published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the UNDP Secretariat
Special Report on Selected Side Events at the Fourteenth Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14)
1-12 May 2006 | United Nations Headquarters, New York
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Events convened on Thursday, 4 May 2006

Energy Security and its Implications for the Poor

Presented by UNDP

Nebojša Nakićenović, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, discussed energy security and its implications for the poor from a global perspective. He highlighted key issues concerning energy security and reliability, including that high and volatile energy prices are unaffordable for the poor and hinder development of least developed countries. Nakićenović said that providing clean liquid petroleum gas is essential for achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and avoiding over-dependence on imports is essential for development of energy security. He emphasized the immensity of the challenge, and suggested that the key to addressing this is by finding a way forward that addresses all issues simultaneously.

Abul Barkat, University of Dhaka, highlighted the case of rural Bangladesh and emphasized that: attaining all of the MDGs is not possible without concentrating on people in rural areas and focusing our resources on those who are marginalized; to attain MDGs electricity can be the most appropriate avenue for energy; and without committed partnerships, eradicating extreme poverty and hunger with electricity as a means is not possible.

Nandita Mongia, UNDP, discussed the Regional Energy Programme for Poverty Reduction for the Asia Pacific region, saying it looks at improving access to energy services to the poor and how the oil price crisis impacts them. She said the study examined private financing, cross border energy trade, and the impact of oil in a country gap analysis. She noted that although macroeconomic impacts from rising oil prices are observable, micro-effects such as higher transportation costs, which affect access to health care and education, are affecting the poor. Mongia also emphasized that the fight for energy for all contributes to the fight for the MDGs.

Jose Carlos Gomes Costa, Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy, highlighted his country’s current energy security dispute with Bolivia, and provided an overview of the Brazilian Energy Program “Light for All”. He said the program’s goal is to disseminate electricity to 12 million people by 2008, by extending transmission lines and decentralizing power generation using local and renewable sources whenever possible. He emphasized interest in possible joint solutions to transform the newly provided electricity into money in order to improve communities.

Discussions: Participants addressed many issues including: the need to extend the focus on energy and electricity to overall development issues; the need to look to the traditional energy sector to achieve MDGs; and the reality of achieving energy security in the framework of the MDGs.

Nandita Mongia, UNDP
Thomas Johansson, University of Lund, Sweden
Jose Carlos Gomes Costa, Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy
Nebojša Nakićenović, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysisom left to righ
Abul Barkat, University of Dhaka
Contacts:
Thomas Johansson <thomas.b.johansson@iiiee.lu.se>
Nebojša Nakićenović <naki@iiasa.ac.at>
Abul Barkat <info@hrdc-bd.com>
Nandita Mongia <nandita.mongia@undp.org>
Jose Carlos Gomes Costa <jcosta@mme.gov.br>

Increasing Access to Energy Services for the Poor

Presented by UNDP

Minoru Takada, UNDP, introduced the side event, emphasizing that there are serious barriers to achieving the MDGs as well as providing the required energy services.

Kipyego Cheluget, East African Community (EAC), discussed regional energy access to modern services in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. He discussed the Regional Development Strategy, noting its focus on energy and highlighted its targets for 2015 including enabling the use of modern fuels for 50 % of those who presently use traditional biomass for cooking, as well as access to electricity at the community level. He said that the three countries’ leaders endorsed the Strategy, and emphasized the need to scale up modern energy services in East Africa to achieve these targets.

Edgar Blaustein, economist, discussed strengths and weaknesses regarding the ability of public authorities to provide the poor with access to energy services. He said that energy is necessary for sustainable development, underscoring public action as vital. He also highlighted threats, saying it is difficult to create a virtuous circle of development, and referred to the questions of whether energy services would contribute to economic growth and social progress for assessment. He acknowledged that there is a lot that can be done to engage the private sector, but that CSD-14 can be used to support international efforts in favor of public authorities.

Stephen Gitonga, UNDP, described the experience of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Small Grants Programme in expanding access to modern energy services at the community level. He highlighted channeling resources directly to poor communities as a challenge, and said that the programme overcomes these challenges by, inter alia: trying to work in partnerships in the financing of diverse community-based projects; and capturing and disseminating lessons from community level experiences. One of the lessons learned, said Gitonga, is that social capital is an abundant resource that can be tapped for expanding access to modern energy services.

Metsi Makhetha, UNDP, called for increasing access to energy services, and moving from commitments to action. She said that these goals are possible to achieve, but acknowledged that the energy access agenda needs to be viewed as a process. She stressed the need to focus on access, not technology, emphasizing the importance of the government establishing a relationship with their people. She spotlighted the ECOWAS/UEMOA whitepaper, saying that a political commitment exists to promote access to energy services in order to meet MDGs.

From left to right: Edgar Blaustein, economist, Kipyego Cheluget, East African Community (EAC), Metsi Makhetha, UNDP, and Stephen Gitonga, UNDP
Metsi Makhetha, UNDP, emphasized that for commitment to be translated into action, data must be made available that is useful for policy makers
Edgar Blaustein, Economist, highlighted the ECOWAS-UEMOA whitepaper, saying that there is growing awareness among public authorities of the need for access to energy in rural and peri-urban areas
Participants during the Side Event
Contacts:
Minoru Takada <minoru.takada@undp.org>
Kipyego Cheluget <cheluget@eachq.org>
Edgar Blaustein <edgar.blaustein@wanadoo.fr>
Stephen Gitonga <stephen.gitonga@undp.org>
Metsi Makhetha <metsi.makhetha@undp.org>

Energy Efficiency Through Sustainable Consumption and Production

Organized by Nordic Council of Ministers

Ulf Jaeckel, German Ministry of Environment, highlighted the importance of addressing sustainable consumption, noting that 12% of GHGs result from household appliance use. He discussed ways of motivating consumer behavior, including creating awareness and public procurement. He emphasized the use of performance targets for energy efficient products.

Anne Solgaard, Norwegian Forum for Environment and Development, described strategies for picking “low-hanging fruit” with regards to creating energy efficiency. She introduced several case studies, including the retro-fitting of buildings, and biogas capture to supplant fuelwood consumption. She described the use of traditional architecture with modern technology in Bhutan to save energy.

Anders Nordstrom, ABB, said that energy efficiency is important to his customers, and expressed a need to stimulate energy savings, use renewables, promote interconnections of energy systems, and ensure that pricing and regulations provide incentives. He suggested that wind power can address supply side problems, especially in areas with high wind speeds and low population densities, and noted the importance of reducing losses through transmission.

Paul Hofseth, Ministry of the Environment, Norway, presented on the Nordic Council of Ministers’ work within the Ad Hoc Group on Sustainable Production and Consumption, which seeks to understand how international cooperation within this region can create efficiencies. He highlighted some of the challenges encountered, including raising awareness and ensuring comparability of labeling without creating trade barriers.

Kaarin Taipale, Finnish Ministry of the Environment, described her work with the Finnish Taskforce on Sustainable Buildings and Construction, which sought to understand how public policy could be a driver behind sustainable consumption and production. She noted that most energy is consumed in urban centers of the Northern Hemisphere, and that many cities have set targets for energy efficiency.

Chris Baker, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK, discussed the creation of policy conducive to introducing energy efficient appliances; looking for leapfrogging opportunities; raising public energy efficiency expectations; and encouraging industry responses.

Helen Grinsberg, Australian Greenhouse Office, said that countries with smaller markets have difficulty influencing product standards, and encouraged the development of a “community of practice” which, collectively, could harmonize standards to promote trade in energy efficient technology, citing the example of compact fluorescent lightbulbs (CFLs).

Benoit Lebot, GEF, discussed energy efficiency standards and labels, highlighting the massive savings that can be achieved through replacing obsolete appliances. He discussed policy alternatives, including mandatory labeling requirements, identifying the top and worst performers, and noted the need for a global strategy.

Tomoo Mashiba, Center for Sustainable Consumption and Production, discussed his organizations contribution to the Johannesburg process, using concrete projects, and the importance of focusing on more than just consumers in attempts to change consumer behavior, noting a Polish GEF project for CFL promotion.

Viveka Bohn, Ambassador, Ministry of Sustainable Development, Sweden
Paul Hofseth, Ministry of the Environment, Norway, noted the importance of addressing indirect consumption from developing countries and removing subsidies
Anne Solgaard, Norwegian Forum for Environment and Development, discussed three main indicators of energy efficiency: CO2 emissions, energy savings, and annual cost savings
Contacts:
Ulf Jaeckel <ulf.jaeckel@bmu.bund.de>
Anne Solgaard <solgaard@forumfor.no>
Paul Hofseth <ph@md.dep.no>
Anders Nordstrom <anders.h.nordstrom@se.abb.com>
Kaarin Taipale <taipale@hse.fi>
Chris Baker <chris.baker@defra.gsi.gov.uk>
Benoit Lebot <benoit.lebot@undp.org>
Tomoo Mashiba <tomoo.mashiba scp-centre.org>

Asian Concerns and Perspectives on the Climate Regime Beyond 2012

Organized by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

Ancha Srinivasan, IGES, described the objectives of the IPCC Third Assessment Report consultation, including dialogue facilitation and assessment of climate change efforts. He then described consultations with individual Asian nations, including China, India, Vietnam, and South Korea, and subsequently at the sub-regional level. He said that results showed a general concern regarding lack of progress, transparency, and consultation. He noted that economic development, energy security, and equity concerns were also expressed, as well as the need to streamline the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). He said that many stakeholders believe global climate change negotiations have not considered Asian interests sufficiently to give the region a sense of ownership of the regime.

Rajendra Pachauri, Chair, IPCC, addressed the nexus between energy security and climate change, noting that the former is essentially an economic concept, and that sudden price increases affect the poor the most. He noted that the rising prices also affect the flow of money from oil-consuming to oil-producing countries. He lamented that much of Asia does not have access to energy, and that multilateral agencies have failed to provide required assistance. Pachauri encouraged taking a different development path than currently used by developed countries, one that consumes less energy per unit of development. He called for institutional innovation at the regional level, such as the development of a regional gas pipeline, and noted that the increasing wealth disparity will contribute to social tension.

Hironori Hamanaka, IGES, said that technology development should use a “market-pull, technology-push” approach within Asia, and that CDM can provide incentives for innovation. He described the rapid penetration of efficient technology within the automobile industry, and the importance of foreign direct investment. He said that in Japan, providing a sound regulatory framework has played a key role.

Lian Bratasida, Ministry of Environment, Indonesia, noted the importance of assisting developing countries in adaptation, and expressed the need to explore mainstreaming such programs in the development agenda. She noted the need to improve capacity using both a bottom-up and top-down approach. She supported addressing the needs of the poor, recognizing them as the people most dependant on natural resources and vulnerable to climate change.

Rae Kwon Chung, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, proposed that instead of imposing targets on non-Annex 1 countries in a post- 2012 regime, unilateral CDM could be used. He said that according to this system, a project could be voluntarily initiated by a developing country, with potential revenue acting as an incentive. He said that this revenue would be largely dependant on the price elasticity of certified emission reductions, and the development of a discounting ratio, according to the level of income and type of emissions being reduced.

Zhou Hailin, Ministry of Science & Technology, China, noted that CDM is an effective mechanism, and that the Chinese government is very active on this issue, with the creation of a climate change office, CDM regulations, and 20 CDM projects.

Liana Bratasida, Ministry of Environment, Indonesia
Ancha Srinivasan, IGES, identified future challenges, including strengthening incentives for technology transfer, and challenged the panel to address several themes including CDM-strengthening strategies, and links between climate change and development
Rajendra Pachauri, Chair, IPCC, cautioned against using energy subsidization, and encouraged facilitation of affordable energy delivery and technology development
More information:
http://www.iges.or.jp
Contacts:
Ancha Srinivasan <s.ancha.84@cantab.net>
Rajendra Pachauri <chairipcc@teri.res.in>
Hironori Hamanaka <hamanaka@iges.or.jp>
Lian Bratasida <dokie@cbn.net.id>
Rae Kwon Chung <chung1@un.org>
Zhou Hailin <zhouhl@acca21.org.cn>
The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This issue has been written by Robynne Boyd and Peter Wood. Photos by Leila Mead and Diego Noguera. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at the Fourteenth Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14) is provided by the United Nations Development Programme. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from CSD-14 can be found on the Linkages website at http://www.iisd.ca/csd/csd14/enbots/. The ENBOTS Team at CSD-14 can be contacted by e-mail at <peterw@iisd.org>.

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