The First International Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Conference took place on 6 November 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya. Convened by the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), the meeting was attended by over 300 participants including national enforcement officials, government representatives and representatives from non-governmental organizations, international organizations and civil society.
Over the course of the day, participants discussed: recent trends in violations of international environmental law and the impacts of such violations on sustainable development and the implementation of internationally-agreed environmental goals; possible solutions to battle environmental crime; and the impact of new and existing tools in combating these violations. They also discussed the outcomes of, and future action points for, the Conference.
This report summarizes the discussions that took place, and is organized according to the agenda.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES
Environmental crime typically refers to any breach of national or international environmental law or convention that exists to ensure the conservation and sustainability of the world’s environment. When environmental criminal activities involve movements across national boundaries or have international effects, they can be termed “international environmental crimes.” Five types of international environmental crime are currently considered to be of major importance: illegal trade in wildlife; illegal logging and its associated timber trade; illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing; illegal trade in controlled chemicals (including ozone-depleting substances); and illegal disposal of hazardous waste. However, new types of environmental crime are emerging, for example in the carbon trade and water.
These international environmental criminal activities pose a threat to sustainable development and the effective implementation of, compliance with and enforcement of environmental law, including multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), whose enforcement and implementation they undermine. In addition to their serious environmental consequences, international environmental crimes may involve corruption, loss of tax revenue, parallel trading with other forms of criminal activity, and distortion of legal markets.
Because of their transnational nature, international environmental crimes need to be combated through internationally coordinated efforts. Law enforcement cooperation between authorities to combat these crimes face obstacles because environmental crimes typically lack common understandings and approaches between states. Thus several intergovernmental organizations and bodies, including UNEP and INTERPOL, are engaged in efforts to improve coordination and cooperation to effectively combat international environmental crimes. This brief history outlines some of these activities and a number of relevant environmental agreements and commitments.
Illegal wildlife trade is increasing with impunity across the world. A number of organizations and MEAs have taken steps to act on this growing threat through establishing working groups and committees to identify and discuss new strategies and practices. Many have also implemented compliance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure the effective implementation of international environmental law aimed at dealing with wildlife crime.
CITES: The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) was adopted as a response to growing concerns that the over-exploitation of wildlife through international trade was contributing to the rapid decline of many species of plants and animals around the world. The Convention was signed by representatives from 80 countries in Washington, DC, on 3 March 1973, and entered into force on 1 July 1975. There are currently 178 parties to the Convention.
The aim of CITES is to ensure that international trade of wild animal and plant species does not threaten their survival. CITES parties regulate wildlife trade through controls and regulations on species listed in three appendices. Appendix I lists species endangered due to international trade, permitting such trade only in exceptional circumstances. Appendix-II species are those that may become endangered if their trade is not regulated, so controls are provided aimed at preventing unsustainable use, maintaining ecosystems and preventing species from entering Appendix I. Appendix-III species are those subject to domestic regulation by a party requesting the cooperation of other parties to control international trade in particular specie(s).
The CITES Standing Committee (SC) considers cases of non-compliance by parties and may decide to, inter alia: provide in-country assistance to the party in question; request special reporting by or issue a written caution to that party; recommend specific capacity-building actions to be undertaken; request a compliance action plan be submitted by the party; and send a public notification of compliance matters to the Secretariat. Should these not be adhered to, the SC may decide to suspend commercial or all trade in specimens of one or more CITES-listed species for that party.
CITES has also partnered with other organizations to address wildlife crime, for example with the Great Apes Survival Partnership (GRASP) where the organizations conducted technical missions to Southeast Asia regarding the illicit trade in orangutans.
CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF MIGRATORY SPECIES OF WILD ANIMALS (CMS): The CMS was adopted in 1979 as a result of international concern over the threats to migratory species, including habitat shrinkage in breeding areas, excessive hunting along migration routes, and degradation of their feeding grounds. The Convention entered into force on 1 November 1983. Also known as the Bonn Convention, the CMS recognizes that states must protect migratory species that live within or pass through their national jurisdictions, and aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their ranges. The CMS currently has 116 parties.
The Convention was designed to allow for expansion and revision of commitments and to provide a framework through which parties may act to conserve migratory species and their habitat by: adopting strict protection measures for migratory species that have been characterized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges (species listed in Appendix I of the Convention); concluding agreements for the conservation and management of migratory species that have an unfavorable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international cooperation (species listed in Appendix II); and joint research and monitoring activities. At present, over a hundred migratory species are listed in Appendix I. CMS also provides for the development of specialized regional agreements for Appendix II species. To date, seven agreements and 19 memoranda of understanding have been concluded.
INTERNATIONAL CONSORTIUM ON COMBATING WILDLIFE CRIME (ICCWC): The ICCWC was established in November 2009. It is a collaborative effort between specialized staff from INTERPOL, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, the World Bank, the World Customs Organization (WCO) and CITES Secretariat. It aims to provide coordinated support to national law enforcement agencies and subregional and regional networks that act in defense of natural resources. Since its inception, it has, inter alia: hosted a workshop on establishing a network of controlled delivery units for forest and wildlife law enforcement in Shanghai, China, in December 2011; held a seminar on tiger crime for heads of police and Customs was during February 2012 in Bangkok, Thailand; and published the ICCWC wildlife and forest crime analytic toolkit to assist countries to review current responses to environmental crimes.
FOREST LAW ENFORCEMENT AND GOVERNANCE
Poor governance, corruption and illegal activity in the forest sector put forest-dependent populations at risk. The estimated value of illegal timber harvesting alone is valued at over US$10 billion. Often part of wider networks of corruption and environmental crime, illegal logging has also undermined efforts to halt deforestation and enhance carbon stocks to aid in climate change mitigation.
Although currently there is no global legally-binding agreement on forests, over the last ten years, a number of organizations, including the World Bank and the European Union (EU), have made significant efforts to support forest law enforcement and governance (FLEG). FLEG processes have provided a platform for stakeholders to engage in dialogue and reform. A number of projects providing technical assistance for and promoting FLEG have been implemented globally, including in Cameroon, Tanzania, Ghana and Liberia. These projects have helped to improve monitoring capabilities and create consensus on, and political will to undertake, priority reforms.
ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED FISHING
Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing undermines continued efforts to conserve and protect fish stocks, negatively affecting coastal states, particularly developing coastal states. In response to this, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Committee on Fisheries, a subsidiary body of the FAO Council, in 2001 adopted an International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter, and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing.
In response to IUU fishing, in 2008 the EU adopted a regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing, which entered into force on 1 January 2010. The regulation ensures that only marine fisheries products validated as legal by the competent flag state or exporting state can be imported to or exported from the EU and that an IUU vessel list is issued regularly, based on IUU vessels identified by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations; and offers the possibility to blacklist states that “turn a blind eye” to illegal fishing activities. It also provides for substantial penalties for EU operators fishing illegally elsewhere in the world under any flag, proportionate to the economic value of their catch.
The UN Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks holds that States should cooperate to ensure conservation and promote the objective of the optimum utilization of fisheries resources, both within and beyond states’ exclusive economic zones. The Agreement attempts to achieve this objective by providing a framework for cooperation in the conservation and management of fisheries resources. It contributes to the management and conservation of fish stocks through, inter alia, strengthening the role of regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements, and ensuring effective mechanisms for compliance and enforcement of international conservation and management measures.
Through its Division of Environmental Law and Conventions (DELC), UNEP’s work on transnational environmental crime focuses on providing leadership and working with partners to enhance the implementation of, compliance with and enforcement of environmental law at all levels. Among other things, this work aims toward: a better understanding of the global problems and existing gaps on transnational environmental crime; common approaches to more efficiently and effectively tackle transnational environmental crime from a legal standpoint; strengthening and reinforcing current international and national legal and institutional arrangements and law enforcement mechanisms to combat transnational environmental crime; strengthening and reinforcing national environmental laws to counter environmental crime; fostering and enhancing cross-border cooperation in the field of combating environmental crime; and strengthening and developing partnerships, coordination and cooperation between stakeholders. This work complements and builds upon existing partnerships and initiatives such as the Green Customs Initiative or DELC’s Capacity Building Programmes for the Judiciary.
INTERPOL ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT COMMITTEE
At the INTERPOL/UNEP International Chiefs of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Summit, held in March 2012, the decision was taken to restructure the INTERPOL Environmental Crime Committee to become the Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Committee (ECEC). The ECEC brings together executive leaders and decision makers from all 190 INTERPOL member countries to provide strategic advice on relevant issues and to harness global support. The first Executive Level - ECEC Meeting was held from 7–8 November 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya.
The work of the ECEC is supported by three working group on wildlife crime, pollution crime and fisheries crime.
UN OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME (UNODC)
UNODC was established in 1997 to assist member states in fighting illicit drugs, crime and terrorism. Through the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the UN Convention against Corruption, provision has been made for international cooperation on criminal matters as well as specific cooperation to combat wildlife and forest crime. The Conventions also require parties to adopt appropriate measures aimed at promoting law enforcement cooperation.
A series of resolutions and meetings have strengthened UNODC’s role to combat wildlife and forest crime. It was also the lead organization in developing the Wildlife and Forest Crime Toolkit.
SUMMARY OF THE MEETING
Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary-General and UNEP Executive Director, remarked on the growing prominence of international environmental law over the last four decades and said that the ozone treaties have demonstrated what legally-binding agreements can achieve. Stressing the dramatic increase in wildlife poaching and illegal trade, he stated that poaching is a failure of both national systems and international cooperation, saying that answers lie in the rule of law, enforcement and international cooperation to address global market forces promoting the illegal trade of hazardous substances and wildlife, as well as illegal logging and fishing.
Jean Michel Louboutin, Executive Director, Police Services, INTERPOL, said environmental crimes are one of the fastest growing categories of crime, due to the involvement of criminal networks drawn by substantial profits and relatively weak penalties. Outlining a number of INTERPOL-led operations to combat environmental crime, he said such crime cannot be dealt with effectively unless law enforcement officials, governments, the private sector, experts and international organizations work together, expressing hope that the Conference would devise strategies to obtain more resources for this “noble cause.”
Githu Muigai, Attorney General, Kenya, said that the illegal trade in environmental commodities poses a threat to environmental and human health, contributes to species extinction, leads to revenue loss and undermines environmental agreements, while providing important resources to criminal syndicates who in turn undermine international peace and security. Noting unprecedented growth in wildlife poaching in Africa, driven by increasing international demand for ivory and involving armed groups using sophisticated methods, he said new tools are needed to deal with the problem. He also highlighted Kenya’s efforts to tackle wildlife and other environmental crime and suggested the Conference propose solutions to raise the prominence of the issue on the international agenda.
TRENDS AND IMPACTS OF CRIME AND OTHER ILLICIT ACTIVITIES AGAINST THE ENVIRONMENT
Steven Broad, Executive Director, TRAFFIC, outlined TRAFFIC’s work, noting that it addresses conservation, social and economic challenges. He said that as a consequence of wildlife and environmental crime, resources are depleted and livelihoods and resource security are undermined. He stated that market opportunities for illicit environmental goods have grown with the increase of connectivity worldwide. He noted that the issue is high on the political agenda, with many new national policies and frameworks being introduced. Opportunities and rewards, he said, can and do change when the right message is promoted. He underlined that the biggest challenge will be to convert the outcomes of this and other similar meetings to help and assist in combating wildlife crime.
Justice Pauline Nyamweya, Presiding Judge, Land and Environment Division, High Court of Kenya, noted key challenges facing the Kenyan Judiciary in tackling wildlife crime. She said that due to limited knowledge and capacity among judicial officers to understand wildlife crime, awareness raising is necessary. She stated that at times the institutional landscape can be confusing due to its complexity and urged coordination between the relevant sectors.
Timo Makela, Director, International Affairs, Environment Directorate-General, European Commission, said that although there is difficulty in measuring wildlife trade, its magnitude is equal to that of the illegal drugs trade or human trafficking. He said responses thus far have focused on environmental governance and trade issues, but these responses are no longer sufficient as the issue goes beyond the environment and sustainable livelihoods. He called for assessing and debating how environmental crime fits in with sustainable development goals.
Patrick Omondi, Head, Species and Conservation Management, Kenya Wildlife Service, called for a moratorium on ivory trade, saying that such a ban may improve the elephant and rhino populations. He suggested that addressing the drivers of demand for ivory would assist in decreasing poaching activity. He said that law enforcement officers should have adequate equipment and capacity to address these issues and urged establishing an “intelligence network” to enhance collaboration and discussion on this topic.
Tanna queried the number of criminal convictionsfor environmental crimes and wondered why such crimes are not considered “serious.” Nyamweya said that convictions are common, but sentences often involve fines that are affordable for convicted offenders and thus do not deter them from re-offending. She stressed the need to raise sentences and create new forms of punishment for environmental crimes, saying that Kenya is reviewing its laws in this area.
In response to a question from Tanna on improving diplomatic efforts to combat illegal trade, Makela said that massive volumes of traded materials make it virtually impossible for port officials to identify containers of illegally-harvested fish, thus making it necessary to tackle demand. Broad said that certifying fish and timber to a certain environmental standard could help, but that it must be concomitant with enforcement. Nyamweya emphasized the need to train judicial officers and lawyers on environmental law.
Omondi said that illegal wildlife trade and corruption will continue to exist if both demand and prices remain high. Noting that customs officials often struggle to understand non-wildlife related crime, Makela stressed the benefit of networks and knowledge-sharing for implementation officials, particularly in ports. He said schemes that sensitize economic actors and make them responsible for exercising due diligence in their supply chains are key to phasing out illegal timber and illegally-traded wildlife.
Broad said that two challenges associated with fisheries involve the harvesting of fish in international waters and illegal fisheries “free riding” on legal ones.
A representative from the University of Washington said that losses of up to 50,000 elephants per year are an urgent law enforcement issue. Omondi agreed on the need to focus on enforcement in addition to demand and said considerable investments are needed in equipment and technologies, including night-vision equipment and helicopters, to save more animals.
The Environmental Investigation Agency said that CITES has not kept keep pace with free trade agreements and the most valuable species listed in Appendix I can be smuggled into a country and are then considered legal. He queried whether African elephants can be saved if the EU, the US, China and Japan do not ban domestic ivory trade. Omondi said no, stressing that one of the best ways to decrease appetite for ivory is to ban its domestic use, and supported moving all elephant populations to Appendix I as an experiment.
Tanna inquired about CITES sanctions and how bans could affect wildlife prices. Makela said upstream policies are preferable, but mechanisms such as bans and import tariffs could bring economic benefits or influence demand. Broad said that prices are a function of demand, and the challenge is that new markets can emerge in new places. With respect to sanctions, he said that compliance measures available in CITES have been used in the past and could be helpful, but the international community seems increasingly more reluctant to use these types of measures.
Cameroon said that, in addition to technical responses, a change in mindset is required to combat environmental crime. The Democratic Republic of Congo said air transit movements of illegal merchandise were a challenge. Claiming that his government had received a complaint from CITES that UN officials were involved in carrying illegal products out of his country, he wondered how to bring them to justice, given that they have diplomatic immunity. Nyamweya said that such complicity and corruption remains a problem and suggested instilling a culture of integrity. The US queried whether establishing a permanent working group for forest crimes would be effective. The Humane Society of Canada urged finding new ways to solve old problems, asking “when my grandchildren ask what happened in 25 years, what should I tell them?”
SOLUTIONS AND IMPACT
Azzedine Downes, President and CEO, International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), noted the lack of fora to share experiences and knowledge, saying that this has contributed to the crisis. He said that stakeholders should operate as a crisis management team, with available resources not being limited to those needed to address demand drivers. He said that currently there is good political will currently, but lamented that this is mostly because of terrorism concerns. He urged parties to generate political will to deal with environmental crime and use it their advantage.
On elements to possible solutions, he said that wildlife crimes should be treated as actual crimes, urged criminal profiling and “following the money,” and called for ensuring trust, coordination and cooperation among stakeholders.
Catherine Bearder, Member of the European Parliament, outlined EU regulations on environmental issues and noted gaps in enforcement of some of these regulations. She stressed the need to change consumer attitudes, noting it would take considerable work and require political will.
Phil Gawne, Minister for Environment, Food and Agriculture, Isle of Man, shared the experience of his country in developing a sustainable fishing industry and its partnership with Sierra Leone to help the country to combat illegal fishing. Noting that Sierra Leone still faces challenges, he said good science, regulations and education of those involved in fisheries are key elements that lead to positive change, and observed that while enforcement plays a role, willingness to engage and understand everyone’s concerns is also essential to ensuring lasting progress.
Lasse Gustavsson, Executive Director, Conservation, WWF International, said that wildlife crime is getting considerable attention and urged seizing this opportunity to tackle the problem by: improving on-the-ground enforcement; engaging in culturally-appropriate demand reduction efforts; and dealing with the trade chain to make poaching less attractive. He claimed that wildlife crime on a large scale has important consequences for society at large and deserves higher punishment for perpetrators as well as political will to allocate more resources to combat it.
Ben Janse van Rensburg, Chief of Enforcement Support, CITES, said that wildlife crime is a highly lucrative business that has become more complex with the involvement of organized crime. Noting that poachers are dealt with relatively effectively, he said that they can be replaced easily and will continue to exist unless crime fighters also deal with national exporters and international buyers. He then stressed the importance of increased international cooperation, noting that the recently-created ICCWC provides a pool of expertise that will help face the multi-faceted challenges of wildlife crime.
During the ensuing discussion, on a query from Tanna regarding the results of assisting Sierra Leone in combating IUU fishing, Gawne said that once the artisanal fishermen had been informed on the issues and allocated an area for use, they became generally quite protective and willing to work on the issue.
On ways to convert food insecure populations from committing environmental crimes, Downes provided an example of a successful IFAW fish farm implemented in Malawi, which he said had improved community safety, decreased fish poaching in the national park, improved irrigation and increased food security. He said that the challenge, however, is in scaling up successful local initiatives such as the IFAW project.
Gustavsson clarified that poaching is driven by organized crime syndicates, saying that although this is a conservation issue, it is more a governance and law enforcement issue. He underscored that wildlife crime must be treated as a crime and not solely as a “conversation issue.” He also noted the success of decreasing demand for shark fins, which should increase shark numbers.
Tanna questioned if the shark finning success could be replicated for elephants and rhinos. Janse van Rensburg said that implementing CITES fully and properly will ultimately assist in ensuring the survival of species. Beacher said that some actions such as implementing legislation and awareness raising could help decrease demand for products. Downes lamented that the system for decreasing ivory demand in the East has generally failed, suggesting that banning ivory may be a solution.
South Africa noted that its investigations of criminal enterprises, including those driving environmental crimes, analyze the entire value chain and identify the weaknesses therein, saying that this methodology has been useful in addressing crime. Cameroon suggested that governments provide alternatives to avoid citizens becoming involved in environmental crimes in order to protect their livelihoods.
Beacher said that many countries hold politicians in high regard, which increases the difficulty of effectively addressing corruption and urged using existing tools to “name and shame.” Janse van Rensburg said that “the plans need to leave the paper,” noting that this could be done through ensuring that the relevant officers are aware of these strategies. Equatorial Guinea expressed regret about the absence of the WCO at the Conference, noting the need for close collaboration between the WCO and INTERPOL.
OUTCOMES AND ACTION POINTS
Masa Nagai, UNEP DELC, presented a one-page document summarizing the issues discussed and proposals made during the Conference. Noting that INTERPOL responds to its member countries’ interests, priorities and responses, David Higgins, INTERPOL Environmental Crime Programme, asked participants to identify five priority action points that in their view would have a significant impact on suppressing illegal criminal environment activities.
Several participants supported the establishment of national environmental security task forces (NESTs). Higgins explained that NESTs are multi-stakeholder task forces that seek to enhance collaboration between national law enforcement actors. Belgium stressed the need for collaboration and information gathering, saying this could be done through NESTs. Angola suggested establishing a task force for rapid responses to illegal trade. The Netherlands suggested that INTERPOL draft an intelligence agenda on environmental crime. The US proposed that INTERPOL spend resources to build the capacity of prosecutors to address environmental crimes. Zimbabwe called for capacity building of investigators and prosecutors.
Nigeria, supported by Zimbabwe, suggested INTERPOL finalize and widely disseminate manuals on environmental crimes, and Zimbabwe proposed developing toolkits based on these manuals to make them operational and action-oriented. Nigeria said that a resolution on environmental crime by the UN Environment Assembly of UNEP could give strong footing for future collaboration between INTERPOL, UNEP and other key actors.
Israel suggested INTERPOL focus on information collection and sharing to support local police, cautioning against work to build capacities and training, which he said was the purview of CITES and other environmental agreements.
Referring to the conclusion document, Norway suggested, inter alia, highlighting that the problems of environmental crimes affect all three pillars of sustainable development and called for adding a reference to the UNODC in the document. Nagai agreed to edit the document as proposed by Norway.
An observer from Australia said the document could call for the participation of intergovernmental organizations other than UNEP and INTERPOL. Norway also proposed expanding the Stolen Vessel Database to include vessels suspected of fisheries crime and other forms of crime.
Ethiopia stressed the need to launch campaigns at all levels to sensitize the population about the importance of environmental compliance. Honduras supported creating standardized plans that all countries could use, noting many countries face similar problems. Ghana supported harmonizing legislation to deter criminals. Ecuador called for capacity building, in particular police training, in environmental crime. The UK urged developing intelligence capabilities to prevent environmental crimes, noting that too much emphasis is placed on enforcement. He added that “you could name the top 10 terrorists, but not the top 10 environmental criminals.”
Argentina cautioned against using the term “environmental crime” without referring to national legislation, expressing the view that only national legal systems define criminal law and there is no international environmental crime as such.
Summarizing the proposals made by participants, Higgins outlined as key points:
- the need for a multidisciplinary approach or platform for collaboration, communication and cooperation to look at obstacles and opportunities at all levels;
- the need for intelligence and assessments to identify threats, transfer information, support investigations and extend current databases into other crime areas (e.g., fishing vessels);
- the need for an international or regional capacity building platform to, among others, facilitate standardization of planning and share intelligence and information; and
- the establishment of an international task force to harmonize approaches for addressing environmental crimes and create links with national task forces.
Thanking all participants for their contributions, Nagai closed the Conference at 5.38pm.
First meeting of the Environmental Network for Optimizing Regulatory Compliance on Illegal Traffic (ENFORCE): ENFORCE seeks to promote parties’ compliance with the provisions of the Basel Convention pertaining to preventing and combating illegal traffic in hazardous wastes and other wastes through the better implementation and enforcement of national law. The first meeting of the network is expected to: elect a Chair and a Vice-Chair; consider accepting additional members; exchange information on activities and identify activities that would benefit from being coordinated or jointly planned and implemented; and deliberate on the modalities for the operation of the network. dates: 18-19 November 2013 location: Bangkok, Thailand contact: Secretariat of the Basel Convention email: email@example.com phone: +41-22-917-8218 fax: +41-22-917-8098 www: http://www.basel.int
ITTC-49: The 49th Session of the International Tropical Timber Council and the Associated Sessions of the four Committees will meet in Gabon. dates: 25-30 November 2013 location: Libreville, Gabon contact: ITTO phone: +81-45-223-1110 fax: +81-45-223-1111 email:firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.itto.int
African Elephant Summit: Convened by the Government of Botswana and IUCN, the Summit will secure commitment to take urgent action along all aspects of the illegal ivory value chain to effectively protect elephants and significantly reduce trade in illegal ivory. dates: 2-4 December 2013 location: Gaberone, Botswana contact: Dianne Skinner email: email@example.com www: http://www.iucn.org/african_elephant_summit
CITES AC27: The twenty-seventh meeting of the Animals Committee (AC) of the Convention in Trade in Endangered Flora and Fauna (CITES) will meet immediately prior to the joint session of the AC and the Plants Committee (PC). dates: 28 April - 1 May 2014 location: Veracruz, Mexico contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8139/40 fax: +41-22-797-3417 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cites.org
CITES PC21/AC27: The twenty-first PC and the twenty-seventh meeting AC of CITES will have a joint session. dates: 2-3 May 2014 location: Veracruz, Mexico contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8139/40 fax: +41-22-797-3417 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cites.org
CITES PC21: The twenty-first meeting of the CITES Plants Committee will meet immediately following the joint session of the PC and the AC. dates: 4-8 May 2014 location: Veracruz, Mexico contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8139/40 fax: +41-22-797-3417 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cites.org
31st Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI 31): This session will, inter alia: review the work programmes of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the field of fisheries, and their implementation; conduct periodic general reviews of international fishery problems; consider the desirability of preparing and submitting to Member Nations an international convention under Article XIV of the Constitution to ensure effective international cooperation and consultation in fisheries on a world scale; and report to the Council or tender advice to the Director-General, as appropriate, on matters considered by the Committee. dates: 9-13 June 2014 location: Rome, Italy contact: FAO Fisheries email: FAO-COFI@fao.org www: http://www.fao.org/unfao/govbodies/gsbhome/committee-fi/en/
First Session of the United Nations Environment Assembly of UNEP: As a result of the June 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), UNEP’s 58-member Governing Council became the United Nations Environment Assembly of UNEP with universal membership in March 2013. dates: 23-27 June 2014 location: Nairobi, Kenya contact: Jamil Ahmad, Secretary of Governing Bodies phone: +254-20-7623431 fax: +254-20-7623929 email: email@example.com www: http://www.unep.org/about/sgb/
Tenth Meeting of the Rotterdam Convention Chemical Review Committee (CRC-10): CRC-10 will review chemicals and pesticide formulations according to the criteria set out by the Convention in Annexes II and IV respectively and make recommendations to the COP for listing these chemicals in Annex III. dates: 20-24 October 2014 location: Rome, Italy contact: Rotterdam Convention Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8296 fax: +41-22-917-8082 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.pic.int/
26th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: MOP 26 is scheduled to consider a number of issues, including nominations for critical- and essential-use exemptions and other draft decisions forwarded from the OEWG. dates: November 2014 location: to be confirmed contact: Ozone Secretariat phone: +254-20-762-3851 fax: +254-20-762-4691 email: email@example.com www: http://ozone.unep.org
Basel COP 12, Rotterdam COP 7 and Stockholm COP 7: The 12th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Basel Convention, seventh meeting of the COP to the Rotterdam Convention, and seventh meeting of the COP to the Stockholm Convention are expected to convene back-to-back in May 2015. date: May 2015 location: Geneva, Switzerland contact: Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Secretariats www: http://synergies.pops.int/Home/tabid/813/mctl/ViewDetails/EventModID/8849/EventID/411/xmid/8753/language/en-US/Default.aspx
CITES COP17: The Conference of the Parties on the Convention in Trade in Endangered Flora and Fauna will convene for its seventeenth session in South Africa. dates: 2016 location: Cape Town, South Africa contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8139/40 fax: +41-22-797-3417 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cites.org