LINKAGES UPDATE - a fortnightly e-update of new additions to IISD’s Linkages website  - 8 July 2003

RECENT COVERAGE BY IISD REPORTING SERVICES

LINKAGES UPDATE


Linkages Update is our means of keeping you informed of what’s new on IISD Reporting Services' Linkages website. This page is updated on a fortnightly basis, while the website continually posts new information provided by our seven Issue Cluster Experts. If you wish to submit relevant materials or subscribe to Linkages Update, e-mail prisna@iisd.org.

 

ENB on Google News
You can now search for ENB’s coverage of international meetings on http://news.google.com/.

 

Using images on Linkages
Images from IISD Reporting Services’ digital coverage of meetings are freely available, with proper citation. If you are looking for an image of a particular person or event, use our search site.
 

COMINGS AND GOINGS

 

Appointments and Departures

EARTHWATCH EUROPE NAMES VORHIES AS NEW CEO

Frank Vorhies has been appointed as Chief Executive of Earthwatch Institute’s European office. Vorhies will leave his post as Head of the Business Unit at IUCN-The World Conservation Union to join Earthwatch on 1 August 2003.

WRI APPOINTS PERSHING AS DIRECTOR OF CLIMATE PROGRAMME

Jonathan Pershing has been appointed director of the Climate, Energy, and Pollution Program of the World Resources Institute (WRI). Pershing, who currently heads the Energy and Environment Division of the International Energy Agency in Paris, will begin his duties at WRI in September 2003.
 

Vacancies
 

Ramsar seeks Executive Director for Panama Office: Panama City, Panama; 7 July 2003.
UNEP-WCMC seeks Directors for Assessment and Early Warning, and Biodiversity Information Services Divisions: Cambridge, UK, 7 July 2003.
UNOPS seeks GHG Inventory Project Manager: Senegal; 11 July 2003.
TRAFFIC-Europe seeks Programme Coordinator: Budapest, Hungary; 11 July 2003.
UNOPS seeks Black Sea Project Manager: Istanbul, Turkey; 18 July 2003.
CCD seeks Principal Coordinator: Bonn, Germany; 29 August 2003.

GEF seeks senior monitoring and evaluation consultants
The
Global Environment Facility (GEF) is looking to hire three senior consultants in biodiversity, climate change and international waters for its Monitoring and Evaluation Unit (GEFME). The duration of assignment is from September 2003 to June 2004. Consultants will not have to relocate or be based in Washington, DC, USA, although the work will require two or three visits to GEFME.

Click here for more information on new appointments and vacancies

 

UPCOMING MEETINGS


Click here to download complete list of upcoming meetings in pdf format.
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Meetings recently added to
Linkages website:

Seventh International Conference on Coelenterate Biology: 6-11 July 2003. Lawrence, Kansas, US.
Expert Meeting on Definitions and Dimensions of Environmental Goods and Services in Trade and Development: 9-11 July 2003. Geneva, Switzerland.
International Workshop on Sustainable Development Criteria for Carbon-Based Forestry Projects and the Mexican Climate Change Policy Process: 23 July 2003. Mexico City, Mexico.
Meeting of Parties to UNEP/CMS Agreement on Conservation of Small Cetaceans of Baltic and North Seas (ASCOBANS): 18-22 August 2003. Esbjorg, Denmark.
Tunza International Youth Conference: 25-27 August 2003. Dubna, Russia.
Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) ASIA/PACIFIC MEETING: 28 August - 1 September 2003. Christchurch, New Zealand.
30th Session of the IPCC Bureau: 4 September 2003. Berlin, Germany.
Fifth World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference: 10-14 September 2003. Cancun, Mexico.
The Port Cros Symposium on Sustainable Fisheries and Biodiversity: 21-23 September 2003. Porquerolles, France.
Workshop on Invasive Alien Species and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC): 22-26 September 2003. Braunschweig, Germany.
UNEP/ESOMAR Conference on “Responsible Marketing - Sustainability and Quality of Life. The Contribution of Research”: 12-14 October 2003. Berlin, Germany.
Expert Group Meeting on the Standard Material Transfer Agreement: 27-31 October 2003. Rome, Italy.
CGIAR Annual General Meeting: 28-31 October 2003. Nairobi, Kenya.
IPCC Plenary 21st Session: 3-7 November 2003. Vienna, Austria.
Prepcom 1 of the International Conference on Chemicals Management for Further Development of a Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM): 10-14 November 2003. Bangkok, Thailand.
Ninth Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD SBSTTA-9): 10-14 November 2003. Montreal, Canada.
Open-Ended Working Group on the Rules of Procedure, Financial Rules, and Compliance: 10-14 November 2003. Rome, Italy.
Second Meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-Sharing: 1-5 December 2003. Montreal, Canada.
Ad Hoc Working Group on Article 8(J): 8-12 December 2003. Montreal, Canada.
International Training Programme on Utility Regulation and Strategy: 12-23 January 2004. Gainesville, Florida, US.
Seventh Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD (CBD COP-9): 9-20 February 2004. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
First Meeting of the Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: 23-27 February 2004. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Interlaken Workshop on Decentralization: Federal Systems in Forestry and National Forest Programmes: 27-30 April 2004. Interlaken, Switzerland.
UNFF-4: 3-14 May 2004. Geneva, Switzerland.
11th United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD XI): 13-18 June 2004. Sao Paulo, Brazil.
ITTC-36: 20-23 July 2004. Switzerland.
Conference on Climate Change and Aquatic Systems: Past, Present & Future: 21-23 July 2004. Plymouth, UK.
Negotiations of a Successor Agreement to ITTA, 1994: 26-30 July 2004. Geneva, Switzerland.
UNESCO Global Forum on Research and Higher Education Policy: 1-3 December 2004. Paris, France.
ITTC-37: 13-18 December 2004. Yokohama, Japan.

 

BACKGROUND PRIMERS


Linkages provides background information on various issues and multilateral processes. Recently updated primers include:

Commission on Sustainable Development: includes overview of recent CSD sessions
Convention to Combat Desertification: includes summaries of outcomes of previous Conference of the Parties to the CCD
Global Forest Policy: includes reports on UNFF and ITTO sessions
Trade and investment in sustainable development: includes overview of financing for development process

 



UNFCCC SUBSIDIARY BODIES SESSIONS PREPARE FOR KYOTO'S ENTRY INTO FORCE
4-13 June 2003 | Bonn, Germany
Delegates at the eighteenth sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB-18) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) continued to address issues under negotiation since COP-8 and prepare for the Kyoto Protocol’s entry into force. Throughout the meeting, Parties convened in contact groups, informal consultations, and plenary sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) to adopt draft conclusions and approve draft COP decisions on a number of issues, including: the Special Climate Change Fund; implementation of UNFCCC Article 4.8 and 4.9 (adverse effects); capacity building; the programme budget for the biennium 2004-2005; definitions and modalities for including afforestation and reforestation activities under Protocol Article 12 (Clean Development Mechanism); “good practices” in policies and measures (P&Ms); the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR); and methodological issues.


Since the UNFCCC was adopted in 1992, negotiators have been busy constructing a Protocol strong enough to meet the challenge of climate change. With Russia’s ratification, the Kyoto Protocol will enter into force. SB-18 may not have sent a stream of positive signals to Moscow or other Annex I Parties, but positive signs were perceptible in discussions on several issues that relate to the regime’s effectiveness and the future direction of negotiations. Click here for the Earth Negotiations Bulletin’s report on this meeting.

 

EXPERT MEETING ON SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION DISCUSSES 10-YEAR FRAMEWORK
16-19 June 2003 | Marrakech, Morocco
Organized by the Division for Sustainable Development of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA/DSD), in co-operation with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), this meeting aimed to work towards the development of a 10-Year Framework in support of regional and national initiatives to promote sustainable consumption and production. The need for such a framework of programmes was endorsed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation negotiated during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002.


The meeting included Plenary sessions that provided participants with an overview of issues related to sustainable consumption and production patterns and an opportunity to hear the reports of regional expert meetings held recently for the Asia-Pacific and the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Delegates reviewed the Discussion Paper prepared by UN DESA/DSD and heard keynote presentations on the role of public purchasing power and consumer behavior in promoting sustainable consumption and production. Participants also convened in four working groups to discuss: human settlements and sustainable consumption and production; general policy instruments and analytical tools for sustainable consumption and production; tools for promoting sustainable consumption patterns; and tools for changing production patterns. An official report of this meeting will serve as expert input to the Commission on Sustainable Development for its consideration as part of its future work on sustainable consumption and production. Click here for Sustainable Developments’ coverage of this meeting.

 

BIODIVERSITY CONFERENCE CONSIDERS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND CAPACITY BUILDING
23-27 June 2003 | Trondheim, Norway
The Norway/UN Conference on Technology Transfer and Capacity Building, also known as the fourth Trondheim Conference on Biodiversity, focused on practical and technical follow-up measures for technology transfer and capacity building as called for under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

The meeting’s conclusions and recommendations will be incorporated into a Chair’s report and Proceedings of the Conference and will be submitted to CBD SBSTTA-9 as an information document and communicated to other relevant fora. The discussions leading to these conclusions contributed to achieving the Conference’s objectives to: enhance the knowledge base on issues related to technology transfer and capacity building; identify more efficient ways and means of building capacity and developing sustainable and useful institutions; present lessons learned and identify success factors regarding technology transfer and capacity building; explore the role of traditional knowledge in capacity building and technology transfer; and provide a forum for cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary dialogue between scientists and policy makers on issues related to the implementation of Articles 16-19 of the CBD, dealing with technology transfer, exchange of information, scientific cooperation and biotechnology. Click here for Sustainable Developments’ report of this meeting.

 

RECENT MEETINGS

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HELSINKI AND OSPAR COMMISSIONS WORK JOINTLY TO PROTECT THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

23–27 June 2003 | Bremen, Germany
Invited by the Federal Republic of Germany, the Baltic Marine Environment Commission (Helsinki Commission - HELCOM) and the Commission for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) held their first joint meeting at the ministerial level with the aim to improve the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic and the Baltic Seas. Participants stressed the need for: an ecosystem approach to the management of human activities that affect the seas; collaboration between all national and international authorities to protect the seas, in the context of the EU’s European Marine Strategy; and joint action to protect threatened and declining species and habitats. Ministers also considered the environmental impact of fisheries and shipping. More information.

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IWC ADDRESSES CONSERVATION ISSUES
16–19 June 2003 | Berlin, Germany
Among this meeting’s accomplishments was the formalization of the Commission’s role as a conservation body through the Berlin Initiative on Strengthening the Conservation Agenda of the IWC. With votes 25 in favor, 20 against and 1 abstention, the meeting established a Conservation Committee to prepare and make recommendations on the IWC’s conservation agenda.

The Commission also established an intersessional group to explore ways to move the Revised Management Scheme forward. Two proposals for sanctuaries in the South Pacific and South Atlantic failed to gain the necessary majorities and were rejected. The Commission rejected a proposal by Japan for catch limits of 150 minke whales and 150 Bryde’s whales to be taken by coastal community-based whaling. On scientific permits, it passed a resolution urging countries to terminate or not to commence special permit catches, and another one asking Japan not to continue its special permit catches of Antarctic minke whales. More information.

 

13TH MEETING OF STATE PARTIES TO UNCLOS ADDRESS MATTERS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA
9-13 June 2003 | New York, US
The 13th meeting of State Parties to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea met to discuss the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and its budget. Parties adopted the 2004 budget for the Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in the amount of $8,039,000, together with the staffing table for the Registry containing 16 Professional and 21 General Service posts. The new budget represents a significant reduction in comparison to the proposed amount of $8,614,900, which had been presented at the opening of the session. A total of six draft decisions were adopted on various budgetary and administrative questions, including death and disability benefits for judges of the Tribunal, the court’s expenses in 2004 and its staff assessment fund. Delegates also discussed the application of article 319 of the Convention, pursuant to which the Meetings of States Parties are convened, and heard a statement by the Director of the Centre for Seafarers’ Rights, who requested the Meeting to place on its agenda a thorough review of the Convention’s protections for persons employed at sea, and review how States implemented them. More information.

 

NAFTA COUNTRIES ADOPT BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY
24–25 June 2003 | Washington DC, US
At the tenth regular session of the Council of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the Ministers of Environment of Canada, Mexico and the US adopted by resolution a Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity. The meeting further discussed freshwater management, trade in hazardous waste, chemicals’ management, and indicators of children’s health and the environment. For more information, see the CEC Ministerial Statement.

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INTERNATIONAL MEETING ON AGRICULTURE FOCUSES ON BIOTECHNOLOGY
23-25 June 2003 | Sacramento, CA, US
The Ministerial Conference and Expo on Agricultural Science and Technology, sponsored by the US Department of Agriculture, the US Agency for International Development and the US Department of State, gathered over 150 agriculture, science and environment ministers and high rank government officials from 112 countries. A report on “21st Century Agriculture: a Critical Role for Science and Technology,” presented by the US Secretary for Agriculture served as the basis for discussions. The meeting was met by thousands of protesters opposed to genetically modified foods. A public rally was also organized by the NGOs Public Citizen and the Sacramento Coalition for Sustainable Agriculture. More information.

 

MIDDLE EAST WATER AND ENERGY WORKSHOP
27-28 May 2003 | Beit-Meri, Lebanon
This World Bank-organized roundtable on water and energy in the Middle East brought together 150 participants from governments, the private sector and the donor community to address critical financing and policy needs for the water and power sectors in the Middle East and North Africa. Participants discussed several critical areas for improving water and power infrastructure, such as private sector participation and regulation. Many noted that the private sector will play a significant role in meeting the financing needs of both sectors, and recognized that in order to attract the private sector, proper regulatory frameworks based on transparent procedures need to be in place. Private sector participants also called for more streamlined procedures for transactions and enhanced upstream involvement of the Bank in risk sharing. More information.

THE FIFTH MEETING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN WETLANDS (MEDWET) COMMITTEE
12-15 June 2003 | Izmir, Turkey
The fifth meeting of the Mediterranean Wetlands Committee met to discuss country reports on the implementation of the Ramsar Convention in the region and to discuss the MedWet Coordination Unit’s proposed work and communications plans. A technical session considered the interaction of wetlands, agriculture and water use as part of the Conventions strategy of socioeconomic development and wetlands conservation. In addition, a small number of expert presentations were delivered with the aim of refining the implementation of relevant Ramsar resolutions in the Mediterranean Region and designing new paths of collaborations on the subject. During the meeting, participants visited the nearby Gediz Ramsar site. More information.

 

CARDOSO PANEL CONSIDERS UN-CIVIL SOCIETY RELATIONSHIP
2-3 June 2003 | New York, US
The UN Secretary-General’s High Level Panel on Civil Society, chaired by former Brazilian President Cardoso, held its first meeting at UN Headquarters in New York on 2-3 June 2003. The Secretary-General established the Panel as part of a reform process to make the United Nations more able to respond to the new demands of the 21st century. The Panel is expected to deliver practical recommendations on how the growing interaction between civil society and the United Nations can be improved by April 2004.

Background materials for the June 2003 meeting included Cardoso’s piece on the role of civil society in today’s world and a review of the UN’s relationships with civil society prepared by the Panel’s secretariat. The Panel reviewed its terms of reference and the modalities through which it will function. Panelists highlighted a number of concerns regarding the UN and civil society relationship, including the need to clarify the rules of engagement to align them with the realities of the 21st century, the need for improvements in the relationship with civil society at international, regional and national levels, and the need to create environments and opportunities for genuine dialogue. More information.

 

CBD WORKSHOP DRAFTS PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY
6-8 May 2003 | Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Participants to the fourth open-ended workshop on sustainable use of biological diversity addressed organizational issues, the workshop’s mandate, the outcome of three previously held regional workshops on the issue, and a synthesis of case-studies and views submitted to the Secretariat. They established two working groups that considered practical ways for measuring biodiversity components and their decline, and further developed practical principles and operational guidelines for the sustainable use of biodiversity. The outcome of the workshop, the “draft Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity” will be submitted to CBD SBSTTA-9 in November 2003. Report of the workshop.

UNFCCC WORKSHOPS ADDRESS ISSUES RELATED TO INSURANCE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
12-15 May 2003 | Bonn, Germany
Two UNFCCC workshops on insurance-related actions to address the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising from the adverse effects of climate change and from the impact of the implementation of response measures were held in Bonn, Germany on 12-13 and 14-15 May 2003, respectively. These workshops were mandated by a COP-7 decision (5/CP.7) on the implementation of Articles 4, paragraphs 8 and 9 of the Convention. The first workshop addressed insurance and risk assessment in the context of climate change and extreme weather events, and the second workshop covered insurance-related actions to address the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising from the adverse effects of climate change and from the impact of the implementation of response measures. More information.

 

GEF COUNCIL CONSIDERS RELATIONS WITH OTHER CONVENTIONS, OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS PLAN, MORE
14-16 May 2003 | Washington, DC, US
At this meeting, the GEF Council considered relations with other conventions, and reviewed and approved: an operational programme for the prevention and control of desertification and deforestation through sustainable land management; the introduction of standardized executive summaries of the project proposals in the work programme; the GEF’s Business Pan for the fiscal years 2004-2006; the 2004 corporate budget; and a paper clarifying classification and terminology concerning cofinancing. The Council also reviewed the fee-based system, expressing concern regarding the rising trend in the fees, and revised the terms of reference for the monitoring and evaluation unit and its director. The meeting also considered: the Action Plan to respond to recommendations of the Second GEF Assembly; the policy recommendations of the third replenishment; the Second Overall Performance Study of the GEF and the WSSD; expanded opportunities for Executing Agencies; engaging the private sector; and results of the CSD. Click here for the Chairs’ joint summary of this meeting.
 

 MEDIA REPORTS

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GEF ESTIMATES DOUBLING OF SMALL GRANTS BUDGET
 The Global Environment Facility’s small grants budget is projected to double from $30 million in 2003 to over $60 million in 2005, according to a GEF business plan FOR 2004-2006 recently approved at the GEF Council meeting in May. This increase in funding will augment the number of countries participating in the GEF’s Small Grants Programme, which offer recipients up to $50,000 in grant money, and enable more NGOs and community-based organizations to undertake projects that benefit both the global environment and local communities in developing countries. More.

STOCKHOLM WATER PRIZE NOMINATIONS
Nominations for the 2004 Stockholm Water Prize, sponsored by the Stockholm International Water Institute and under the patronage of Swedish King Carl XVI Gustav, are currently being sought and will be accepted until 30 September 2003. The Prize is presented annually to an individual, institution, organization or a company in recognition of outstanding research, action or education that increases knowledge of water as a resource and protects its usability for all life. More.

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PROJECTS TARGET YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND DESERTIFICATION IN FOUR COUNTRIES
Youth in Niger, Argentina, China and Mozambique will soon be involved in reforestation and other efforts to combat desertification in their countries. “Youth Corps for the Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands and the Environment in Niger” is a three-year project launched by the UNCCD, UNDP and the Government of Niger. Through it, youth will be trained to undertake anti-erosion measures, create tree nurseries, protect riverbanks, clean organic waste and keep bees. The activities will be defined jointly by the youth themselves, several ministries in the government of Niger, non-governmental organizations, rural communities, community-based organizations, the private sector and the two international UN organizations. More.

RAMSAR AND GREECE SIGN MOC
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and the Greek Environment Ministry signed a Memorandum of Collaboration (MOC) in June, which provides for continuing Greece’s hosting of the Convention’s MedWet Coordination Unit in Athens until the end of 2005 and its support of the Unit’s operations with annual funding of €160,000. More.

 

NEW PUBLICATIONS

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THE HANDBOOK FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TREATIES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER
(UNEP, June 2003) This sixth edition of the Ozone Handbook updates readers on what’s happening in the international arena of ozone protection up to the end of 2002. Divided into five main sections, the Handbook provides a detailed overview of the Ozone treaties. The first section presents the text of the Vienna Convention, and includes all the decisions adopted by the Conferences of the Parties to the Convention, organized under appropriate Articles. Section II reproduces the text of the Montreal Protocol, and provides a summary of its control measures. This section also presents all decisions of the annual Meetings of the Parties, arranged under each appropriate Article of the Protocol, and further contains summaries of destruction procedures, essential use exemptions, the Protocol’s noncompliance procedure, financial matters and declarations of the Parties. There is also a subsection on the Multilateral Fund, which includes its terms of reference and the composition of the Executive Committee and its rules of procedure. Section III addresses the Rules of Procedure for the meetings of the Parties to both the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol. Section IV provides information on the evolution of the Montreal Protocol from 1987 to date, including all the adjustments and amendments made to the original text. The final section, Section V, contains a resource guide to further information relevant to ozone protection. The Handbook is available as a CD-ROM and as a pdf file on the Ozone Secretariat’s website.

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN WATER MANAGEMENT
(UNDP, 2003) A Gender and Water Resource Guide entitled ‘Mainstreaming Gender in Water Management’ has been developed by UNDP in collaboration with the Gender Water Alliance (GWA) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) to assist development practitioners in mainstreaming gender within the context of integrated water resources management.

MAKING WAVES: INTEGRATING COSTAL CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
(Earthscan, 2003) Written by Neil Adger, Katrina Brown and Emma Tompkins, this publication lays out the dilemmas faced in managing conservation and development in coastal areas. Drawing upon the most recent scientific knowledge and social science insights on property rights and governance, the authors present a range of methods and techniques that can be used to identify trade-offs and promote sustainable decisions among diverse stakeholders.

WTO DOHA ROUND - TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT BRIEFS
(IISD, 2003) These briefing papers aim to set out what is at stake in the WTO Doha Round of negotiations in the areas of international development and environment. There are six briefs in the series each of which focuses on an issue of particular importance for sustainable development: non-trade concerns relating to agriculture; special and differential treatment; trade facilitation; government procurement; development and agriculture; and investment. The series will be updated periodically as the negotiations proceed.

 

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THE IMPACT OF OECD MEMBERS’ AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES ON WELFARE AND FOOD SECURITY IN SUB-SAHARAN: THE CASE OF MAIZE
(Hunger Task Force of the Millennium Project and the Earth Institute at Columbia University, May 2003) Maria Soledad Bos prepared this policy analysis, which evaluates the impacts of OECD agricultural subsidies for maize on welfare and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study asks two main questions: 1) How would Sub-Saharan African farmers and consumers be affected by a decline in OECD agricultural subsidies? and, 2) How would a decline in agricultural subsidies affect food security in Sub-Saharan Africa? The author concludes that a decline in subsidies in OECD countries using the case of maize will have a negative net welfare effect on all countries under consideration. The effect of declining agricultural subsidies on food security is undetermined, as the increase in production will improve it but the decline in consumption of maize will harm it. However, it is difficult to predict how consumers will substitute cheaper food in the face of rising maize prices.

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: NEEDS AND MODES OF COMPETENCE BUILDING
(Norwegian Centre for International Environment and Development Studies, Agricultural University of Norway, April 2003) This report examines opportunities for building scientific capacity in developing countries around the various applications for biotechnology. With particular reference to Africa the report looks at a range of applications from industrial to small scale agriculture.

GM CROPS: GOING AGAINST THE GRAIN
(ActionAid, May 2003) This paper examines fundamental questions regarding the role of GM crops in eradicating poverty and meeting the needs of poor farmers. It also addresses potential threats to basic and participatory rights, as well as biodiversity.

SWITCHED ON: RENEWABLE ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
(UNEP, June 2003) This handbook by UNEP explores how clean and renewable forms of energy can sustainably power the expanding tourism sector. It offers the latest information on solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and biomass (plant and animal matter) resources and demonstrates how tourism business powered by renewable energy can reduce environmental impacts, generate benefits for local communities and, often, lower costs. The handbook can help small and medium-sized tourism businesses assess these systems and technologies. It can also be used as a reference manual by policy makers seeking to develop sustainable consumption projects or policies.

 

ONLINE RESOURCES

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CMS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The CMS Information Management System brings together the information provided by the Parties to CMS through their national reports, the knowledge generated within CMS and other biodiversity-related agreements, and the data from various expert organizations. It includes information on: animals listed in the CMS appendices; animal groups of special interest to the CMS; information about Parties to the CMS; and information provided by Parties on specific themes.

E-FLASH PROVIDES UPDATES ON PREPARATIONS FOR THE WSIS
Published regularly by the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), E-Flash updates readers on preparations underway for the WSIS. The Summit, which is to be held in two phases, the first in Geneva in December 2003 and the second in Tunisia in November 2005, aims to develop a better understanding of the information and communication technologies (ICT) revolution and its impact on the international community. The July issue of E-Flash contains articles on: preparations for the upcoming intersessional meeting in Paris, engaging the business community, and the Pan-Arab WSIS regional conference. The issue also highlights relevant upcoming events and WSIS initiatives, including the launching of the Francophonie WSIS website. Read or subscribe to E-Flash at: http://www.itu.int/wsis/newsroom/eflash/latest.html
 

Linkages is provided by the International Institute for Sustainable Development, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin.
It is designed to be an electronic clearing-house for information on past and upcoming international meetings
related to environment and development policy.