BY IISD REPORTING SERVICES
Linkages Update is our means of keeping you informed of
what’s new on IISD Reporting Services'
website. This page is updated on a fortnightly
basis, while the website continually posts new information
provided by our seven
Issue Cluster Experts.
If you wish to submit relevant materials or subscribe to
Linkages Update, e-mail
ENB on Google News
You can now search for ENB’s coverage of international
Images from IISD Reporting Services’ digital coverage of
meetings are freely available, with proper citation. If you are looking for an image of a particular
person or event, use our
COMINGS AND GOINGS
EARTHWATCH EUROPE NAMES VORHIES AS NEW CEO
Frank Vorhies has been appointed as Chief Executive of
Earthwatch Institute’s European office. Vorhies will leave his
post as Head of the Business Unit at IUCN-The World Conservation
Union to join Earthwatch on 1 August 2003.
WRI APPOINTS PERSHING AS DIRECTOR OF CLIMATE PROGRAMME
Jonathan Pershing has been appointed director of the Climate,
Energy, and Pollution Program of the World Resources Institute (WRI).
Pershing, who currently heads the Energy and Environment
Division of the International Energy Agency in Paris, will begin
his duties at WRI in September 2003.
Ramsar seeks Executive Director for Panama Office: Panama
City, Panama; 7 July 2003.
UNEP-WCMC seeks Directors for
Assessment and Early Warning, and
Biodiversity Information Services Divisions:
Cambridge, UK, 7 July 2003.
UNOPS seeks GHG Inventory Project Manager: Senegal; 11 July
TRAFFIC-Europe seeks Programme Coordinator: Budapest,
Hungary; 11 July 2003.
UNOPS seeks Black Sea Project Manager:
Turkey; 18 July 2003.
CCD seeks Principal Coordinator: Bonn,
29 August 2003.
GEF seeks senior monitoring and evaluation consultants
Global Environment Facility (GEF) is looking to hire three
senior consultants in biodiversity, climate change and
international waters for its Monitoring and Evaluation Unit (GEFME).
duration of assignment is from September 2003 to June 2004.
Consultants will not have to relocate or be based in
although the work will require two or three visits to GEFME.
Click here for more information on new
appointments and vacancies
here to download complete list of upcoming meetings in pdf format.
recently added to
Seventh International Conference on Coelenterate Biology:
6-11 July 2003. Lawrence, Kansas, US.
Expert Meeting on Definitions and Dimensions of
Environmental Goods and Services in Trade and Development:
9-11 July 2003. Geneva, Switzerland.
International Workshop on Sustainable Development Criteria
for Carbon-Based Forestry Projects and the Mexican Climate
Change Policy Process: 23 July 2003. Mexico City,
Meeting of Parties to UNEP/CMS Agreement on Conservation of
Small Cetaceans of Baltic and North Seas (ASCOBANS):
18-22 August 2003. Esbjorg, Denmark.
Tunza International Youth Conference: 25-27 August 2003.
Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)
ASIA/PACIFIC MEETING: 28 August - 1 September 2003.
Christchurch, New Zealand.
30th Session of the IPCC Bureau: 4 September 2003.
Fifth World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference:
10-14 September 2003. Cancun, Mexico.
The Port Cros Symposium on Sustainable Fisheries and
Biodiversity: 21-23 September 2003. Porquerolles,
Workshop on Invasive Alien Species and the International
Plant Protection Convention (IPPC): 22-26 September
2003. Braunschweig, Germany.
UNEP/ESOMAR Conference on “Responsible Marketing -
Sustainability and Quality of Life. The Contribution of
Research”: 12-14 October 2003. Berlin, Germany.
Expert Group Meeting on the Standard Material Transfer
Agreement: 27-31 October 2003. Rome, Italy.
CGIAR Annual General Meeting: 28-31 October 2003.
IPCC Plenary 21st Session: 3-7 November 2003. Vienna,
Prepcom 1 of the International Conference on Chemicals
Management for Further Development of a Strategic Approach
to International Chemicals Management (SAICM): 10-14
November 2003. Bangkok, Thailand.
Ninth Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific,
Technical and Technological Advice of the Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD SBSTTA-9): 10-14 November
2003. Montreal, Canada.
Open-Ended Working Group on the Rules of Procedure,
Financial Rules, and Compliance: 10-14 November 2003.
Second Meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group
on Access and Benefit-Sharing: 1-5 December 2003.
Ad Hoc Working Group on
Article 8(J): 8-12 December 2003. Montreal,
International Training Programme on Utility Regulation and
Strategy: 12-23 January 2004. Gainesville, Florida, US.
Seventh Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to
the CBD (CBD COP-9): 9-20 February 2004. Kuala Lumpur,
First Meeting of the Conference of the Parties Serving as
the Meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on
Biosafety: 23-27 February 2004. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Interlaken Workshop on Decentralization: Federal Systems in
Forestry and National Forest Programmes: 27-30 April
2004. Interlaken, Switzerland.
UNFF-4: 3-14 May 2004. Geneva, Switzerland.
11th United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD
XI): 13-18 June 2004. Sao Paulo, Brazil.
20-23 July 2004. Switzerland.
Conference on Climate Change and Aquatic Systems: Past,
Present & Future: 21-23 July 2004. Plymouth, UK.
Negotiations of a Successor Agreement to ITTA, 1994:
26-30 July 2004. Geneva, Switzerland.
UNESCO Global Forum on Research and Higher Education Policy:
1-3 December 2004. Paris, France.
13-18 December 2004. Yokohama, Japan.
provides background information on various issues and multilateral
processes. Recently updated primers include:
Commission on Sustainable Development: includes overview of recent CSD
Convention to Combat Desertification: includes summaries of outcomes
of previous Conference of the Parties to the CCD
Global Forest Policy: includes reports on UNFF and ITTO sessions
Trade and investment in sustainable development: includes overview of
financing for development process
UNFCCC SUBSIDIARY BODIES SESSIONS PREPARE FOR
KYOTO'S ENTRY INTO FORCE
4-13 June 2003 | Bonn, Germany
Delegates at the eighteenth sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies
(SB-18) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) continued to address issues under negotiation since COP-8
and prepare for the Kyoto Protocol’s entry into force. Throughout
the meeting, Parties convened in contact groups, informal
consultations, and plenary sessions of the Subsidiary Body for
Implementation (SBI) and Subsidiary Body for Scientific and
Technological Advice (SBSTA) to adopt draft conclusions and approve
draft COP decisions on a number of issues, including: the Special
Climate Change Fund; implementation of UNFCCC Article 4.8 and
4.9 (adverse effects); capacity building; the programme budget for
the biennium 2004-2005; definitions and modalities for including
afforestation and reforestation activities under Protocol Article 12
(Clean Development Mechanism); “good practices” in policies and
measures (P&Ms); the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR); and
Since the UNFCCC was
adopted in 1992, negotiators have been busy constructing a Protocol
strong enough to meet the challenge of climate change. With Russia’s
ratification, the Kyoto Protocol will enter into force. SB-18 may
not have sent a stream of positive signals to Moscow or other Annex
I Parties, but positive signs were perceptible in discussions on
several issues that relate to the regime’s effectiveness and the
future direction of negotiations. Click here for the
Earth Negotiations Bulletin’s report on this meeting.
EXPERT MEETING ON SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND
PRODUCTION DISCUSSES 10-YEAR FRAMEWORK
16-19 June 2003 | Marrakech, Morocco
by the Division for Sustainable
Development of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs (UN DESA/DSD), in co-operation with the UN Environment
Programme (UNEP), this meeting aimed to work towards the development
of a 10-Year Framework in support of regional and national
initiatives to promote sustainable consumption and production. The
need for such a framework of programmes was endorsed in the
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation negotiated during the World
Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002.
The meeting included
Plenary sessions that provided participants with an overview of
issues related to sustainable consumption and production patterns
and an opportunity to hear the reports of regional expert meetings
held recently for the Asia-Pacific and the Latin America and
Caribbean regions. Delegates reviewed the Discussion Paper prepared
by UN DESA/DSD and heard keynote presentations on the role of public
purchasing power and consumer behavior in promoting sustainable
consumption and production. Participants also convened in four
working groups to discuss: human settlements and sustainable
consumption and production; general policy instruments and
analytical tools for sustainable consumption and production; tools
for promoting sustainable consumption patterns; and tools for
changing production patterns. An official report of this meeting
will serve as expert input to the Commission on Sustainable
Development for its consideration as part of its future work on
sustainable consumption and production. Click here for
Sustainable Developments’ coverage
of this meeting.
BIODIVERSITY CONFERENCE CONSIDERS TECHNOLOGY
TRANSFER AND CAPACITY BUILDING
23-27 June 2003 | Trondheim, Norway
Conference on Technology Transfer and Capacity Building, also known
as the fourth Trondheim Conference on Biodiversity, focused on
practical and technical follow-up measures for technology transfer
and capacity building as called for under the Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD).
meeting’s conclusions and recommendations will be incorporated into
a Chair’s report and Proceedings of the Conference and will be
submitted to CBD SBSTTA-9 as an information document and communicated to
other relevant fora. The discussions leading to these conclusions
contributed to achieving the Conference’s objectives to: enhance the
knowledge base on issues related to technology transfer and capacity
building; identify more efficient ways and means of building
capacity and developing sustainable and useful institutions; present
lessons learned and identify success factors regarding technology
transfer and capacity building; explore the role of traditional
knowledge in capacity building and technology transfer; and provide
a forum for cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary dialogue between
scientists and policy makers on issues related to the implementation
of Articles 16-19 of the CBD, dealing with technology transfer,
exchange of information, scientific cooperation and biotechnology.
Click here for
Sustainable Developments’ report
of this meeting.
HELSINKI AND OSPAR COMMISSIONS WORK JOINTLY TO
PROTECT THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
23–27 June 2003 | Bremen, Germany
Invited by the Federal Republic of Germany, the
Baltic Marine Environment Commission (Helsinki Commission - HELCOM)
and the Commission for the Protection of the Marine Environment of
the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) held their first joint meeting at
the ministerial level with the aim to improve the protection of the
marine environment of the North-East Atlantic and the Baltic Seas.
Participants stressed the need for: an ecosystem approach to the
management of human activities that affect the seas; collaboration
between all national and international authorities to protect the
seas, in the context of the EU’s European Marine Strategy; and joint
action to protect threatened and declining species and habitats.
Ministers also considered the environmental impact of fisheries and
IWC ADDRESSES CONSERVATION ISSUES
16–19 June 2003 | Berlin, Germany
Among this meeting’s accomplishments was the
formalization of the Commission’s role as a conservation body
through the Berlin Initiative on Strengthening
the Conservation Agenda of the IWC. With votes 25 in favor, 20
against and 1 abstention, the meeting established a Conservation Committee to
prepare and make recommendations on the IWC’s conservation agenda.
The Commission also established an intersessional
group to explore ways to move the Revised Management Scheme forward.
Two proposals for sanctuaries in the South Pacific and South
Atlantic failed to gain the necessary majorities and were rejected.
The Commission rejected a proposal by Japan for catch limits of 150
minke whales and 150 Bryde’s whales to be taken by coastal
community-based whaling. On scientific permits, it passed a
resolution urging countries to terminate or not to commence special
permit catches, and another one asking Japan not to continue its
special permit catches of Antarctic minke whales.
13TH MEETING OF STATE PARTIES TO UNCLOS
ADDRESS MATTERS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF
9-13 June 2003 |
New York, US
The 13th meeting of State Parties to the UN Convention on the Law of
the Sea met to discuss the International Tribunal for the Law of the
Sea and its budget. Parties adopted
the 2004 budget for the Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in the
amount of $8,039,000, together with the staffing table for the
Registry containing 16 Professional and 21 General Service posts.
The new budget represents a significant reduction in comparison to
the proposed amount of $8,614,900, which had been presented at the
opening of the session. A total of six draft decisions were adopted
on various budgetary and administrative questions, including death
and disability benefits for judges of the Tribunal, the court’s
expenses in 2004 and its staff assessment fund. Delegates also
discussed the application of article 319 of the Convention, pursuant
to which the Meetings of States Parties are convened, and heard a
statement by the Director of the Centre for Seafarers’ Rights, who
requested the Meeting to place on its agenda a thorough review of
the Convention’s protections for persons employed at sea, and review
how States implemented them. More
NAFTA COUNTRIES ADOPT BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY
24–25 June 2003 | Washington DC, US
At the tenth regular session of the Council of the
Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the Ministers of
Environment of Canada, Mexico and the US adopted by resolution a
Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of
Biodiversity. The meeting further discussed freshwater management,
trade in hazardous waste, chemicals’ management, and indicators of
children’s health and the environment. For more information, see the
CEC Ministerial Statement.
INTERNATIONAL MEETING ON AGRICULTURE FOCUSES
23-25 June 2003 | Sacramento, CA, US
The Ministerial Conference and Expo on Agricultural
Science and Technology, sponsored by the US Department of
Agriculture, the US Agency for International Development and the US
Department of State, gathered over 150 agriculture, science and
environment ministers and high rank government officials from 112
countries. A report on “21st Century Agriculture: a Critical Role
for Science and Technology,” presented by the US Secretary
for Agriculture served as the basis for discussions. The meeting
was met by thousands of protesters opposed to genetically modified
foods. A public rally was also organized by the NGOs Public Citizen
and the Sacramento Coalition for Sustainable Agriculture.
MIDDLE EAST WATER AND ENERGY WORKSHOP
27-28 May 2003 | Beit-Meri, Lebanon
Bank-organized roundtable on water and energy in the Middle East
brought together 150 participants from governments, the private
sector and the donor community to address critical financing and
policy needs for the water and power sectors in the Middle East and
North Africa. Participants discussed several critical areas for
improving water and power infrastructure, such as private sector
participation and regulation. Many noted that the private sector
will play a significant role in meeting the financing needs of both
sectors, and recognized that in order to attract the private sector,
proper regulatory frameworks based on transparent procedures need to
be in place. Private sector participants also called for more
streamlined procedures for transactions and enhanced upstream
involvement of the Bank in risk sharing.
THE FIFTH MEETING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN
WETLANDS (MEDWET) COMMITTEE
12-15 June 2003
| Izmir, Turkey
The fifth meeting of the Mediterranean Wetlands Committee
met to discuss country reports on the implementation of the Ramsar
Convention in the region and to discuss the MedWet Coordination
Unit’s proposed work and communications plans. A technical session
considered the interaction of wetlands, agriculture and water use as
part of the Conventions strategy of socioeconomic development and
wetlands conservation. In addition, a small number of expert
presentations were delivered with the aim of refining the
implementation of relevant Ramsar resolutions in the Mediterranean
Region and designing new paths of collaborations on the subject.
During the meeting, participants visited the nearby Gediz Ramsar
CARDOSO PANEL CONSIDERS UN-CIVIL SOCIETY
2-3 June 2003 |
New York, US
The UN Secretary-General’s High Level Panel on Civil Society,
chaired by former Brazilian President Cardoso, held its first
meeting at UN Headquarters in New York on 2-3 June 2003. The
Secretary-General established the Panel as part of a reform process
to make the United Nations more able to respond to the new demands
of the 21st century. The Panel is expected to deliver practical
recommendations on how the growing interaction between civil society
and the United Nations can be improved by April 2004.
Background materials for the June 2003 meeting included Cardoso’s
piece on the role of civil society in today’s world and a review of
the UN’s relationships with civil society prepared by the Panel’s
secretariat. The Panel reviewed its terms of reference and the
modalities through which it will function. Panelists highlighted a
number of concerns regarding the UN and civil society relationship,
including the need to clarify the rules of engagement to align them
with the realities of the 21st century, the need for improvements in
the relationship with civil society at international, regional and
national levels, and the need to create environments and
opportunities for genuine dialogue.
CBD WORKSHOP DRAFTS PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES
FOR THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY
6-8 May 2003 | Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Participants to the fourth open-ended workshop on
sustainable use of biological diversity addressed organizational
issues, the workshop’s mandate, the outcome of three previously held
regional workshops on the issue, and a synthesis of case-studies and
views submitted to the Secretariat. They established two working
groups that considered practical ways for measuring biodiversity
components and their decline, and further developed practical
principles and operational guidelines for the sustainable use of
biodiversity. The outcome of the workshop, the “draft Addis Ababa
Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity”
will be submitted to CBD SBSTTA-9 in November 2003.
Report of the workshop.
UNFCCC WORKSHOPS ADDRESS ISSUES RELATED TO
INSURANCE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
12-15 May 2003 | Bonn, Germany
Two UNFCCC workshops on
insurance-related actions to address the specific needs and concerns
of developing country Parties arising from the adverse effects of
climate change and from the impact of the implementation of response
measures were held in Bonn, Germany on 12-13 and 14-15 May
2003, respectively. These workshops were mandated by a COP-7
decision (5/CP.7) on the implementation of Articles 4, paragraphs 8
and 9 of the Convention. The first workshop addressed insurance and
risk assessment in the context of climate change and extreme weather
events, and the second workshop covered insurance-related actions to
address the specific needs and concerns of developing country
Parties arising from the adverse effects of climate change and from
the impact of the implementation of response measures.
GEF COUNCIL CONSIDERS RELATIONS WITH OTHER CONVENTIONS, OPERATIONAL
PROGRAMME FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS PLAN, MORE
14-16 May 2003 | Washington, DC, US
At this meeting, the GEF
Council considered relations with other conventions, and reviewed
and approved: an operational programme for the prevention and
control of desertification and deforestation through sustainable
land management; the introduction of standardized executive
summaries of the project proposals in the work programme; the GEF’s
Business Pan for the fiscal years 2004-2006; the 2004 corporate
budget; and a paper clarifying classification and terminology
concerning cofinancing. The Council also reviewed the fee-based
system, expressing concern regarding the rising trend in the fees,
and revised the terms of reference for the monitoring and evaluation
unit and its director. The meeting also considered: the Action Plan
to respond to recommendations of the Second GEF Assembly; the policy
recommendations of the third replenishment; the Second Overall
Performance Study of the GEF and the WSSD; expanded opportunities
for Executing Agencies; engaging the private sector; and results of
the CSD. Click here for the
Chairs’ joint summary of this meeting.
GEF ESTIMATES DOUBLING OF SMALL GRANTS BUDGET
Global Environment Facility’s small grants budget is projected to
double from $30 million in 2003 to over $60 million in 2005,
according to a GEF business plan FOR 2004-2006 recently approved at
the GEF Council meeting in May. This increase in funding will
augment the number of countries participating in the GEF’s Small
Grants Programme, which offer recipients up to $50,000 in grant
money, and enable more NGOs and community-based organizations to
undertake projects that benefit both the global environment and
local communities in developing countries.
STOCKHOLM WATER PRIZE NOMINATIONS
Nominations for the
2004 Stockholm Water Prize, sponsored by the Stockholm International
Water Institute and under the patronage of Swedish King Carl XVI
Gustav, are currently being sought and will be accepted until 30
September 2003. The Prize is presented annually to an individual,
institution, organization or a company in recognition of outstanding
research, action or education that increases knowledge of water as a
resource and protects its usability for all life.
PROJECTS TARGET YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND
DESERTIFICATION IN FOUR COUNTRIES
Youth in Niger,
Argentina, China and Mozambique will soon be involved in
reforestation and other efforts to combat desertification in their
countries. “Youth Corps for the Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands and
the Environment in Niger” is a three-year project launched by the UNCCD, UNDP and the Government of Niger. Through
it, youth will be trained to undertake anti-erosion measures, create
tree nurseries, protect riverbanks, clean organic waste and keep
bees. The activities will be defined jointly by the youth
themselves, several ministries in the government of Niger,
non-governmental organizations, rural communities, community-based
organizations, the private sector and the two international UN
RAMSAR AND GREECE SIGN MOC
The Ramsar Convention
on Wetlands and the Greek Environment Ministry signed a Memorandum
of Collaboration (MOC) in June, which provides for continuing
Greece’s hosting of the Convention’s MedWet Coordination Unit in
Athens until the end of 2005 and its support of the Unit’s
operations with annual funding of €160,000.
THE HANDBOOK FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TREATIES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE
2003) This sixth edition of the Ozone Handbook updates readers on
what’s happening in the international arena of ozone protection up to the
end of 2002. Divided into five main sections, the Handbook provides a
detailed overview of the Ozone treaties. The first section presents the
text of the Vienna Convention, and includes all the decisions adopted by
the Conferences of the Parties to the Convention, organized under
appropriate Articles. Section II reproduces the text of the Montreal
Protocol, and provides a summary of its control measures. This section
also presents all decisions of the annual Meetings of the Parties,
arranged under each appropriate Article of the Protocol, and further
contains summaries of destruction procedures, essential use exemptions,
the Protocol’s noncompliance procedure, financial matters and declarations
of the Parties. There is also a subsection on the Multilateral Fund, which
includes its terms of reference and the composition of the Executive
Committee and its rules of procedure. Section III addresses the Rules of
Procedure for the meetings of the Parties to both the Vienna Convention
and the Montreal Protocol. Section IV provides information on the
evolution of the Montreal Protocol from 1987 to date, including all the
adjustments and amendments made to the original text. The final section,
Section V, contains a resource guide to further information relevant to
ozone protection. The Handbook is available as a CD-ROM and as a
pdf file on the Ozone Secretariat’s website.
MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN WATER MANAGEMENT
2003) A Gender and Water Resource Guide entitled ‘Mainstreaming Gender in
Water Management’ has been developed by UNDP in collaboration with the
Gender Water Alliance (GWA) and the Swedish International Development
Cooperation Agency (SIDA) to assist development practitioners in
mainstreaming gender within the context of integrated water resources
MAKING WAVES: INTEGRATING COSTAL CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
2003) Written by Neil Adger, Katrina Brown and Emma Tompkins, this
publication lays out the dilemmas faced in managing conservation and
development in coastal areas. Drawing upon the most recent scientific
knowledge and social science insights on property rights and governance,
the authors present a range of methods and techniques that can be used to
identify trade-offs and promote sustainable decisions among diverse
WTO DOHA ROUND - TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT BRIEFS
2003) These briefing papers aim to set out what is at stake in the WTO
Doha Round of negotiations in the areas of international development and
environment. There are six briefs in the series each of which focuses on
an issue of particular importance for sustainable development: non-trade
concerns relating to agriculture; special and differential treatment;
trade facilitation; government procurement; development and agriculture;
and investment. The series will be updated periodically as the
THE IMPACT OF OECD MEMBERS’ AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES ON WELFARE AND FOOD
SECURITY IN SUB-SAHARAN: THE CASE OF MAIZE
(Hunger Task Force of the
Millennium Project and the Earth Institute at Columbia University, May
2003) Maria Soledad Bos prepared this policy analysis, which evaluates the
impacts of OECD agricultural subsidies for maize on welfare and food
security in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study asks two main questions: 1) How
would Sub-Saharan African farmers and consumers be affected by a decline
in OECD agricultural subsidies? and, 2) How would a decline in
agricultural subsidies affect food security in Sub-Saharan Africa? The
author concludes that a decline in subsidies in OECD countries using the
case of maize will have a negative net welfare effect on all countries
under consideration. The effect of declining agricultural subsidies on
food security is undetermined, as the increase in production will improve
it but the decline in consumption of maize will harm it. However, it is
difficult to predict how consumers will substitute cheaper food in the
face of rising maize prices.
BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: NEEDS AND MODES OF COMPETENCE
for International Environment and Development Studies, Agricultural
University of Norway, April 2003) This report examines opportunities for
building scientific capacity in developing countries around the various
applications for biotechnology. With particular reference to Africa the
report looks at a range of applications from industrial to small scale
GM CROPS: GOING AGAINST THE GRAIN
2003) This paper examines fundamental questions regarding the role of GM
crops in eradicating poverty and meeting the needs of poor farmers. It
also addresses potential threats to basic and participatory rights, as
well as biodiversity.
SWITCHED ON: RENEWABLE ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
(UNEP, June 2003) This handbook
by UNEP explores how clean and renewable forms of energy can sustainably
power the expanding tourism sector. It offers the latest information on
solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and biomass (plant and animal matter)
resources and demonstrates how tourism business powered by renewable
energy can reduce environmental impacts, generate benefits for local
communities and, often, lower costs. The handbook can help small and
medium-sized tourism businesses assess these systems and technologies. It
can also be used as a reference manual by policy makers seeking to develop
sustainable consumption projects or policies.