The Forests Asia Summit 2014 took place in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 5-6 May 2014. The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and the Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia, organized the conference. CIFOR is part of the CGIAR Consortium and is based in Bogor, Indonesia.
The summit addressed themes related to the landscape approach, which integrates the land-based sectors of forestry, agriculture, fisheries, livestock, mining, and urban land use as elements of an overall sustainable development agenda. The meeting addressed five main themes: governance and legal frameworks to promote sustainable landscapes; investing in landscapes to promote green returns; climate change and low-emissions development on the ground; forest landscapes for food and biodiversity; and changing communities, sustainable landscapes, and equitable development.
President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono opened the summit. Many high-level representatives of government and the private sector attended the event, including environment ministers from Brunei, Myanmar, Peru and Singapore, senior officials, and leaders from the agriculture, banking, oil palm and timber-related industries. Summit discussions began with a high-level panel on ‘Green Growth in Southeast Asia,’ followed by parallel discussion forums on the themes of the conference, which took place over the two days.
Several special events took place, including: lunchtime learning sessions on fire and haze, and forestry research and education in Southeast Asia; a breakfast roundtable discussion on sustainable agriculture and rural livelihoods; and an evening presentation by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) on a Global Plan of Action for the conservation, sustainable use, and development of forest genetic resources in Asia. Youth representatives met in a special session on Monday evening. A Landscapes Issues Marketplace offered a place for participants to view and discuss sustainable landscapes solutions.
Over 2,700 people took part in the summit, with 5,500 more watching the online live stream of the event.
The summit resulted in a range of commitments by government and industry leaders to promote a landscape approach in forestry management, research, and education. In the ASEAN context, the summit supported strategies to promote green growth policies, strengthen law enforcement in relation to land tenure, land use and trade, develop a low-carbon economy, and reaffirm the potential for REDD+.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE FORESTS ASIA SUMMIT IN THE CONTEXT OF ASEAN AND THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA
The Forests Asia Summit 2014 was preceded by several key events, including the Global Landscapes Forum in 2013, and the Forests Indonesia Conference in 2011.
GLOBAL LANDSCAPES FORUM: CIFOR, with partners, organized the Global Landscapes Forum on the margins of the 19th Conference of Parties (COP) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations in Warsaw, Poland, in November 2013. This forum helped shape the themes of the Forests Asia Summit 2014. A second Global Landscapes Forum, planned for 2014 at the 20th COP in Lima, Peru, will disseminate summit outcomes. CIFOR has organized Forests Days events on the sidelines of the UNFCCC COPs from 2007 to 2012. These events, in combination with other events, became the Global Landscapes Forum, which reflects the need for an integrated approach to land and its uses.
FORESTS INDONESIA CONFERENCE: In 2011, CIFOR hosted the Forests Indonesia Conference: Alternative Futures to Meet Demands for Food, Fiber, Fuel and REDD+. On that occasion, the President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono pledged to dedicate his presidency to the conservation and sustainable use of Indonesia’s forests. Two CIFOR-led workshops that took place in the lead-up to the 2014 summit also provided input to discussions: a January 2014 meeting in Jakarta, Indonesia, on forest fire haze, and a March 2014 ‘field dialogue’ on the changing outlooks for food, fuel, fiber and forests in Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia.
The themes of the Forests Asia Summit 2014 related to several ongoing policy processes, including the work of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) towards achievement of the ASEAN Community 2015; the UNFCCC; and the Open Working Group (OWG) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
The ASEAN Community 2015 aims to achieve a single market and production base (the ASEAN Economic Community) that will provide greater market access for ASEAN products globally, including for forest products; and to forge a common identity (the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community) based on principles of social responsibility, including protection of food security and ecosystem services, mitigation of and adaption to the impacts of climate change, and eradication of poverty. Several countries in the region, including Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam, have established voluntary targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase forest cover to mitigate the impacts of land-use changes, such as the spread of oil palm plantations. The summit contributed to these aims through discussion of policy options.
Countries in the region have been active in international policymaking processes on sustainable development, including green growth and green economy discussions. Several ASEAN countries are represented on the OWG on SDGs, which has 69 rotating members, including Thailand, Viet Nam, Indonesia and Singapore, filling its 30 places. The OWG will report to the UN Secretary-General in September 2014. Indonesia, along with Liberia and the United Kingdom (UK), also co-chaired the 27-member High-Level Panel appointed by UN Secretary-General to advise on the post-215 development agenda, which delivered its report in May 2013. In 2012, the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Assembly drafted a resolution on ‘The Creation of a Green Economy to Promote Sustainable Development.’ Other regional agreements relevant to discussions on the Forests Asia Summit are the ASEAN Integrated Food Security Framework and Strategic Plan of Action on Food Security in the ASEAN Region (2009-2013) and the 2010 ASEAN Leaders’ Statement on Joint Response to Climate Change, which recognizes the importance of agricultural research and the sustainable management of forests.
REPORT OF THE FORESTS ASIA SUMMIT 2014
On Monday morning, Peter Holmgren, Director General, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), drew attention to the importance of forests and sustainable landscapes in relation to the sustainable development goals (SDGs), the post-Kyoto climate change agenda, and the green economy. He urged delegates to use the summit to find solutions to scale up sustainable landscapes in the region through tangible commitments such as investments and research.
Keynote address and speeches: President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, called on governments in Southeast Asia to develop a regional strategy to promote adaptive capacity, as well as to advance low-emission development policies. Underscoring Indonesia’s dedication to pro-environment, pro-growth, pro-jobs and pro-poor development policies, he drew attention to the country’s moratorium prohibiting the clearing of primary forests, the newly-commissioned REDD+ Management Agency (Badan Pengelolaan REDD+, known as BP REDD+), and efforts to reduce slash-and-burn agricultural practices that increase peatland fires and forest degradation. He reiterated his commitment to strengthen forestry governance, noting that this commitment is in line with Indonesia’s policy on growth with equity.
U Win Tun, Union Minister for Environmental Conservation and Forestry, Myanmar, called for the creation of enabling policies to scale up existing solutions and the promotion of innovation on sustainable landscapes for green growth. He underscored the importance of forests and landscapes in contributing to regional policies on poverty eradication, sustainable land use, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and food security and nutrition.
Vivian Balakrishnan, Minister for Environment and Water Resources, Singapore, stressed that: the roots of environmental degradation are misaligned commercial interests that seek short-term profits; the main victims of environmental degradation are indigenous and local communities (ILCs) near those degraded lands; and there is an urgent need for governments, NGOs, and ILCs to insist on transparency and collaborate to pursue and prosecute those responsible. Stating that traditional slash-and-burn agriculture was not to blame for severe haze engulfing Southeast Asia in June 2013, he encouraged the use of new technologies to build a system of transparency to make companies accountable for their actions.
Discussion panel on Green Growth in Southeast Asia: Moderator Pavan Sukhdev, CEO, Green Initiatives for a Smart Tomorrow Advisory and UN Environment Programme Goodwill Ambassador, noted that green growth will need to address environmental risk, ecological scarcities, and socio-economic concerns.
Discussing some challenges to conserving and sustainably harnessing natural resources, Akhom Tounalom, Vice Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), highlighted forest and land management policies to address issues related to hydropower development, including forest product certification.
On environmental conservation and sustainable livelihoods, Franky Widjaja, CEO, Golden Agri-Resources, informed delegates of an innovative financing mechanism through Indonesia’s Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kamar Dagang dan Industri, known as KADIN) that would triple smallholder production in the palm oil industry.
Sunny Verghese, Managing Director, Olam, emphasized the importance of building relationships with communities as a basis for realizing the long-term benefits of sustainable agriculture.
Andrea Bassi, CEO, KnowlEdge Sri, outlined the need for innovative analysis to assess green growth, including analysis on: investments, such as built and manufacturing capital and avoided costs; ecosystem services loss; added benefits, such as new and additional jobs; and social and human capital.
Peg Putt, CEO, Markets for Change, emphasized the importance of considering global supply and demand, stressing that addressing unsustainable production in one location will only shift such production to a new location until demand is tackled. She suggested: paying to maintain forests, mangroves, and ecosystem services; addressing the drivers of unsustainable consumption; and encouraging consumer awareness and activism.
LUNCHTIME LEARNING EVENTS
Two events took place in parallel during the lunch break on Monday: on fire and haze in Southeast Asia; and on forestry education and research in Asia.
Fire and haze in Southeast Asian landscapes: Panelists identified rainfall deficits, land-use conflicts, and uncertainty of land tenure arrangements as contributing to the 2013 fires in Riau, Indonesia, and the ensuing transboundary haze problem. Noting that his company has a ‘no burn’ policy, Petrus Gunarso, Asia Pacific Resources International Ltd., a pulp and paper company known as APRIL, called on the Indonesian government to finalize spatial land-use plans at the national level and on local governments to provide funding for fire prevention, including for periods when big fires have not broken out. Ahmad Dhiaulhaq, The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC), stressed the value of mediation in resolving land conflicts.
Forestry education and research in Asia: Speakers discussed challenges facing higher education with regards to forestry, particularly the need for a new generation of foresters trained to address the economic, environmental, and social aspects of forest management. Hendrayanto, Bogor Agricultural University, identified common challenges, including lack of a problem-solving curriculum, inadequate human resources, and limited Internet access. He suggested improving human resources, increasing learning sources, and promoting inter-university collaboration. Tint Lwin Thaung, Executive Director, RECOFTC, recommended forestry education incorporate additional skills training, including training on business, conflict transformation, and leadership.
During discussion, participants asked questions on, inter alia: tensions between adopting a ‘niche’ subject and embracing ‘multi-disciplinarity’; challenges experienced by inter-disciplinary students in gaining employment; and engagement of students in designing education programs.
PARALLEL DISCUSSION FORUMS
On Monday afternoon, 18 discussion forums took place on the themes of: governance; investment; climate change; food and biodiversity; and equitable development.
Three sessions took place under this theme, addressing: access and security rights to land and resources; the role of certification; and jurisdictional approaches to green development.
Moving certification to the landscape level with ecosystem services: The panel explored the promotion of landscape level sustainability, including through governance and legal frameworks such as certification, land tenure reforms, and transboundary regulation. The presentations included discussion of the Forest Stewardship Council’s (FSC) Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services scheme.
Governing access and security rights to land and resources: Ganga Dahal, Rights and Resources Initiative, presented an overview of forest tenure in Southeast Asia. He suggested that balancing statutory distribution of tenure rights across private, state, and community actors could improve governance and increase benefits.
Andi Idris Syukur, Head, Barru Regent, South Sulawesi, described community forestry as a mechanism for poverty reduction.
Zahrul Muttaqin, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia, stressed forest tenure as key to sustainable forest management (SFM), noting that unclear or insecure tenure may directly trigger deforestation and forest degradation.
Noel Fauzi Rachman, Executive Director, Sajogyo Institute for Indonesian Agrarian Studies, discussed post-colonial decisions made by Indonesia’s constitutional court, stressing that defective natural resources laws contribute to social injustices and inequality.
Participants raised questions on community land ownership in China, the relationship between forest property and sustainability, and Indonesia’s REDD+ strategy, among others.
Jurisdictional approaches to green development: Iwan Wibisono, BP REDD+ Indonesia, and David Ganz, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), summarized REDD+ implementation in Indonesia and Viet Nam, respectively. Lex Hovani, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), stressed the need to focus on management and governance outcomes in a jurisdictional approach that is flexible enough to deal with various possible future scenarios for carbon finance. Michael Dwyer, CIFOR, placed REDD+ in a historical context of an evolving forest management process in Lao PDR, highlighting the government’s role in scaling up from a project-level approach.
Panelists commented on: the ability of jurisdictions to control land use, management, and outcomes and thus guarantee emissions reductions and risk of reversals for financing contracts; tensions between national and subnational levels of government that are implementing REDD+ at different paces; and difficulties in implementing jurisdictional approaches on top of existing project-level approaches.
Three sessions took place under this theme, addressing: financing for green returns, sustainable oil palm development, and promoting sustainable timber.
Innovative approaches to financing for inclusive green returns: Basah Hernowo, Ministry of National Development Planning, Indonesia, discussed Indonesia’s efforts to move towards a low-carbon economy and adapt to climate change, underscoring the role of multiple funding mechanisms. To improve the value of the forest sector, he said it is critical to first improve governance.
Thomas Heller, Executive Director, Climate Policy Initiative, said incentives for change at a scale that can manage climate risk will not come from policies or international transfer but from fundamental economic and structural changes.
Lou Munden, Founder, The Munden Project, emphasized that investors need evidence that a particular investment, such as in smallholders, will generate a return. He recommended focusing on processes in agriculture and forestry that result in tangible, saleable products, highlighting the Landscape Fund as one way to approach this goal.
Yalmaz Siddiqui, Office Depot, said his company has primarily purchased paper from the US and Europe because of concerns about reputation risk associated with Asian sourcing. He called for using contracts to encourage environmental sustainability.
Moriz Vohrer, Gold Standard Foundation, described the Foundation, which has more than 1,000 certified projects that deliver 10 million tons of carbon credits. He encouraged governments to look to existing carbon market standards, rather than creating their own rules.
During a question-and-answer session, participants discussed challenges related to evidence for investors. Participants also asked about: environmental performance requirements for performance mechanisms; collateral; market signals; and perverse incentives.
Improving private sector and smallholder participation and performance in sustainable oil palm development: Moderator Gary Paoli, Daemeter Consulting, discussed ‘blended governance,’ where state and non-state actors are working together, suggesting that investment may be a positive push for green growth.
Piers Gillespie, International Finance Corporation, recommended that communication experts raise local community awareness on their rights when they are entering into agreements with large palm oil companies. He noted that work still needs to be done to support the Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil System, and he suggested a national campaign for sustainable palm oil.
Adrian Rinaldi Suharto, Neste Oil Singapore Pte Ltd., via Skype, said the most important concern from a buyer’s perspective is certification, which largely excludes smallholders. He advocated for an investment scheme that would cater to the smallholders and enable them to meet predefined minimum requirements.
Ben Ridley, Credit Suisse, noted that different banks dealing with the palm oil sector focus on various elements and supported microfinance and micro-insurance to cater to smallholders. He also urged more banks to join the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO).
Anna van Paddenburg, Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), called for greater government participation in creating funds that are accessible to smallholders.
Participants raised questions on, inter alia: how smallholders can access financing to mechanize their farms in order to better manage peatland fires; and financial mechanisms that can incentivize sustainable practices among smallholders.
Promoting sustainable timber production: Moderator Herman Haeruman JS, University of Indonesia and Bogor Agricultural University, called for more research and multi-stakeholder dialogues on sustainable timber production practices.
Trieu Van Khoi, Viet Nam Administration of Forestry (VNFOREST) noted that the value of timber-based export turnover increased substantially between 1998 and 2010 in his country. He said that, while the Government of Viet Nam’s reforestation efforts created employment, the plantations destroyed biodiversity at an alarming rate.
Purwadi Soeprihanto, Association of Indonesian Forest Concessionaires, noted that attracting financial support depends on companies’ ability to demonstrate business feasibility. On inclusive timber production businesses, he stressed that they must be sustainable, benefit low-income communities, and increase communities’ prosperity as part of the value chain.
Sulthon Mohammad Amin, Kharisma Jati Antik, examined the global furniture trade from a small-scale perspective. He shared lessons learned from the demand-driven value chain in the province of Jepara, Indonesia, noting that the furniture industry contributes 26% to the Jepara economy.
Herry Purnomo, CIFOR, discussed conflict among industry players, including companies, smallholders, and large landowners. He noted the high transaction cost of multi-stakeholder processes, which reduce land profit but provide long-term social benefits.
André Hue, Agence Française de Développement, stressed that in Indonesia there is a need to support policy development around forest management units, which should address long-term issues including governance, inclusiveness, and land tenure security.
Five sessions took place on this theme, addressing: trade-offs between low-emission development and societal welfare; lessons from ASEAN-REDD; REDD+ for a green economy; mangroves; and equity and economics in REDD+ programmes.
Low-emissions development and societal welfare: In this session on trade-offs, risks, and power struggles, moderator Louis Verchot, CIFOR, introduced a global comparative study on REDD+ policy arenas and practitioners, covering issues of effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and co-benefits.
Monica Di Gregorio, CIFOR, noted that effective implementation of REDD+ policies requires autonomy from those economic interests that provide a perverse incentive for deforestation and land degradation. She highlighted the role of the media in changing perceptions.
Moira Moeliono, CIFOR, stressed the importance of cross-scale information flows for REDD+ implementation. Noting the need to move from discussions on inclusivity to tangible action, she underlined the importance of governments getting other stakeholders on board, especially NGOs, in order to help raise awareness of national policies on the ground.
Iman Santoso, Conservation International, described mapping challenges in REDD+ implementation. He noted that, over a thirty-year period, the government and other stakeholders have made great strides in creating a comprehensive spatial plan for Indonesia through the One Map Initiative.
Dharsono Hartono, President, PT Rimba Makmur Utama, shared the challenges of operationalizing a REDD+ project, using the example of the Katingan Peatland Restoration and Conservation Project on 200,000 hectares in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. He said it took almost six years to obtain an ecosystem restoration concession, mainly due to palm oil interests in large sections of forested land, as well as a bureaucratic government system that prevented earlier action.
Participants discussed the One Map Initiative’s role in assisting stakeholders to effectively conserve forested lands and the role of local communities in achieving low-emission development.
Building natural capital: How REDD+ can support a green economy: This event considered the potential for “green bonds” as high-value, novel mechanisms to direct financing towards green economic development over business-as-usual investments. Panelists and participants also discussed the role of government in spurring sustainable economic activities, including realigning incentives and subsidies away from polluting industries and harmful agricultural practices. Regarding the move to a green economy through operationalizing REDD+, panelists highlighted the ways in which this shift will require a transition away from current thinking on investment and the valuation of natural capital. Panelists noted that some of these transitions are already embodied by REDD+, including in, inter alia, the valuation of carbon stocks, increased focus on governance reform and transparency, and equitable benefit sharing. Participants also examined the need for standards to define “green” investments, including through verification by external parties, in order to reduce risk and complexity for investors, ensure transparency, and simplify product selection.
Lessons from ASEAN – REDD+ policy development and implementation: The ASEAN Regional Knowledge Network on Forests and Climate Change presented this session, discussing how ASEAN Member States can use regional platforms to strengthen their roles at the international REDD+ negotiations and to support national REDD+ policy development and implementation. The discussion addressed lessons learned from ASEAN Member States in developing REDD+ infrastructure and tackling the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, taking into account differences in geography, land policies, and legislative frameworks.
Managing mangrove forests for climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits: I. Nyoman Suryadiputra, Wetlands International Indonesia, and David Ganz, USAID, presented on linkages between mangroves, silvo-fisheries, and carbon financing. Ganz noted that mangrove conservation is a popular corporate social responsibility activity in Southeast Asia. Jake Brunner, IUCN, highlighted the certification of integrated mangrove-shrimp polyculture systems as an alternative to failing payment for ecosystem services mechanisms in Viet Nam, as certification addresses problems related to willingness to pay, permanence, and compliance. Richard Mackenzie, US Forest Service, presented protocols for quantifying carbon stocks in wetland ecosystems and techniques to monitor mangrove adaptation to sea level rise.
Participants discussed: differentiated benefit sharing systems when coastal communities collaborate to achieve scale for carbon financing; impacts of upstream development on sedimentation rates in mangrove systems; and prioritizing conservation of resilient and adaptive mangroves.
Seeing Green in REDD – Sharing experiences on the equity and economics of REDD+ pilot projects: This panel discussed: research showing high household dependence on forest ecosystems; using green bonds to finance the transition to sustainability; avoiding corrupt practices in setting up REDD projects; and fair, equal, and transparent benefit distribution mechanisms for REDD. Participants commented on the difficulties of scaling up from pilot projects to landscapes and coordinating multiple mechanisms within one country. Participants stressed that discussions at the village level are important to ensure equity and transparency, and build trust.
Food and biodiversity
Three sessions took place on this theme: Sloping Lands in Transition (SLANT); forest livelihoods for food security; and a report-back on a dialogue in Central Kalimantan on the ‘4Fs’ – food, fuel, fiber and forests.
Sloping lands in transition – ecosystem services and rural livelihoods: Xie Chen, State Forestry Administration, China, presented the results of the national Conversion of Cropland to Forests Program, highlighting increased supply of fruits and other edible non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and increased per unit area yield of grains through intercropping.
Kanchi Kohli, independent consultant, India, described upland agro-forest mosaics that maintain high forest cover in a farm-forest continuum and cautioned that conservation mechanisms such as REDD+ may contribute to fracturing this continuum.
Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), presented on changes in upland forests of the Mekong region, from traditional shifting cultivation practices to monoculture tree crops, particularly smallholder rubber plantations. He noted that, while these plantations increase forest cover, they are less biodiverse than the secondary forests that would have resulted from shifting cultivation.
Summarizing key themes presented, Kiran Asher, CIFOR, questioned the assumption that the food production and biodiversity conversations are incompatible. On the utility of multi-stakeholder dialogues, Chen highlighted cross-sector linkages within government, and Kohli questioned the underlying power dynamics and representativeness of such dialogues.
On the role of the private sector and green growth on sloping lands, Kohli questioned the green growth concept and recommended that the private sector reduce forest-farm fractures. Schmidt-Vogt said the private sector’s role in rubber plantations has been growth-oriented, but not green, and that production systems need to be more diverse.
Supporting forest livelihoods for food security, adaptation and mitigation: The International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) organized the session. This panel highlighted the importance of under-utilized species like bamboo and rattan for livelihoods and for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Participants encouraged rethinking current models of growth and development that result in negative externalities, and a global shift from growth to mitigation, noting that a slight reduction in GDP would yield large benefits in terms of reducing global warming.
Food, fuel, fiber and forests (4Fs) in Indonesia - The case of Central Kalimantan: The Forests Dialogue and CIFOR presented outcomes of a field dialogue in Palangkaraya, Kalimantan, Indonesia, from 16-19 March 2014 on ‘The 4Fs Initiative: Managing Landscapes for Food, Fuel, Fiber and Forests,’ inviting reflections and further discussion. Participants noted the need to: pursue forestry objectives in the wider context of the SDGs and landscape approaches; address core social issues to create enabling conditions for landscape approaches; increase engagement with the private sector; develop business opportunities for smallholders and small and medium enterprises (SMEs); create more effective and better coordinated governance; and better understand the environmental impacts of production systems.
Breakout groups discussed: social issues; governance; private sector roles; opportunities for smallholders; and the impacts of production systems.
Four sessions took place on: improving livelihood benefits for forestry smallholders; equity in benefit sharing; social forestry for a green economy; and sustainable landscapes, green growth, and poverty reduction.
Improving livelihood benefits for smallholders in the forestry value chain: The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research presented partners’ research on increasing timber and NTFP benefits to smallholders.
James Roshetko, ICRAF, said many smallholders view teak as a ‘living bank account,’ to be sold in small quantities as needed. Participants discussed incentives to improve silviculture practices and move smallholders further up the value chain, including the value of certification schemes for sustainable timber products. They agreed there should be increased investment in research into all stages of the forestry value chain, and that issues must be understood also from the perspectives of local stakeholders. Ani Adiwinata Nawir, CIFOR, noted that some policies create high transaction costs to smallholders and that sustainability verification requires land ownership papers, which many villagers do not have. Participants recommended that incentives to increase productivity and value should be tailored to the local context and should focus on capacity building at the community level. They recognized that farmers require a level playing field to be created, through equitable policies on issues such as certification, which should be applied to timber, non-timber and agricultural products.
Panelists recommended tailoring incentives to the local context to increase productivity and value, and focusing on capacity building at the community level to increase smallholders’ ability to access the green market.
What is the fairest of them all? Assessing aspects of equity in incentive mechanisms for natural resource conservation and management: Moderator Cecilia Luttrell, CIFOR, highlighted debates around which groups should be prioritized to satisfy equity considerations and what level of profit should accrue to various actors. Panelists discussed land tenure issues in Myanmar, community forestry experiences from Nepal, the design of a benefit sharing mechanism for REDD+ in Indonesia, and Payments for Forest Ecosystem Services (PFES) in Viet Nam. Participants recommended that efforts go into strengthening community rights, including allocation of tenure rights to local communities and smallholders, which are essential for them to be able to receive benefits from PFES.
Participants discussed whether PFES delivers adequate benefits to smallholders relative to other land-use options. Naya Sharma Paudel, ForestAction Nepal, stressed that benefit sharing should go with a mandate to conserve environmental resources. Iwan Wibisono, BP REDD+, said the system should incentivize those who perform well, including in addressing deforestation, and that the multiple co-benefits of forests should be considered.
Participants discussed the need for a bridge from local implementation to the national government, noting that, while not all problems can be solved, some compromises and trade-offs can be negotiated. They recommended investments in capacity building and technology to enhance smallholders’ ability to monitor and evaluate land use and forest cover, and also to verify land rights.
Social forestry and sustainable value chains towards a Green Economy in ASEAN: Heinz Walker-Nederkoorn, Swiss Ambassador for Indonesia and ASEAN, said Switzerland is supporting: the integration of social forestry into overall policy; sharing of experiences among ASEAN countries; and capacity building.
Ramon Razal, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, presented a study on NTFPs in six Southeast Asian countries. He recommended, inter alia: creating an ASEAN expert working group on NTFPs; and promoting NTFPs in national policies.
Muhammad Rakib, farmer, Indonesia, and Johnny Utama, PT Dian Niaga, shared their experiences with forest honey production. Rakib and Utama emphasized the importance of trust and long-term commitments among communities, the private sector and NGOs in such enterprises.
Ken-ichi Abe, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, described the cultivation and marketing of fair-trade coffee in East Timor, noting that access to information is a barrier to improving production quality.
Wiratno, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia, and Chair of the ASEAN Social Forestry Network, said provincial and local districts and politicians are not prioritizing social forestry programs.
Christine Padoch, CIFOR, stressed the importance of working within smallholder systems to build upon local knowledge and management traditions. Noting the diversity of smallholders and their livelihoods, she suggested considering the role of migration and remittances in value chains.
During the discussion, participants recommended, inter alia: improving the quality of NTFPs through building capacity, encouraging farmers’ pride in their products; providing technology; and creating an enabling environment to promote community forestry. They recognized shortening value chains as a challenge that requires effort, investment financing, time, and trust.
Sustainable landscapes, green growth and poverty reduction: Yurdi Yasmi, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), outlined opportunities for SFM to contribute to a green economy. On whether private-sector approaches can be compatible with smallholder modes of operation, Doris Capistrano, ASEAN-Swiss Partnership on Social Forestry and Climate Change, called for research into new models of cooperation, such as federated smallholder cooperative arrangements that can engage more effectively with external agencies.
Adam Grant, New Forests Asia, said forest investments in Asia and Africa could achieve 10-22% rates of return, representing low-risk investments for hedge funds, which can also help plantations meet social and ecological sustainability standards.
Hadi Susanto Pasaribu, ASEAN-Republic of Korea Forestry Cooperation, presented a grassroots initiative modeled on Korea’s post-war ‘Saemaul Undong’ (New Community Movement), which fostered diligence, self-help, and cooperation as a means to national modernization.
IMPLEMENTING FAO’S GLOBAL PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE CONSERVATION, SUSTAINABLE USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES IN ASIA
On Monday evening, Doug Maguire, FAO, gave an overview of the forthcoming Report of the State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources. He said there is little data on forest genetic resources, despite their importance in relation to biodiversity, food, and water security. Judy Loo, Bioversity International, highlighted that the Global Plan of Action (GPA) will need to be implemented at the national level, noting the importance of regional-level cooperation, an international commitment of resources, and good governance as key elements for successful implementation. Rina Kamenetsky, Bioversity International, spoke on restoring ecosystems using genetically appropriate material, noting that this approach is vital for species survival.
Delegates then discussed the membership of the Asia-Pacific Forest Genetic Resources Programme, the urgent need for financing for forest genetic resources in developing country regions, and gender considerations regarding the management and maintenance of forest genetic resources.
Delegates agreed on the following recommendations: integrating the strategic priorities of the GPA into national programmes and international processes; mobilizing resources to implement the GPA, including research and monitoring; and national governments and NGOs working to increase awareness of the importance of forest genetic resources.
SPECIAL SESSION ON YOUTH IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
On Monday evening, a special session also took place on ‘Youth in Southeast Asia.’ Organized and facilitated by youth, the session aimed to develop action-oriented recommendations to engage youth in forest management.
Andhyta Firselly Utami, Indonesia, called on youth to harness their idealism, optimism, connectedness and willingness to break rules to organize and engage in forestry policy-making processes. The session then broke into roundtable groups to discuss the conference’s five main themes. Facilitators reported back to plenary, highlighting recommendations on, inter alia: pressuring national governments to sustain dialogue on the haze issue in Southeast Asia; naming and shaming corrupt actors in the forest sector; promoting transparency in green investments to avoid ‘greenwashing’; encouraging youth skill development and training; promoting urban forestry and edible landscapes for food security; and promoting private sector commitments to reforesting degraded landscapes.
BREAKFAST ROUNDTABLE BUSINESS DIALOGUES
On Tuesday morning, panelists discussed sustainable agriculture as a mechanism for improving livelihoods, lifting people out of poverty, and ensuring sustainable land use. They highlighted the role of corporations in building smallholders’ capacity and supporting rural infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, and schools. Scott Poynton, Executive Director, The Forest Trust (TFT), called for greater transparency in how companies operate, emphasizing the importance of strengthening civil society capacity to verify corporate practices. Anthony Yeow, President Director, Cargill Tropical Palm Holdings, described Cargill’s commitment to source all of its palm oil products from RSPO members by 2020.
Participants discussed, inter alia, the relationship between organic farming and sustainable agriculture, and the role of public-private partnerships in fostering action-oriented research on agriculture and forests.
TUESDAY MORNING PLENARY
Welcome address: Peter Holmgren, Director General, CIFOR, announced the T20Q initiative, a call to identify the 20 most important questions for forestry research.
Plenary speech: Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, Minister of Environment, Peru, called for ensuring that forests are part of development and climate debates, and for forest-related indicators to be part of the post-2015 development agenda and the SDGs. He highlighted the need for reliable information on forests, law enforcement, conflict resolution, recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights, and incentives to encourage the private sector to manage forests. He noted that “a bottom-up agreement” will be needed at the 20th Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 20) in Lima, including the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, “in a new way, in which everyone has their own responsibility.” He said COP 20 will need to develop clear content for adaptation aims and revise financial arrangements, including capitalization of the Green Climate Fund, to ensure a strong draft agreement for signing at COP 21 in Paris in 2015.
Ministerial addresses: Pehin Yahya Bakar, Minister of Industry and Primary Resources, Brunei Darussalam, committed to: ensuring sustainable and responsible agriculture practices, including limiting Brunei’s agriculture production to 1% of its land area while ensuring food security through high-yield crops; offering its tropical rainforest for research on terrestrial flora and fauna, marine life, forest microbes and microorganisms; and collaborating on the Heart of Borneo Initiative. He emphasized that Brunei’s landscape approach aims to promote sustainable development and minimize forest degradation and biodiversity and ecosystem services loss. He further described Brunei’s peat forest preservation and forest protection and conservation strategy.
Demetrio Ignacio, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the Philippines, highlighted his country’s achievements in: combating deforestation and illegal logging through a logging ban and increased enforcement; and enhancing reforestation through a National Greening Programme, which involves communities in replanting to address poverty, increase food supply, and combat climate change.
Plenary discussion panel on collaborative approaches: Moderator Scott Poynton, Executive Director, TFT, highlighted emerging examples of collaboration between companies and communities in Indonesia to resolve land conflicts and encouraged panelists to reflect on challenges and successes of collaborative approaches.
Hadi Daryanto, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia, shared an approach that entailed discussing the timber legality standard with separate groups of stakeholders in environments in which they are comfortable, and then bringing them together for final discussions.
Shinta Kamdani, KADIN, highlighted the challenge of unifying small-, medium- and large-scale companies with different interests as one private sector voice. She noted KADIN’s role in establishing a social conflict resource unit, facilitating land swaps and promoting best management practices for oil palm smallholders.
HIGH-LEVEL PANEL DISCUSSIONS
Governance and legal frameworks to promote sustainable landscapes: Ty Sokhun, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, reviewed his country’s experience in devolving authority to communities for forests and fisheries through new laws and comprehensive land reform programmes. He emphasized the value of subnational democratic mechanisms and integrative action across ministries and levels.
Olof Skoog, EU Ambassador to Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam, and ASEAN, outlined progress on the Voluntary Partnership Agreement on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT-VPA) agreement between the EU and Indonesia. Stressing the importance of a credible multi-stakeholder dialogue, he described Indonesia’s work on developing its national timber legality assurance system (Sistem Verifikasi Legalitas Kayu, or SVLK), and the EU’s ongoing evaluation of it.
Mas Achmad Santosa, President’s Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight, Indonesia (known as UKP4, or Unit Kerja Presiden Bidang Pengawasan dan Pengendalian Pembangunan), described national initiatives to: reform forest and peatland governance; improve licensing; help in the recognition of customary societies; develop REDD+ conflict resolution mechanisms; and support law enforcement using multiple legal regimes.
Rukka Sombolinggi, Indigenous Peoples’ Alliance of the Archipelago (AMAN), underscored the unintended results of law enforcement and legality in Indonesia, highlighting the arrest of four indigenous leaders under a new law combatting illegal logging. She noted that the Ministry of Forestry still controls most land and resources, and called for involving other ministries in tenure reform. She stated that two Ministry policies contrasted with a court ruling on the constitutional land rights of indigenous people, even though the Ministry is in charge of implementing the constitutional ruling.
Kim Carstensen, Executive Director, FSC, highlighted positive social impacts of certified concessions in the Congo Basin and commented on the need to harmonize FSC standards and the SVLK in Indonesia.
Discussion revolved around: SMEs’ access to legality verification and certification systems; problems associated with legal definitions of indigeneity and their implications for new laws; enforcement efforts victimizing indigenous people and other marginalized groups; utility of market mechanisms in benefiting indigenous peoples; and the gap between legality and sustainability.
Investing in landscapes for green returns: Moderator Peter Holmgren, CIFOR, underscored that investments are not synonymous with unsustainable actions, and green growth does not mean lower profits. Sanath Ranawana, Asian Development Bank, explained the role of public finance in creating an enabling environment for the private sector to make comparable gains in their investments in sustainable landscapes. J.W. Saputro, Executive Director, Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), Indonesia, noted that the MCA acts within the profitable realm between the management of the environment surrounding an investment, and sustainable economic growth. Hilde Jervan, Council on Ethics for the Norwegian Government Pension Fund, noted that the Council’s decisions on what is ethical are guided by ethical norms and their concerns about specific company behaviour. Nguyen Ba Ngai, VNFOREST, spoke on the achievements of the Viet Nam government in rolling out PFES, but noted the administrative burden on the government of maintaining the system. In the discussion, participants asked whether companies would consider moving from ‘do no harm’ to ‘do most good’ policies, and about access to the Millennium Challenge Corporation funds for countries in Southeast Asia.
Climate change and low emissions development on the ground: Louis Verchot, CIFOR, moderated this session, with panelists Howard Bamsey, Australian National University; Mitsuo Matsumoto, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan; Puja Sawhney, Asia Pacific Adaptation Network; Moray McLeish, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Peter Wehrheim, European Commission.
Participants considered how to bring the issue of forests closer to the finance sector, and they anticipated decoupling economic growth from agriculture and forestry-generated emissions. Wehrheim discussed the example of the EU in decoupling economic growth from emissions through emissions trading schemes, carbon pricing, and setting tougher emission standards for vehicles, refrigerators, and appliances.
Participants agreed that the landscapes approach is people-focused. They emphasized that spatial planning, together with a plan for reporting, oversight, compliance and vigilance, will attract investors.
They concurred that for REDD+ and the landscapes approach to succeed, stakeholders must collaborate and adopt a holistic approach, working with other sectors instead of in silos, and ‘connecting the dots’ between forests and energy, water, food, soil and landscapes.
Forest landscapes for food and biodiversity: Moderator Simran Sethi, University of Melbourne, noted that while overweight people outnumber underweight ones for the first time in history, nutritional deficiency remains an issue.
Lesley Potter, Australian National University, cited the experience of Sanggal district, Kalimantan, Indonesia, which became food insecure after cultivation of food crops had been abandoned and prices of their palm oil and rubber collapsed. She recommended promoting ‘designer landscapes’ that incorporate high-yield oil palm as part of an agro-forestry mix including food crops. She lamented the ‘Indomie-zation’ of local diets while traditional, diverse sources of nutrition are neglected.
Cristina Eghenter, World Wildlife Fund Indonesia, emphasized the importance of resilience and food sovereignty, food as cultural identity, and the role of dietary preferences in choosing food crops.
David Cooper, the Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat, highlighted the correlation between tree cover and children’s health. He noted the need for accurate forest monitoring and for that information to be in the public domain.
David Carden, former US ambassador to ASEAN, stressed the need for alliances, education, and making choices based on “what is good for the world.”
Andreas Beckermann, German embassy, Indonesia, highlighted his country’s support for testing the landscape approach in several countries, including Indonesia.
Participants raised questions on: addressing forest degradation as well as deforestation; addressing food insecurity in a decentralized way through creating local markets; and educating people about good nutrition. Panelists noted that scientific understanding of nutrition changes over time. Some expressed support for maintaining traditional diets, as well as learning more about interactions with the body’s internal biome.
Changing communities, sustainable landscapes and equitable development: Tint Lwin Thaung, RECOFTC, discussed four priorities for equitable community forestry: secure forest tenure; policy implementation; coordinated landscape approaches; and inclusion of community forestry in the development agenda, including the SDGs.
Joan Carling, Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact, stressed that equitable development should address the needs of the poorest, particularly women and children, and close gaps between the rich and poor.
Parmaningsih Hadinegoro, Danone Aqua, described watershed management as a responsibility shared by government, community, and private sector actors.
Jatna Supriatna, UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network, stressed the role of communities in SFM.
Participants discussed, inter alia: tradeoffs between development and conservation in community land-use decisions; incentives for community conservation; investments in forestry and capacity development of communities to manage forests; the need for collaboration and dialogue between communities, state, and private sector stakeholders in managing sustainable landscapes; consideration of the complexity and heterogeneity of community needs and priorities; need for more research on rural livelihoods and landscape effects of shifting cultivation systems; and dissemination of research results for policymakers, decision makers and local communities.
LANDSCAPES ISSUES MARKETPLACE
On Tuesday, the landscapes issues marketplace at lunchtime offered a forum for participants to meet and talk with organizations and institutions. Topics included: emissions reduction through SFM; CIFOR’s evidence-based forestry programme; sustainable cocoa production in agroforestry systems linked to low-carbon emission economic development; regeneration of tropical peatlands; and forests and food security.
On Tuesday afternoon, participants heard keynote speeches that underscored the need for urgent action on climate change, and investing in sustainable landscapes.
Climate change, forests and landscapes: In a keynote speech on climate change, forests, and landscapes, Rajendra Pachauri, Chairperson, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, informed delegates that climate change is not only causing migration of biodiversity from forest ecosystems and landscapes, but also a migration of forests themselves, and, in some cases, their total loss. Pachauri highlighted the opportunities for mitigation through carbon capture and storage technologies and bio-energy in the agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors, noting the positive co-benefits associated with implementing these technologies.
Investing in sustainable landscapes: Mark Burrows, Credit Suisse, drew attention to a ‘perception gap,’ noting that the public sector, private sector, and civil society often use sector-specific jargon to describe the same problems. He called for political will to correct market failures by rethinking financial systems and holistic approaches to green growth. He emphasized green bonds as a way to favor certain types of investments. He recommended standards, third-party verification of standards, and incentives to encourage investment in sustainable landscapes.
PANEL DISCUSSION ON THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN DELIVERING GREEN GROWTH
Moderator Louis Verchot, CIFOR, encouraged panelists to reflect on how the private sector can lead the way to green growth, and how business can profit from sustainable practices.
Aida Greenbury, Managing Director, Sustainability and Stakeholder Engagement, Asia Pulp and Paper (APP), highlighted APP’s commitment to a zero deforestation policy and an ambitious reforestation and conservation program. She promoted the private sector as the key driver for green growth, as it can move more quickly and is incentivized by consumer demand and procurement policies of other actors down the supply chain. Endorsing the landscape approach, she anticipated a return on investment in conservation and reforestation, in terms of resources that will be available in the future.
Ben Ridley, Credit Suisse, described the bank’s involvement in research on private sector conservation finance, responsible investment products, and multi-stakeholder dialogues such as the RSPO.
Glen Hurowitz, Managing Director, Climate Advisers, discussed how his organization is advising “green tiger” economies of Southeast Asia on transforming to low-carbon economies. Noting advances by Brazilian producers to limit deforestation and act responsibly in response to civil society demands, he said Southeast Asian companies should adopt comprehensive policies to meet sustainability requirements and remain competitive.
Mauricio Amore, Monsanto Indonesia, mentioned the need to ensure increased food productivity on the current amount of land, noting that this approach will require smarter technologies, innovation, and increased partnerships. He informed delegates of an ongoing pilot project in Indonesia that promotes higher yielding corn varieties, saying that the company’s next hurdle will be trying to curb farmland expansion.
Tina Lawton, Syngenta Asia-Pacific, noted that her company’s growth plan includes empowering smallholders, sustainable improvement of biodiversity particularly in land and forest reclamation, and increasing crop efficiency so the same yield can be derived from a 20% smaller land base. She also informed delegates about her company’s ‘grow more’ protocol, which encourages increased yield through the use of modern technologies.
Felia Salim, Bank Negara Indonesia, urged stakeholders to agree on measurable 5-year targets in order to reach the 26-41% greenhouse gas emissions reduction goal set by the government. She also noted the need for financial mechanisms to address the challenges of SMEs to meet sustainability goals.
On Tuesday evening, Peter Holmgren, CIFOR, recalled highlights of the two-day summit, noting the involvement of the finance community as a key achievement. He said the transboundary haze that occurred before the conference had helped to bring together discussion topics including ecosystem losses, food systems, and health. He then invited comments from panelists regarding their commitments to research, investments, and multi-stakeholder dialogues.
Dialogue on commitments to research, investment, and continued multi-stakeholder dialogue: Shinta Kamdani, KADIN, pledged to: engage with stakeholders and provide resources, including continued support for the ‘One Map’ initiative; provide actionable recommendations from the private sector for policies to support low-emission development strategies and equitable development; and find opportunities to invest in sustainable landscapes through improved practices.
Rodrigo Chaves, Country Director for Indonesia, World Bank, emphasized the Bank’s commitment to working with Indonesian stakeholders to manage forest resources in a rational and socially inclusive way. He described the Bank’s financing of Indonesia’s new forest management units (Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan, known as KPH), which includes working with stakeholders to define boundaries, rights, rights holders, and appropriate uses of the land and forest asset.
Stig Traavik, Ambassador for Norway to Indonesia, stated Norway’s commitment to “stay the course” on REDD+. Noting that Indonesia is now in a year of political transition, he said that 95% of Norway’s committed funding will be available to the incoming government. He underscored the importance of knowledge of landscapes to complement the boldness, finance, technology and entrepreneurship needed for success.
Bustar Maitar, Greenpeace International, clarified that, while Greenpeace International’s global position is to stop palm oil production, Greenpeace Indonesia recognizes palm oil as an important commodity for local people. He called for full protection of peatlands, noting such a commitment is a long-term solution to forest fires.
Heru Prasetyo, Head, BP REDD+, Indonesia, noted that the idea of managing landscapes returns the conversation to the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, and noted that to address sustainable growth with equity, issues of emissions, growth, development, governance, and inclusiveness must be jointly considered.
Sarah Dickinson-Hoyle, International Forestry Students Association, reported that the previous day’s youth session had made several recommendations, including the need for seed funds for youth-driven climate projects and integrating a landscapes approach into forestry curricula.
Closing remarks: Agus Purnomo, head of the Secretariat of the National Council on Climate Change, Indonesia, thanked all who had contributed to the conference. He reflected on his country’s forthcoming general election and change of government, encouraging conference participants to advise the new government on sustainable landscapes. He welcomed “the new DNA” of Indonesia and other developing countries in their aspirations towards green growth.
International Conference on Economic Evaluation of Forest Management Sustainability: The conference aims to promote exchange of scientific information between researchers in the field of economic evaluation of forest management sustainability. dates: 29-30 May 2014 location: Kaunas, Lithuania contact: Liana Sadauskienë phone: +370 37 547283 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.mi.lt/intconf/
International Conference on Agriculture and Forestry 2014 (ICOAF 2014): This scientific conference will discuss research areas including economics and business management, sustainable agriculture, pest management, plant biotechnology, soil and water management, agriculture and climate change, hydrology and water resources management, and organic crop production. dates: 10-11 June 2014 location: Colombo, Sri Lanka contact: ICOAF 2014 conference secretariat phone: +94 112 848 654 fax: +94 112 848 654 email: email@example.com www: http://agroconference.com
UNFCCC 40th Sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies: SBI 40 and SBSTA 40 will convene in June 2014. The fifth meeting of the second session of the ADP will also take place. dates : 4-15 June 2014 location : Bonn, Germany contact : UNFCCC Secretariat phone : +49-228-815-1000 fax : +49-228-815-1999 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www : http://unfccc.int/meetings/upcoming_sessions/items/6239.php
22nd Session of the FAO Committee on Forestry: This biennial session will bring together heads of forest services and other senior government officials to identify emerging policy and technical issues, to seek solutions and to advise FAO and others on appropriate action. Participants will also include representatives from other international organizations and non-governmental groups. Participation in COFO is open to all FAO member countries. dates: 23-27 June 2014 venue: FAO Headquarters location: Rome, Italy contact: Peter Csóka, FAO email: email@example.com www: http://www.fao.org/forestry/57758/en/
2014 World Conference on Indigenous Peoples: The World Conference on Indigenous Peoples 2014 will be organized as a high-level plenary meeting of the 69th session of the UN General Assembly and supported by the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, to share perspectives and best practices on the realization of the rights of Indigenous Peoples and to pursue the objectives of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. dates: 22-23 September 2014 location: UN Headquarters, New York, US contact: PFII secretariat phone: +1 917 367 5100 fax: +1 917 367 5102 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://social.un.org/index/IndigenousPeoples.aspx; and http://wcip2014.org/
2014 Climate Summit: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is organizing this event with the aim of creating political momentum for an ambitious international climate agreement through the UNFCCC process. date: 23 September 2014 location : UN Headquarters, New York www: http://www.un.org/climatechange/summit2014/
XXIV IUFRO World Congress 2014 on Sustaining Forests, Sustaining People: The Role of Research: This meeting, organized by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), will reflect diverse contributions from the forest science community across the full range of natural and social science disciplines. dates: 5-11 October 2014 location: Salt Lake City, US contact: IUFRO Secretariat phone: +43 1 877 01 51 0 email: email@example.com www: http://www.iufro2014.org
Twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 12): The Seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (COP-MOP 7) will take place before CBD COP 12. The COP will assess progress in the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, and discuss measures to enhance implementation. dates: 6-17 October 2014 location: Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1 514 288 2220 fax: +1 514 288 6588 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: https://www.cbd.int/doc/?meeting=cop-12
6th International Wildfire Conference: This conference is held under the auspices of the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) and FAO. It will address three themes: global natural and cultural fire heritage; protecting the global natural and cultural heritage from fire; and towards a cohesive global fire management strategy. dates: 12-16 October 2015 location: Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea contact: Korea Forest Service phone: +82 42 481 4127 email: email@example.com www: http://www.wildfire2015.kr
Pre-COP Ministerial Meeting for UNFCCC COP 20 and CMP 10: This event, organized by the Venezuelan Government, aims to revisit the engagement of civil society in the UNFCCC negotiations. dates: 4-7 November 2014 location: Caracas, Venezuela contact: Cesar Aponte Rivero, General Coordinator email: firstname.lastname@example.org
IUCN World Parks Congress: The congress is organized on the theme ‘Parks, people, planet: inspiring solutions.’ The Congress will present, discuss and create original approaches for conservation and development, helping to address the gap in the conservation and sustainable development agenda. dates: 12-19 November 2014 location: Sydney, Australia contact: Congress secretariat phone: +61 2 9254 5000 fax: +61 2 9251 3552 email: email@example.com www: http://worldparkscongress.org
UNFCCC COP 20 and CMP 10: The 20th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 20) and the 10th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 10) will take place in Lima, Peru. dates : 1-12 December 2014 location : Lima, Peru contact : UNFCCC Secretariat phone : +49-228-815-1000 fax : +49-228-815-1999 email:firstname.lastname@example.org www : http://unfccc.int
2nd Global Landscapes Forum: The forum is organized on the sidelines of the Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC in Lima, Peru (COP 20). The event brings together two previously separate events: Forest Day and Agriculture, Landscapes, and Livelihoods Day. date: 6-7 December 2014 location: Lima, Peru contact: CIFOR headquarters phone: +62 251 8622-622 fax: +62 251 8622-100 email: email@example.com www: http://www.landscapes.org/program/agenda/