Vol. 145 No. 1
SUMMARY OF THE CTI
INDUSTRY JOINT SEMINAR: PROSPECTS FOR ENERGY
EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES IN
The Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) Industry Joint Seminar on Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies in CIS Countries took place from 27-28 September 2007, at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Kiev, Ukraine.
Organized by the CTI, in cooperation with National Technical University of Ukraine “Kiev Polytechnic Institute” (KPI), the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT), the Institute for Energy Saving and Energy Management (IEE), and the Ukraine-Japan Center (UAJC), the seminar was attended by 93 participants from Ukraine and other CIS countries, Japan, and business and international organizations. The seminar brought together project developers, technology providers, finance providers, and policy makers to facilitate the development of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in CIS countries.
The seminar aimed to bring attention to technical and financial aspects of project development to realize the full potential of existing technologies and financing opportunities. To this end, the seminar introduced successful projects and potential projects being developed in the region to technology and finance providers from CIS and other countries. Policy makers were invited to participate in the seminar to be informed of effective policy options to facilitate transfer of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies.
The seminar was organized into three thematic sessions, each with a discussion session, and a panel discussion. On Thursday, 27 September, the sessions on prospects for energy efficiency technologies and prospects for renewable energy technologies were held. On Friday, 28 September, the session on innovative financing took place, as did the panel discussion on cooperation among key sectors for technology transfer.
This report provides a brief history of the climate change process, technology transfer and the CTI Industry Joint Seminar series, followed by a summary of the CTI Industry Joint Seminar on Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies in CIS Countries.
THE UNFCCC AND KYOTO PROTOCOL: Climate change is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, water and other natural resources, as well as physical infrastructure.
The international political response to climate change took shape in 1992 with the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UNFCCC sets out a framework for action aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the climate system. Controlled gases include methane, nitrous oxide and, in particular, carbon dioxide. The UNFCCC entered into force in March 1994 and now has 189 parties. The parties to the UNFCCC typically convene annually in a Conference of the Parties (COP) and twice a year in meetings of its subsidiary bodies – the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA).
In December 1997, delegates met in Kyoto, Japan, and adopted the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC. The Kyoto Protocol commits developed countries and countries with economies in transition (Annex I parties) to achieve quantified emissions reduction targets. These countries agreed to reduce their overall emissions of six greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012 (the first commitment period), with specific targets varying from country to country. The Kyoto Protocol also establishes three flexible mechanisms to assist the parties in meeting their national targets cost-effectively: an emissions trading system; joint implementation of emissions reductions between Annex I parties (JI); and the clean development mechanism (CDM), which encourages projects in developing countries (non-Annex I parties). The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005 and has been ratified by 168 countries.
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER UNDER THE UNFCCC AND KYOTO PROTOCOL: Technology transfer is considered to be a key element in combating climate change. Article 4.5 of the UNFCCC states that “developed countries…shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally-sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention.” Article 10c of the Kyoto Protocol contains a similar commitment.
In 2001, parties to the UNFCCC adopted a framework for actions to enhance implementation of Article 4.5 (technology transfer framework). The framework contains five key activities relating to technology: needs assessments; technology information; enabling environments; capacity building; and mechanisms for technology transfer. Funding to implement the framework is provided through the climate change focal area of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Special Climate Change Fund.
In 2001, parties to the UNFCCC also established the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) to help advance the UNFCCC’s technology-related goals. Since then, workshops have been held on technology information (Beijing, China, April 2002), needs assessments (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 2002), enabling environments (Ghent, Belgium, April 2003), innovative financing (Montreal, Canada, September 2004 and Bonn, Germany, October 2005), and adaptation technologies (Tobago, June 2005). For more information on recent UNFCCC events, visit: http://ttclear.unfccc.int/ttclear/jsp/
At the eleventh Conference of the Parties (COP 11) to the UNFCCC, serving as the first Meeting of the Parties (MOP 1) to the Kyoto Protocol, held in Montreal in November-December 2005, delegates, inter alia: endorsed the EGTT’s 2006 Work Programme; requested a side event on the issue of public technologies; took note of pilot networking between UNFCCC’s Technology Transfer Clearing House and regional technology information centers; and asked the UNFCCC Secretariat to organize a high-level roundtable on lessons learned, technology deployment, transfer, cooperation and partnerships.
At COP 12 and MOP 2 in Nairobi in November 2006, delegates extended the EGTT for one year, and forwarded text to SBSTA 26 for its further consideration. The text, which remains bracketed pending further negotiation, includes references to: the five themes listed in the framework for technology transfer; reconstitution of the EGTT; establishment of a Technology Development and Transfer Board (TDTB); establishment of a Multilateral Technology Acquisition Fund (MTAF) to buy intellectual property rights; and development of indicators to monitor implementation of the technology transfer framework.
CTI INDUSTRY JOINT SEMINARS ON TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION: The Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) is a multilateral initiative established in 1995 at the first Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. The CTI operates as an Implementing Agreement under the International Energy Agency (IEA). Its mission is to bring countries together to foster international cooperation to accelerate the development and diffusion of climate-friendly and environmentally-sound technologies and practices. The CTI works with the UNFCCC Secretariat, the EGTT, relevant IEA Implementing Agreements and other international organizations and initiatives. Its activities are designed to be consistent with UNFCCC objectives, in particular the technology transfer framework. The CTI has an ongoing program of seminars and workshops designed to support the UNFCCC process and facilitate the diffusion of appropriate technologies and practices.
The CTI also organizes a series of joint industry seminars. The first CTI Industry joint seminar for the Asia and Pacific Region was held in Beijing in May 1998. In subsequent years, it has organized or co-organized various other meetings, including events on technology diffusion for: Asia (Cebu City, the Philippines, January 2000); Eastern Europe and Central Asia (Vienna, Austria, October 2003); ASEAN and Small Island States in the Pacific Region (Jakarta, Indonesia, February 2004); Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (Vienna, October 2004).
The CTI has also arranged seminars on energy efficiency in Asian Countries (Beijing, China, February 2005, and Hanoi, Viet Nam, March 2006), technology transfer in Asian countries (New Delhi, India, March 2007) and project formation for joint implementation (JI) activities under the Kyoto Protocol (Madrid, Spain, October 2005).
These meetings were often arranged in partnership with other organizations, such as the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). For more information on these past events, visit: http://www.climatetech.net/events/ and http://www.iisd.ca/process/climate_atm.htm
The CTI Industry Joint Seminar on Prospects for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies in CIS Countries began with opening speeches on Thursday morning, 27 September.
Elmer Holt, Chair of the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) Executive Committee, thanked the Kiev Polytechnic Institute (KPI), International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT), the Institute for Energy Saving and Energy Management (IEE) and the Ukraine-Japan Center (UAJC) for their collaboration in hosting the seminar and gave a brief overview of the CTI. He encouraged participants to network and emphasized the session on project financing.
Yuri Yakymenko, first Vice-Rector of KPI, welcomed guests and highlighted the collaboration of the UAJC in organizing the seminar. Noting its history and human potential, he highlighted the KPI’s work on energy efficiency and the role that the KPI will play in technology transfer in Ukraine.
Ambassador Mutsuo Mabuchi, Japan, highlighted the meeting’s mixture of technical and financial issues. He noted that energy efficiency is one of the most prospective fields for cooperation between Japan and Ukraine. Mabuchi stressed Japan’s cooperation in institutional and private-sector capacity building, the education sector and the procurement of energy saving equipment, and reiterated Japan’s eagerness to provide assistance to CIS and eastern European countries.
Aleksei Sheberstov, Deputy Fuel and Energy Minister, Ukraine, underscored the importance of energy security in Ukraine. He said thermal power plants in Ukraine were built in the 1950’s and are therefore very inefficient, and expressed interest in learning from overseas experience in energy efficiency. Sheberstov also noted the KPI’s importance for the Ukraine as a site of technological development.
Troyan, National Agency of Ukraine for Effective Energy Use, said that the National Agency was recently established to work with the Ukrainian government’s goals to implement state-of-the-art technologies. He thanked Japan for their ongoing cooperation with Ukraine in energy efficiency and renewable energy. Troyan said the National Agency was preparing energy efficiency targets for the period 2010-2015 and that outcomes from this meeting would be relevant to those targets.
This session took place on Thursday morning and afternoon and was moderated by Arthur Prakhovnyk and Evgenij Inshekov, Institute for Energy Saving and Energy Management, KPI. The session included presentations on different aspects of energy efficiency and a discussion on the potential of energy efficient technologies.
Hiroshi Eguchi, Sumitomo Corporation, said his company provides energy saving technology and is involved in a Kyoto Protocol joint implementation (JI) project. He gave an overview of the Kyoto Protocol targets, noting Japan’s need to reduce 180 million tons of carbon dioxide and to use carbon trade mechanisms, and highlighted voluntary targets in the steel and other industries. Eguchi explained a coke dry quenching (CDQ) technology developed by Sumitomo Corporation and highlighted its benefits, including better coke quality, reductions in sulphur oxides and dust emissions, savings in water and energy and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. He also identified financing and technology integration as barriers for implementing Sumitomo’s CDQ technology.
In the ensuing discussion, participants asked about financial barriers, the role of carbon credits in financing, whether Sumitomo’s CDQ technology is only implemented in Ukraine or if it is also implemented in other CIS countries, and technical questions on the functioning, efficiency and capacity of Sumitomo’s CDQ technology. Eguchi noted joint ventures as a possible way of financing and stressed large energy efficiency improvements of Sumitomo’s CDQ technology, which he claimed generates half the amount of carbon dioxide of conventional CDQ.
Evgenij Inshekov, Director of the Energy Saving and Energy Management Institute spoke about the status of implementation and state of stimulation mechanisms for renewable energy in Ukraine. He showed that the energy utilized per unit of GDP had more than halved from 1990 to 2006, but when compared to Japan’s level of energy efficiency, Ukraine could still significantly improve. He said that tariff systems were used to control energy savings, and that the use of alternative and renewable energy sources showed long-term potential. He explained that Ukraine will not exceed 1990 greenhouse gas emission levels before 2030, and said that Ukraine’s best opportunity to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy is the JI mechanism.
Vladimir Mukazhanov, Almaty Institute of Power Engineering and Telecommunication, Kazakhstan, spoke about Kazakhstan’s electricity supply industry. He explained that the electricity supply sector was restructured to introduce competition into the market, and that Kazakhstan has a shortage of generating capacity and therefore has to import electricity from Russia. He highlighted the large theoretical potential of solar and wind generating capacity, noting that these technologies faced technical constraints due to Kazakhstan’s unique weather anomalies. He also cited the potential for small hydro and plant and animal waste biomass. He noted the government of Kazakhstan’s strategy on renewable energy implementation for 2008 to 2010 and work to prioritize renewable energies, and said that the potential of municipal heat supply and bioethanol in Kazakhstan was still under consideration.
Arthur Prakhovnyk, Director of the Institute for Energy Saving and Energy Management, KPI presented on co-generation and district heating. He proposed a system integrating co-generation, cumulative electric heating and heat pumps to increase efficiency and replace heat supply systems that are in poor condition. In the ensuing discussion, participants asked about the economics of the proposal, corruption, identifying pilot projects for the proposal, the response of the proposed system to changes in heat load, environmental impacts and comparisons with operating district heating systems in other countries.
Altay Alimgazin, Director of KazEcoTerm, said that because Kazakhstan is a country rich in coal, oil and gas, there was no interest in renewables from the energy ministry, and that renewables were assigned to the ministry of environment. He explained work on heat pumps in different demonstration areas, noting Kazakhstan’s extreme cold (-50C) and long heating season. He stressed the efficiency of using heat pumps, which can capture low potential heat from industrial effluent. He identified regulatory support and training personnel as important for the promotion of heat pumps, and explained several examples.
In the ensuing discussion, one participant said that implementing energy-saving technologies should occur in three stages: low cost construction of existing technology; then low cost improvement of existing constructions; and finally high cost construction. He said that efficiency opportunities were identified in the metallurgical industries and in the processing of raw materials for the first stage. Another participant identified high interest rates on bank loans and lack of stability in lending policies as major barriers to attracting investments in energy saving projects. He also noted that energy services industries were not attracting newly qualified employees from training institutions and highlighted replacing burners and filters in metallurgy plants as easily implementable projects with a quick pay-back period.
This session took place on Thursday afternoon and was moderated by Morihiro Kurushima, Toyo University. The session included presentations on different aspects of renewable energy and a discussion on the potential of renewable energy technologies.
Stepan Kudrya, Renewable Energy Institute, KPI, presented on renewable energy in Ukraine. He underscored diminishing reserves of fossil fuels and stressed the importance of renewables. Kudrya elaborated on the energy mix in Ukraine, as well as the potential of renewable energy, noting that the technical potential is close to half Ukraine’s current demand. He identified the German feed-in tariff as instrumental for promoting renewables and explained Ukraine’s forthcoming legislation on renewables. He elaborated on examples of solar, wind power and transport applications of renewables in Ukraine. Participants asked about the costs of renewables compared with conventional energy sources.
Daniel Bilello, US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), presented on renewable energy activities in the United States. He emphasized the large gap between forecasts of growth in renewable energy technology and what is required to address climate change. He showed how renewable energy costs had decreased over time and how some have become cost-competitive. He explained that growth in renewable energy technologies in Japan, California and Germany were tied to effective promotion policies. Noting that there is no overarching renewable energy policy at the federal level in the US, he said that growth was being driven at the state level, with quotas for renewable energy supply. On the stability of renewable energy supplies, Bilello said that NREL strongly advocates renewables as part of a combined solution, and that improved storage, hybrid solutions and grid access regulations would be complementary.
Hiroyuki Kurita, Shimuzu Corporation, spoke about Shimuzu’s JI and CDM activities. He explained that the gas emitted from landfill and waste water sites is largely methane, which has a greenhouse effect 21 times that of carbon dioxide, but which can be captured and used for electricity generation. He described the landfill gas capture process and Shimuzu’s involvement in a landfill gas capture and electricity generation CDM project in Yerevan, Armenia, which will achieve reductions of 2.18 megatons of carbon dioxide over 16 years, 90% of which would be purchased by a Japanese consortium. Kurita said the approval times for new CDM projects can be as short as 9-10 months and that Shimuzu would be pleased to investigate further opportunities in Kazakhstan.
Georgiy Geletukha, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, KPI, presented on the current state of and future prospects for bio-energy development in Ukraine. He described the energy potential and share of biomass in power and heat production in Ukraine and prices for natural gas. He noted the cost of biomass and competitive biomass uses, such as mushroom production, and elaborated on the feasibility of biomass-fired boilers. He said that JI is the driving force for landfill gas collection and utilization in Ukraine. Geletukha identified growth in energy prices, energy independence, local development and potential biomass exports as the primary drivers of biomass development in Ukraine, and a lack of political will and incentives as the main barriers to implementation of biomass projects. He said a feed-in tariff is a good incentive for renewable electricity but not for heat production, and therefore advocated direct subsidies for equipment.
Valeriu Cosarciuc, Agrarian Commission of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova, spoke on renewable energy from agricultural waste in Moldova. He said that 96% of Moldova’s required energy is imported, including petrol, gas and coal, and that large fuel price increases mean that alternative sources are required. He said that grain wastes had the biggest potential as a feedstock, as 58% of Moldova is rural and 80% is arable land. He described a straw-fired thermal heating pilot project that generated a total of 3000kW of thermal power and said that this project could be replicated in 280 other villages, displacing the use of coal for heating. On biofuels, Cosarciuc said that Moldova has a target of 6% of fuel to be blended by 2010 and 20% by 2020.
Kemmi Aida, Japanese Initiative Ltd, spoke on renewable energy investments and gave a Japanese perspective on opportunities in Central and Eastern Europe. He pointed out that the CDM was not particularly favorable for renewable energy technologies, and only 20% of CDM projects were in renewable energy. He noted that renewable energy projects were often small and spread over large areas, but that investors preferred large projects with major greenhouse gas reduction potential. He stressed the need to train more local professionals in the field of renewable energy and to attract young professionals from a range of disciplines.
Michael Norton, Shinshu University, noted the G8 target of 50% of 1990 emissions by 2050 and stressed the ambitiousness of that target given that all projections are for doubling or tripling energy consumption over that time period. Norton said climate change is not just an inconvenience, but will make the planet “unlivable.” He said that the free market cannot solve the problem of carbon dioxide emissions negative externalities. He cited the European Union’s targets on renewables, noting that voluntary targets do not work for all countries. He said that renewable energies have benefits beyond greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and that the renewables sector employs now 300,000 people in Europe.
In the ensuing discussion, participants noted renewable energy standards, biofuel targets and a special energy efficiency fund in Moldova, experiences with energy efficiency in Armenia, investment flows in renewables and renewables becoming mainstream. They also discussed the need for public awareness on renewable energies and energy efficiency, experiences with the implementation of renewables in Belarus, emission rights and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and experiences with voluntary targets.
This session took place on Friday morning and was moderated by Elmer Holt. Noting realities in the CIS region, he underscored financial barriers for the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. He expressed hope that innovative financing will help to realize projects in the region.
Vadim Diukanov, Executive Director, Foundation for the Development of Environmental & Energy Markets spoke on the barriers to JI projects and cited a largely untapped potential for JI projects in Ukraine. He described the institutional and technological barriers to JI projects and elaborated on financial barriers including difficulty in obtaining project credit and the relatively small scale of Ukrainian projects, which makes them less attractive to investors. He said that improving the general macroeconomic climate for emission reduction projects by instituting a long-term climate policy and defining legislation related to the transfer of emission reduction units (ERUs) are key to overcoming these barriers. Discussion revolved around the perceived barriers relating to ERU transferal.
Bert van der Plas, UNFCCC, gave an overview of technology transfer under the UNFCCC, the technology transfer framework, technology needs assessments (TNAs), and presented the UNFCCC Guidebook on preparing technology transfer projects for financing. He also noted the adoption of the technology transfer framework and establishment of the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) in 2001, with five key themes and areas of work: technology needs and needs assessments; technology information; enabling environments; capacity building; and mechanisms. He said that TNAs are country-driven and that renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies are the needs identified by most countries in their TNAs. He listed activities on innovative financing, including workshops, the guidebook, training on preparing project proposals, and the work of the Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN). He also explained different sources of financing under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and gave an overview of how to move from TNAs to implementation.
Marianne Moscoso-Osterkorn, International Director, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) spoke about practical approaches to renewable energy and energy efficiency. She described the structure of the REEEP, and said that it focused on facilitating the development of a market for clean energy systems. She stressed the need for economic growth to be decoupled from energy consumption and for governments to establish conditions conducive to attracting investment. She described various projects in which REEEP is involved, including policy development, energy efficiency and renewable energy financing. She said REEEP assists project developers with developing proposals that are attractive to investors, and noted REEEP’s upcoming collaboration with the Ukrainian government.
Kenichiro Hayashi, Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) spoke on the JBIC business model for supporting Kyoto mechanism projects. He explained that the JBIC was the official bank of the Japanese government and had a government mandate to fulfill. He described various channels and structures through which the JBIC funded and invested in greenhouse gas reduction projects. He highlighted that the JBIC supports the financing of small projects by extending credit lines to local banks. He explained that the Asian Energy Services Company Fund had been set up by the JBIC and noted the success of JBIC’s cooperation in the installation of a power generation facility at the Dombass steel plant in Ukraine.
Peter Storey, PFAN Coordinator, presented on the PFAN’s activities. He said that the PFAN is an informal network of private companies and individuals, set up in cooperation with the CTI, the UNFCCC and the EGTT. Noting the availability of private funding but difficulties in accessing it, Storey explained that the PFAN offers a free consulting service to project sponsors and developers to help them raise international private finance. He said that the PFAN offers advice and guidance as well as technical assistance and match-making with investors. Storey explained the PFAN’s selection and review process, noting that the PFAN’s operating costs are absorbed by the CTI. He said that selection criteria for projects include regulatory frameworks, experienced project sponsors, proven technology, risk sharing and diversification, repayment ability, and adequate rates of return. Storey gave an overview of some ongoing projects, and said that the main lessons extracted are that project developers need to think about financing from the beginning, that everything takes longer than initially thought, and that there many good projects out there that could access private sector financing if properly presented.
Sergiy Maslichenko, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) spoke on the EBRD’s experience in financing sustainable energy. He highlighted the EBRD’s active role in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in support of Ukraine’s new energy policy. He said that the focus of this policy was on large industrial users of energy and the promotion of good energy practices in those sectors. He highlighted that the EBRD’s investment in industrial energy efficiency for the period 2003 to 2007 amounted to €550 million, and annually saved approximately 2000MW of equivalent base load generating capacity and an estimated 4 megatons of carbon dioxide emissions. He said that the EBRD’s involvement in energy efficiency includes providing free energy audits, extending credit lines to local banks and providing direct investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. He then gave several examples of successful industrial energy efficiency projects implemented by the EBRD.
On Friday afternoon, Dan Bilello moderated a panel discussion including Vadim Diukanov, Bert van der Plas, Marianne Moscoso-Osterkorn, Sergiy Maslichenko, Kenichiro Hayashi, Peter Storey, and Martin Devine. In his introductory remarks, Bilello emphasized four key points from the seminar: the existence of considerable and real challenges for implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies; the existence of economically viable opportunities in the region; the existence of available financing but also of a gap between financing and project developers; and that no single organization can tackle the problem alone. Bilello identified three issues for the panel: what effective role can governments play; what are the key elements of policies and incentives; and the role of international financial institutions.
Vadim Diukanov said that the key to Ukrainian energy issues and policies is current prices for Russian natural gas. He said that the introduction of EU standards in the Ukrainian energy sector should be publicly discussed, and underscored capacity building as a pressing issue. Bert van der Plas cited the crucial role of stable and predictable policy and regulatory frameworks and highlighted performance standards, labeling of energy efficiency in buildings and fuel economy standards. Marianne Moscoso-Osterkorn emphasized structural changes in the electricity sector, in particular opening access to the electrical grid to new players. She underscored long-term feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity as an effective tool for the promotion of renewable energies and noted the limited capacity of governments to deal with demand and energy efficiency. Sergiy Maslichenko noted the role of the government in subsidizing interest rates for energy efficiency credits in Ukraine and the importance of developing projects at the municipal level. Kenichiro Hayashi stressed co-payment and guarantee schemes from international financial institutions as ways of expanding private sector participation in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. Peter Storey noted the mismatch between project ideas and the ability to develop them, and called for collaboration among the private sector, multilateral institutions and the public sector to help developers at the early stages. Martin Devine, UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, said that the key role of governments is to level the playing field among technologies, and that a role of international financial institutions is to reduce the risk of investment in energy efficiency projects.
Elmer Holt urged participants to use the contacts they had made at this meeting and to build upon them. He underscored the role of the PFAN in capacity building and stressed efforts to expand the PFAN, including collaboration with GEF. He highlighted some of the main lessons from the seminar, including the importance of a stable and predictable regulatory environment, performance standards and labeling, public awareness and education, and pre-development funds.
Arthur Prakhovnyk then thanked participants for attending the session. The meeting closed at 13h21.
WORKSHOP ON FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH AND OBSERVATIONS: This workshop, organized by the Global Climate Observing System and the World Climate Research Programme, will be held in Sydney, Australia, from 4-6 October 2007. For more information, contact: World Climate Research Programme; tel: +41-22-730-8111; fax: +41-22-730-8036; e-mail: email@example.com; internet: http://wcrp.ipsl.jussieu.fr/Workshops/Sydney2007/index.html
THIRD WORKSHOP ON FINANCE AND INVESTMENT TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE: This meeting will take place on 31 October 2007, in Bonn, Germany. For more information, contact: UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49-228-815-1999; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; internet: http://www.unfccc.int
TWENTIETH WORLD ENERGY CONGRESS: This congress will take place from 11-15 November 2007 in Rome, Italy. The main topic of the congress is “The Energy Future in an Interdependent World.” The Congress will also focus on social issues that developing and emerging countries face in relation to the international energy market, and sustainable progress for industrialized countries. For more information contact: The World Energy Council; tel: +44-20-7734-5996; fax: +44-20-7734-5926; e-mail: email@example.com; internet: http://www.worldenergy.org
27TH SESSION OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE: IPCC-27 will take place from 12-16 November 2007, in Valencia, Spain, and will focus on the adoption of the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. For more information, contact: Rudie Bourgeois, IPCC Secretariat; tel: +41-22-730-8208; fax: +41-22-730-8025; e-mail: IPCCSec@wmo.int; internet: http://www.ipcc.ch/
THIRTEENTH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE UNFCCC AND THIRD MEETING OF THE PARTIES TO THE KYOTO PROTOCOL: The thirteenth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and third Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol will take place in Bali, Indonesia, from 3-14 December 2007. These meetings will coincide with the 27th meetings of the UNFCCC’s Subsidiary Bodies and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments from Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. For more information, contact: UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49-228-815-1999; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; internet: http://www.unfccc.int
WASHINGTON INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CONFERENCE (WIREC) 2008: This conference will take place from 4-6 March 2008 in Washington DC, United States of America. The US government will host WIREC 2008, which will aim to advance goals on energy security, climate change, air quality, and sustainable development, including agriculture and rural development. WIREC 2008 will include a ministerial meeting, a legislators’ meeting, side events, a business conference, and a trade show exhibition. For more information contact: American Council on Renewable Energy; tel: +1-202-393-0001; Internet: http://www.wirec2008.org/