Vol. 95 No. 05
SUMMARY REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES - RENEWABLES 2004:
1-4 JUNE 2004
The International Conference for Renewable Energies (renewables 2004) took place from 1-4 June 2004, in Bonn, Germany. Approximately 3600 participants from 154 countries attended the Conference, including several Heads of State, 121 Ministers and representatives from governments, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the scientific community and the private sector.
The renewables 2004 programme consisted of nine Plenary Sessions, including a Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue and a Ministerial Segment. The Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue addressed: the value of, and opportunities for, renewable energy - policy frameworks and regulatory certainty; and promoting renewable energy - finance and capacity for the future. Other Plenary Sessions addressed best-practice examples and success stories.
The Ministerial Segment included three Ministerial Roundtables that considered policies for renewable energy market development, financing options, and strengthening capacities, research and policy development, and institutions. Two Ministerial Panels addressed energy services and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the contribution of renewable energy in meeting the climate challenge. In the closing session, delegates adopted three Conference outcomes: Policy Recommendations, an International Action Programme, and a Political Declaration.
This summary of renewables 2004 begins with a brief history of multilateral processes on renewable energy, followed by a summary of the Conference proceedings and outcomes based on the Conference agenda.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF MULTILATERAL PROCESSES ON RENEWABLE ENERGY
During the fuel crisis of the 1970s, many countries began exploring alternative sources of energy. The international community's first major attempt to develop a strategy for the use of alternative fuels was the 1981 UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/36/193 on the outcomes of the UN Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy. In this Resolution, the UN adopted the "Nairobi Programme of Action for the Development and Utilization of New and Renewable Sources of Energy," which addressed the need for an intergovernmental body, secretariat support, coordination within the UN system, regional and subregional action, cooperation among developing countries, and the mobilization of financial resources for new and renewable sources of energy. However, it was only following the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) that renewable energy issues began to feature more prominently on the international environment and development agenda.
UNCED: At UNCED, delegates adopted Agenda 21, an action plan for implementing sustainable development. Agenda 21 contains many elements of a sustainable energy strategy. Chapter 9 of Agenda 21, on protecting the atmosphere, notes that much of the world's energy is currently produced and consumed in an unsustainable manner. It recognizes that the need to control atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances will increasingly need to be based on efficiency in energy production, transmission, distribution and consumption, and a growing reliance on environmentally sound energy systems, particularly new and renewable sources of energy. The chapter also addresses, inter alia, the need for research and development, the transfer and use of technologies, and measures to overcome barriers to the use of renewables.
UN CONFERENCES AND SUMMITS: In the years following UNCED, several UN Conferences and Summits addressed renewable energy and sustainable development issues in their outcome documents. These included the Global Conference on Sustainable Development in Small Island Developing States (1994), International Conference on Population and Development (1995), World Summit on Social Development (1995), Fourth World Conference on Women (1995), UN Conference on Human Settlements HABITAT II (1996), and World Food Summit (1996). The World Solar Summit (1996) and the 19th Special Session of the UN General Assembly (UNGASS-19, 1997) also addressed energy issues, with UNGASS-19 deciding that the issue should be further examined during the ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-9.
CSD-9: In April 2001, CSD-9 adopted Decision 9/1 (E/CN.17/2001/19) on "Energy for sustainable development." The Decision included recommendations to encourage the role of the private sector, strengthen research and development, and institutional capacities, develop and use indigenous sources of renewable energy, and strengthen financial support to developing countries. It also addressed issues of energy accessibility and rural energy, noting that access to affordable energy services is a prerequisite for implementation of the goal accepted by the international community to halve the proportion of people living on less than US$1 per day by 2015.
G-8 RENEWABLE ENERGY TASK FORCE: In July 2000, leaders of the eight major industrialized democracies (G-8) met in Okinawa, Japan for the G-8's 26th Summit. The G-8 established a Renewable Energy Task Force to identify actions to promote a change in the supply, distribution and use of renewable energy in developing countries. In 2001, the Task Force concluded that renewable energy resources can sharply reduce local, regional and global environmental impacts, as well as energy security risks. The Task Force suggested that concerted action by the G-8, other countries, the private sector, and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) to implement the Task Force's recommendations over the next decade could result in various positive outcomes, including electricity access from renewable sources for up to 300 million people in rural areas of developing countries and service for up to 5 million people connected to electricity grids worldwide.
WSSD: The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) convened from 26 August to 4 September 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa. One of the major outcomes of the WSSD was the adoption of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI), which addresses renewable energy in several of its chapters.
Regarding sustainable consumption and production patterns (JPOI Chapter III), governments agreed to increase the global share of renewable energy sources substantially, with the aim of raising the contribution renewable energy makes to total energy supply "with a sense of urgency." They recognized the role of national and voluntary regional targets and initiatives, and the need to ensure that energy policies support developing countries' efforts to eradicate poverty. They also agreed to, inter alia, develop and utilize indigenous energy sources and infrastructures for local use, and promote rural community participation in the development and utilization of renewable energy technologies.
The Plan of Implementation also addressed renewable energy issues in text on poverty eradication (JPOI Chapter II), small island developing States (Chapter VII) and Africa (Chapter VIII). In addition to the JPOI, over 200 non-negotiated partnerships/initiatives were launched at the WSSD. Of these partnerships, 37 specifically address energy for sustainable development.
JREC: During the final WSSD Plenary, Denmark, on behalf of the EU, announced the formation of a like-minded group of countries on renewable energy, now known as the Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition (JREC). The EU, with the Alliance of Small Island States, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Turkey, issued a statement entitled "The Way Forward on Renewable Energy." The statement indicates that JREC countries have adopted, or will adopt, targets for the increase of renewable energy, and will encourage others to do likewise. The first international JREC conference was held in June 2003, and focused on the regional status and potential for renewable energy use. By June 2004, JREC had 87 members and was being serviced by a Secretariat hosted by the European Commission (EC). A finance expert group was also created to discuss innovative financing models for renewable energy.
RENEWABLES 2004 PREPARATORY PROCESS: At the WSSD, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder invited the international community to Germany for an international conference on renewable energy - renewables 2004. Germany then initiated a preparatory process that included the establishment of an International Steering Committee, several regional preparatory meetings, a National Advisory Committee, and an Organizing Committee and Conference Secretariat.
Regional preparatory meetings: Latin America and Caribbean: The regional preparatory meeting for the Latin America and Caribbean region was held in October 2003, in Brasilia, Brazil. The meeting adopted the "Brasilia Platform on Renewable Energies," which reaffirmed the aim of ensuring that, by 2010, the use of renewable energy in the region as a whole will amount to at least 10% of total energy consumption.
Africa: An initial preparatory meeting for the African region was held in November 2003, in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants adopted a "Draft Statement on Renewables in Africa." The Statement includes support for moving forward with the process launched at the WSSD to develop renewable energy globally. Input from the Africa region was also provided in May 2004 by the African Ministerial Meeting on Sustainable Energy Development, which resulted in the "Statement on Renewables in Africa."
Europe: The European Conference for Renewable Energy - Intelligent Policy Options, was held in January 2004, in Berlin, Germany. The meeting adopted the "Berlin Conclusions" urging, inter alia, EU institutions to start a political process of setting ambitious, time-bound targets for increasing the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption for the medium (2020) and long term. The Berlin Conclusions note that a 20% renewable energy target for gross inland energy consumption is achievable in the EU by 2020.
Asia-Pacific: The Asia-Pacific regional preparatory meeting was held in March 2004, in Bangkok, Thailand. Delegates adopted the "Bangkok Statement on Renewable Energy." The Statement includes a call for government leadership to foster the creation of markets for renewable energy. Delegates also called on renewables 2004 to promote global cooperation in the field of technological development and increased investment in renewable energy in the Asia-Pacific region.
Middle East and North Africa: The Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference on Renewable Energies and Sustainable Development was held in April 2004, in Sana'a, Yemen. The meeting adopted the "Sana'a Statement on Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development," which, inter alia, calls on developed countries to support a regional center for renewable energy and sustainable development in Yemen that would specialize in renewable energy technology research.
Other meetings: Several other meetings also considered renewables 2004. These included the International Renewable Energy Conference-Renewable Energy on the Market in Sonderborg, Denmark (September 2003) and the fourth Global Forum on Sustainable Energy in Vienna, Austria (February 2004).
At a preparatory NGO meeting held in October 2003, in Bad Honnef, Germany, NGOs formed the Citizens United for Renewable Energies and Sustainability (CURES) network to coordinate the international NGO community's contributions to renewables 2004. The meeting adopted a declaration, "The Future is Renewable," which calls on all governments to agree to ambitious renewable energy targets to achieve the MDGs and mitigate dangerous climate change.
REPORT OF RENEWABLES 2004
On Tuesday morning, 1 June, Conference Co-Chair Jürgen Trittin, Germany's Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, opened the meeting and called on renewables 2004 to send a message of global environmental protection and "globally fair" development. He stressed the need to "get down to business" to make the global increase of renewable energy a reality.
Conference Co-Chair Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, Germany's Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development, said the Conference outcomes would provide the strategic framework for a global sustainable energy future, and stressed the importance of North-South energy partnerships.
Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker, Chair of Germany's Parliamentary Committee on Environment and Nuclear Safety, underscored the role of renewable energy as a realistic choice for meeting the MDGs, and noted the need to address both renewables and demand-side energy efficiency.
Bärbel Dieckmann, Mayor of Bonn, outlined the important role of local authorities and municipalities in implementing renewable energy programmes and projects. Peer Steinbrück, Minister President of the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, said renewable energy provides a real opportunity to achieve sustainable development. Abigail Gay Zuasula, Greenpeace Solar Generation, called for clear and binding targets, projects with concrete action programmes and timeframes, and a shift of subsidies from fossil fuels and nuclear power to renewable energy. Yongamele Mbapa, Youth Energy Summit, presented the outcome of the Youth Energy Summit, including a call for a 100% renewable energy future.
In a keynote opening address, Rajendra Pachauri, Director General, The Energy and Resources Institute, India, stressed the need to break down barriers to implement renewable energy. He called for collaborative research efforts between North and South to make renewable energy technology more appropriate to the needs of developing countries. Chakib Khelil, Algeria's Minister of Energy and Mining, described changes to national legislation and the introduction of several new projects in Algeria to promote cleaner energy sources.
The Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue, co-chaired by Ministers Wieczorek-Zeul and Trittin, took place on Tuesday, and was facilitated by David Hales from the Stakeholder Forum for Our Common Future, UK. The Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue included sessions on "Value and opportunities of renewable energy - Policy frameworks and regulatory certainty" and "Promoting renewable energy - Delivering finance and capacity for the future." Each session included statements from stakeholder groups, followed by an interactive dialogue. Stakeholder groups represented at renewables 2004 included Women, NGOs, Local and Regional Authorities, Trade Unions, Consumers, Business and Industry including the Financial Sector, Scientific and Technological Community, Farmers, Actors in Development and Poverty Alleviation, and Renewable Energy Manufactures and Suppliers.
VALUE AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RENEWABLE
ENERGY - POLICY FRAMEWORKS AND REGULATORY CERTAINTY: This session addressed two issues, "The importance, value and contribution of renewable energy" and "Promoting renewable energy - Policy frameworks and regulatory certainty."
The importance, value and contribution of renewable energy: In the discussion on renewable energy's importance and contribution, NGOs called on JREC to establish targets and mandatory policies to promote renewable energy. They stressed the need to ensure that global temperatures do not increase by more than 2°C due to climate change. The Actors in Development and Poverty Alleviation stakeholder group highlighted the energy priorities of the poor, including clean and efficient cooking technologies, and energy for income-generating and social purposes. The Renewable Energy Manufacturers and Suppliers group said anticipated increases in fossil fuel prices will make renewable energy technologies more cost effective, and emphasized the role of renewable energy sources in providing energy to remote areas.
In the ensuing discussion, Morocco said renewable energy could play a major role in rural development. Djibouti stated that, as oil prices had risen to over US$40 a barrel, renewable energy was now a matter of survival for some countries. Supported by Uganda, he called for an international fund to finance renewable energy projects in developing countries, and for the involvement of the private sector in facilitating technology transfer. The Scientific and Technological Community urged increased research and development in renewable energy technologies and suggested that funding for nuclear fusion be diverted to renewable energy. Nepal described the role of renewable energy technologies in countries with topographical constraints to using grid-based energy technologies. Consumers stressed the need to build trust in renewable energy technologies. Women said the Conference outcomes should recognize women as the main actors in energy management in the domestic sector.
Promoting renewable energy - Policy frameworks and regulatory certainty: On the question of policy frameworks and the regulatory environment, NGOs called on governments to adopt clear and differentiated targets to give credibility to their commitment to renewables. Stressing the continued significance of the contribution of fossil fuels and nuclear energy to total energy production, Business and Industry opposed global targets for renewable energy. Local and Regional Authorities called on governments to remove fossil fuel subsidies and establish targets for increasing access to renewable energy, and highlighted the role of local authorities in promoting renewables through procurement. Renewable Energy Manufacturers and Suppliers called for legally-binding targets, awareness raising, and increased support from IFIs.
During the discussion, Saudi Arabia stressed the need for a balance between different energy sources and, with Iran, called for clean fossil fuel technologies. Women called for gender mainstreaming in all aspects of renewable energy policies. Consumers urged governments to provide information to consumers and to develop technical standards for renewable energy products and services. The Scientific and Technological Community said that current energy markets are distorted and noted the need for increased support along the whole "innovation chain" for renewable energy technologies. Business and Industry said renewable energy can provide decentralized electricity generation for rural populations and, with Trade Unions and Actors in Development and Poverty Alleviation, identified local benefits such as job creation and empowerment. The UN Economic Commission for Africa identified biomass as the primary energy source in Africa and urged modernization of the sector and its incorporation into energy planning.
PROMOTING RENEWABLE ENERGY - DELIVERING FINANCE AND CAPACITY FOR THE FUTURE: Participants in this part of the Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue considered two issues: "Financing the future" and "Capacity building."
Financing the future: In the dialogue on financing, Local and Regional Authorities stressed the need to ensure access to credit and competitive interest rates, and Actors in Development and Poverty Alleviation urged a focus on the financing of low-cost, small-scale and primarily non-electrical renewable energy technologies. NGOs called for a level playing field and clear targets to increase financing for renewable energy in developing countries by development banks, export credit agencies and IFIs. The Finance Sector of Business and Industry underscored the need for a long-term strategy to attract capital to the renewable energy sector.
In the ensuing discussion, Women called for financial mechanisms to improve the social and economic status of women, including credit arrangements, targeted short-term subsidies and programmes to enhance women's entrepreneurial skills. Bangladesh stressed the need to make renewable energy affordable and accessible to the rural poor. Business and Industry said IFIs should harmonize the work of their private and public sector departments. Renewable Energy Manufacturers and Suppliers stressed the importance of removing administrative barriers and harmful subsidies, and supported the call for an international renewable energy agency. Trade Unions underscored the need for financial provisions to ease the socioeconomic problems facing workers currently employed in conventional energy sectors. NGOs highlighted the recommendations of the World Commission on Dams (WCD), and said a key priority was to ensure a "just transition" to renewable energy. The Scientific and Technological Community called on Member States of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to increase research spending on renewable energy. Actors in Development and Poverty Alleviation called for subsidies to aid the further development of clean technologies. The Solomon Islands said renewable energy presented a stepping stone for the future economic prosperity of countries that spend a major share of their national budgets on energy. Pakistan called for the creation of a renewable energy development bank and promotion agency.
Capacity building: In the dialogue on capacity building, Consumers underlined the need to provide both consumers and producers with information and advice. Trade Unions said renewable energy projects should include funds to train workers, involve civil society, and build capacity at the grassroots level.
During the discussion, the Scientific and Technological Community drew attention to the importance of human capacity building for researchers, producers and consumers of renewable energy. Trade Unions urged the development of advanced technical skills. Actors in Development and Poverty Alleviation stressed the need to build on existing capacity, and to improve access and increase the purchasing power of people in poverty. Tunisia and Niger called for enhanced international technical cooperation and capacity building. Guatemala urged capacity building among decision makers, and Women called for enabling policies to increase women's participation in decision making. Consumers supported the establishment of an international institution to promote the supply and demand of renewable energy.
PLENARY SESSIONS ON BEST PRACTICE EXAMPLES AND SUCCESS STORIES
On Wednesday, 2 June, delegates discussed best practice examples and success stories related to three topics: policies for renewable energy market development; financing options for renewable energy; and strengthening capacities, research and technology development, and institutions.
POLICIES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET DEVELOPMENT: On Wednesday morning, the session on "Policies for renewable energy market development" focused first on the electricity sector, followed by presentations and discussions on heating and transport.
Electricity: The session on electricity was co-chaired by Carlos Magariños, Director General of the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and Minister Trittin. Magariños outlined UNIDO's work to ensure universal energy access for the poor. Ma Shenghong, Beijing Jikedian Renewable Energy Development Center, briefed participants on China's Brightness and Township Electrification Programme, which aims to bring modern energy to thousands of remote rural communities.
Aloys Wobben, Enercon, explained that wind farms add value by providing a second income for farmers, as well as a range of employment opportunities. Jayantha Nagendran, DFCC Bank, briefed participants on an energy services delivery project in Sri Lanka that provides both on-grid and off-grid hydropower and solar home systems. Steve Westwell, BP Solar, highlighted that solar energy would become competitive with mainstream grid-supplied electricity on a price per kilowatt hour basis within 15-20 years if cost reduction trends continue. However, he added that government support will be required if the solar energy business is to become self-sustaining. In the ensuing discussion, Business and Industry noted its support for internalizing external costs.
Heat and transport: The session on heat and transport was co-chaired by Renate Künast, Germany's Federal Minister for Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture and Hans Christian Schmidt, Denmark's Minister of Environment.
Freddie Mothlatlhedi, Southern African Development Community (SADC), presented the SADC Programme for Biomass Energy Conservation, which raises awareness among biomass energy users. He recommended that renewables 2004 recognize sustainable biomass energy as a critical component of renewable energy.
Jürg Hofer, City of Basel, Switzerland, briefed participants on municipal policies for the promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency, including a renewable energy and energy efficiency promotion tax for energy providers and a consumption tax.
Felix ter Heegde, Netherlands Development Organization, and Sundar Bajgain, Nepal's Biogas Support Programme, spoke about domestic biogas. Ter Heegde noted that biogas substitutes for firewood, coal, dung cake and kerosene, while reducing air pollution, deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions. Bajgain outlined Nepal's domestic biogas support programme, which resulted in the installation of 115,000 biogas units.
Emílio la Rovere, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, briefed participants on the Brazilian Ethanol Programme that supports biofuels derived from sugar cane and used for transport. He noted that the Programme has created 720,000 direct jobs, and reduced reliance on oil imports and vulnerability to oil price fluctuations.
FINANCING OPTIONS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY: On Wednesday afternoon, Minister Wieczorek-Zeul and Leonard Good, Global Environment Facility, co-chaired the session on financing options for renewable energy.
Noting that 70% of people in Bangladesh lack access to the electricity grid, Dipal Barua, Grameen Shakti (a not-for-profit rural power company in Bangladesh), reported on his organization's contribution to promoting affordable solar home systems in off-grid areas. Explaining that the organization offers four different financing models with varying down payments and interest rates, he highlighted additional support provided, including a warranty system and the training of local engineers. Andrea Kuhlhava, Czech Energy Agency, briefed delegates on the Czech Republic's energy efficiency and renewable energy activities, including its Joint Implementation (JI) projects. She observed that JI projects increase energy efficiency and facilitate achievement of its national target to source 8% of total energy consumption from renewables by 2010.
Christine Eibs-Singer, E+Co, and Abeeku Brew-Hammond, Kumasi Institute of Technology and Environment, explained that their organizations provide services and capital to small- and medium-sized enterprises working on renewable energy. Cayetano Hernández, Spain's Institute for Energy Diversification and Energy Efficiency, reported on the benefits of third party financing. He suggested that this financing approach overcomes barriers for potential investors, including high initial capital outlays, problems securing external financing, and difficulties in evaluating a project's technical feasibility.
Reflecting on the session, Jamal Saghir, World Bank, highlighted the critical importance of financing for the scaling-up of renewables. While stressing the importance of subsidies and support, he suggested that it was necessary to start moving towards a market-based approach.
STRENGTHENING CAPACITIES, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, AND INSTITUTIONS: Best practice examples and success stories in relation to strengthening capacities, research and technology development, and institutions were discussed in a Plenary Session on Wednesday afternoon. The session was chaired by Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker and Arcado Ntagazwa, Tanzania's Minister of State for Environment.
Alberto Calcagno, UNEP-Dams and Development Project, and Brian Hollingworth, a consultant on South Africa's WCD follow-up process, spoke about stakeholder dialogues on dams. Calcagno presented several dialogue initiatives in relation to the WCD, while Hollingworth focused on South Africa's multi-stakeholder initiative, which he said sets out a clear process for addressing a sensitive issue.
Jean-Louis Bal, Application of Solar Thermal Energy in the Mediterranean Basin, and Mohamed Ezzedine Khalfallah, Tunisia's National Agency for Renewable Energy, briefed participants on a project to provide solar water heating installations in several Mediterranean countries.
Frederick Morse, US Solar Energy Industry Association, introduced the Concentrating Solar Power Global Market Initiative, while Ingvar Fridleifsson, UN University Reykjavik, described a geothermal energy training programme in Iceland for professionals from developing countries.
Joachim Luther, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, highlighted the positive cooperation between government, industry, and research and development institutes in developing photovoltaics in Germany.
OPENING: The High-Level Ministerial Segment of renewables 2004 opened on Thursday, 3 June. Co-Chair Wieczorek-Zeul opened the Ministerial Segment and stressed that the vision of renewable energy as the energy of the future must now be turned into reality. Co-Chair Trittin noted that reducing the cost of renewables is the best way to ensure their uptake in developing countries.
Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Executive Director, suggested creating an "ecological stability pact" setting out clear obligations for countries to achieve renewables targets and report on their plans to achieve them. Hama Amadou, Prime Minister of Niger, highlighted the economic burden that importing fossil fuels places on least developed countries, and called for further international cooperation to foster renewable energy.
In a video address, Tony Blair, Prime Minister of the UK, said renewable energy development is critical for mitigating climate change, which he referred to as the "single most important issue in the long term." Peter Woicke, World Bank Managing Director, announced the Bank's intention to maintain 20% annual growth in funding for energy efficiency and renewable energy over the next five years. Margot Wallström, European Commissioner for the Environment, highlighted progress made in achieving the EU target of 20% electricity generation from renewables by 2010, and said targets for the period 2010-2020 were being prepared.
German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder highlighted the appropriate timing of the conference, noting the current high oil prices. He stressed the need to implement the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and urged the Russian Federation to ratify it. He said a diverse energy supply is important not only on economic grounds but also as a matter of security.
Dilma Rousseff, Brazil's Minister for Energy, outlined the central principles of the Brasilia Platform adopted in preparation for renewables 2004, including synergies between renewable energy and job creation, and natural resource use appropriate to national circumstances. Abdulrahman Tarmoom, Yemen's Minister of Electricity, outlined the results of the renewables 2004 preparatory meeting for the Middle East and North African region.
Prommin Lertsuridej, Thailand's Minister for Energy, reported on the preparatory meeting for the Asia-Pacific region, which called for an increase in renewable energy and more environmentally friendly technologies. Syda Namirembe Bbumba, Uganda's Minister of Energy and Mineral Development, reported on the outcomes of the preparatory meeting for Africa, stressing the need for technology transfer.
Dermot Ahern, Ireland's Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, stressed the need to reduce administrative barriers to the distribution of electricity from renewables in the EU. Zhang Guobao, Vice President, National Development and Reform Commission, China, identified renewable energy as essential for achieving a national goal to provide electricity to more than 30 million people currently without access by 2020. Sheila Dikshit, Chief Minister of New Delhi, India, highlighted the successful reduction of air pollution in Delhi resulting from a shift to compressed natural gas for public transport.
Delegates then heard a statement from José Antonio Ocampo, UN Under-Secretary General, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, who supported the internalization of environmental externalities and subsidies for renewable energy.
Hales, Stakeholder Forum for Our Common Future, reported from the
previous day's Multi-Stakeholder Dialogues, noting that civil society
supported energy prices that reflect all related costs, while not all
government delegates could agree on this.
The Policy Recommendations for Renewable Energies are available online at: http://www.renewables2004.de/en/2004/outcome_recommendations.asp
INTERNATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMME: Following a call from the
Conference Secretariat, governments, international organizations and
stakeholders, including civil society and the private sector, submitted
detailed actions to implement renewable energy projects at the local,
national, regional and global levels. The International Action Programme
contains over 156 concrete actions and commitments for developing
THINGS TO LOOK FOR
CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE PROTECTION AS DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY: This
conference will convene from 7-8 June 2004, in Hamburg, Germany. It will
consider the use of the Kyoto Protocol's CDM as a tool to reach
development targets. For more information, contact: Axel Michaelowa,
Hamburg Institute's Climate Policy Programme; tel: +49-40-4283-4309 or
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