistry. For more information contact: Dan Craft, Conference Producer, EU Conferences; tel: +44-14-9530-0011; fax: +44-14-9530-9372; e-mail: dan.craft@euconferences.com; Internet: http://www.euconferences.com/frachemical04.htm

Forests, deserts, land

INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE FOREST SECTOR: CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES:
21 September 2004 - 23 September 2004. Seoul, Republic of Korea. This forum will identify current trends and potential impacts of carbon forestry, with an emphasis on the forest industry sector and rural livelihoods in tropical countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The major outputs expected are a strategic analysis of the opportunities and constraints for the carbon forestry business and for the capacity building of developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. For more information contact: Yeo-Chang Youn, Seoul National University, Department of Forest Resources, Silim-dong san; tel: +82-2-884-754; fax: +82-2-875-476; e-mail: youn@snu.ac.kr; Internet: http://www.itto.or.jp/live/PageDisplayHandler?pageId=223&id=576

SECOND SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE FOR THE NEGOTIATION OF A SUCCESSOR AGREEMENT TO THE INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER AGREEMENT, 1994: 14 February 2005 - 18 February 2005. Geneva, Switzerland. The second session of the United Nations Conference for the Negotiation of a Successor Agreement to the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994 will be held from 14-18 February 2005, in Geneva, Switzerland. For more information contact: Alexe� Mojarov, UNCTAD Secretariat; tel: +41-22-917-5809; fax: +41-22-917-0051; e-mail: alexei.mojarov@unctad.org; Internet: http://r0.unctad.org/commodities/

ITTC-38:
24 May 2005 - 26 May 2005. Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. The 38th Session of the International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC) and Associated Sessions of the Committees will convene in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo in May 2005. For more information contact: Manoel Sobral Filho, Executive Director, ITTO; e-mail: itto@itto.or.jp; Internet: http://www.itto.or.jp/live/PageDisplayHandler?pageId=189

Human development

INTERNATIONAL DAY OF THE WORLD�S INDIGENOUS PEOPLE:
9 August 2004. New York, United States. In 1994, the General Assembly decided that the International Day of the World's Indigenous People shall be observed on 9 August every year during the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People. The date marks the day of the first meeting, in 1982, of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights. For more information contact: UN Secretariat of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues; tel: +1-917-367-5100; e-mail: IndigenousPermanentForum@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/news/news_internationalday2004-1.htm

Water, wetlands, oceans, coasts

ELECTRONIC CONFERENCE ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: WORTH THE EFFORT?!:
20 September 2004 - 15 October 2004. Internet. This e-conference will consider the following questions: What constraints can we identify in knowledge management?; What are the benefits and added values of KM?; What success stories are worth sharing?; and How can we scale-up, what can we do next for effective KM for water and sanitation programmes/organizations? For more information contact: Dick de Jong, Information and Communication Officer, IRC; tel: +31-15-219-2961; fax: +31-15-219-0955; e-mail: jong@irc.nl; Internet: http://www.irc.nl/content/view/full/10587

ROUNDTABLE CONFERENCE ON WATER AND HEALTH:
28 September 2004 - 29 September 2004. Oslo, Norway. The Government of Norway with the support of the WHO/EURO and UNECE secretariats will hold a Roundtable Conference on Water and Health. National delegations are expected to be headed by senior officials. Under the Protocol on Water and Health, the Oslo Roundtable Conference is expected to identify priority areas of non-infrastructure intervention in water resources management, safe drinking-water supply and sanitation, reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality, meeting water needs for vulnerable groups, and gender issues related to water supply and sanitation. The Oslo Roundtable may also suggest appropriate financing mechanism to respond effectively to these needs. For more information contact: Kaj B�rlund; tel: +41-22-917-2370; fax: +41-22-907-0107; e-mail: water.convention@unece.org

FIRST INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMPLIANCE CONFERENCE: MONITORING, CONTROL AND SURVEILLANCE FOR THE SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES:
29 September 2004 - 30 September 2004. Brussels, Belgium. Chaired by Emilio Mastracchio, European Commission, this conference will focus on the latest developments in fishing fleet monitoring, control and surveillance and their role in sustainable fisheries development. For more information contact: Alex Hentschel; fax: +44-18-9254-4895; Internet: http://www.agra-net.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=agra/showEvent&id=20001019251

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER - A CATALYST FOR PEACE: 6 October 2004 - 8 October 2004. Zaragoza, Spain. This conference will bring together water managers, decision makers and a broad range of stakeholders to improve their conflict management skills and to facilitate the process towards cooperative basin management and conflict resolution. The conference is organized by UNESCO's �From Potential Conflict to Potential Co-operation� project, one of UNESCO's contributions to the UN World Water Assessment Programme. For more information contact: Saskia Castelein, UNESCO PC-CP Project; fax: +33-1-45-68-58-29; e-mail: s.castelein@unesco.org; Internet: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap/pccp/pdf/zaragoza_programme_en.pdf

SECOND IWA LEADING-EDGE CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABILITY: SUSTAINABILITY IN WATER LIMITED ENVIRONMENTS: 8 November 2004 - 10 November 2004. Sydney, Australia. Organized by the International Water Association (IWA), this conference will focus on the theme of �Sustainability in Water Limited Environments.� This theme will be revisited every second year, alternating with the theme of �Sustainability in Water Rich Environments.� For more information contact: International Water Association (IWA); tel: +44-20-7654-5500; fax: +44-20-7654-5555; e-mail: water@iwahq.org.uk; Internet: http://www.les2004.iwa-conferences.org/templates/Conferences/LES/les_std.aspx?ObjectId=27914
 

Linkages is provided by the International Institute for Sustainable Development, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin.
It is designed to be an electronic clearing-house for information on past and upcoming international meetings
related to environment and development policy.